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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2021

Dushyanthi Hewawithana, James Hazelton, Greg Walkerden and Edward Tello

This paper aims to examine whether the disclosure obligations in areas of water stress required under the revised Global Reporting Initiative standard (GRI) 303 Water and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether the disclosure obligations in areas of water stress required under the revised Global Reporting Initiative standard (GRI) 303 Water and Effluents, 2018 will improve the quality of corporate water reporting. As a key new requirement is to disclose the impact of water withdrawals from (and discharges to) areas experiencing water stress, the authors examine the ambiguity of the term “water stress” and the extent to which following the GRI’s guidance to use the Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas and/or the Water Risk Filter will enable quality corporate water reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is informed by the notion of public interest reporting, on the basis that the provision of contextual water information is in the public interest. To explore the ambiguity of the term “water stress”, the authors conduct a semi-systematic review of hydrology literature on water stress and water stress indices. To explore the efficacy of using the Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas and/or the Water Risk Filter, the authors review the operation and underlying data sources of both databases.

Findings

The term “water stress” has a range of definitions and the indicators of water stress encompass a wide variety of differing factors. The Aqueduct Water Risk Atlas and the Water Risk Filter use a combination of different risk indicators and are based on source data of varying quality and granularity. Further, different weightings of water risk information are available to the user, which yield different evaluations of water stress. A variety of approaches are permitted under GRI 303.

Practical implications

Effective implementation of GRI 303 may be impeded by the ambiguity of the term “water stress”, varying quality and availability of the water stress information and the fact that different water stress calculation options are offered by the water databases. The authors suggest that the GRI closely monitor compliance, implementation approaches and scientific developments in relation to the water stress requirements with a view to providing further guidance and improving future iterations of the standard.

Originality/value

Whilst there have been many calls for improved contextual water reporting, few previous studies have explored the challenges to implementing reporting requirements related to the determination of “water stress”.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

Julia Hall and Conor Murphy

This paper aims to develop a framework to assist the identification of robust adaptation options that account for uncertainty in future climate change impacts for the water sector.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a framework to assist the identification of robust adaptation options that account for uncertainty in future climate change impacts for the water sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The water evaluation and planning (WEAP) tool, is to identify future water resource vulnerability in the Glore sub‐catchment within the Moy catchment in the West of Ireland. Where water stress is evident, a detailed hydrological modelling approach is developed to enable an assessment of the robustness to uncertainty of future adaptation decisions. WEAP is coupled with a rainfall runoff model (hydrological simulation model), and forced using climate scenarios, statistically downscaled from three global climate models to account for the key sources of uncertainty. While hydrological models are widely applied, they are subject to uncertainties derived from model structure and the parameterisation of the catchment. Here, random sampling of key parameters is employed to incorporate uncertainty from the hydrological modelling process. Behavioural parameter sets are used to generate multiple future streamflow series to determine where the bounds within future hydrological regimes may lie and the ranges within which future adaptation policy pathways need to function.

Findings

This framework allows the identification of adaptation options that are robust to uncertainty in future simulations.

Research limitations/implications

Future research will focus on the development of more site‐specific adaptation options including soft and hard adaptation strategies. This approach will be applied to multiple water resource regions within Ireland.

Originality/value

A robust adaptation assessment decreases the risk of expensive and/or mal‐adaptations in a critical sector for society, the economy and the aquatic environment.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Frank H Bezzina and Ian Scicluna Laiviera

– The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential for a rainwater harvesting (RWH) strategy in Malta and tries to identify management practices required to implement it.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential for a rainwater harvesting (RWH) strategy in Malta and tries to identify management practices required to implement it.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study adopts the concept of sustainable development in its framework whilst incorporating the specific physical and climatic realities of Malta. After sifting through the relevant literature, semi-structured interviews were conducted with key experts from four governmental/non-governmental Maltese entities that deal with policy and managerial implementation for water resources.

Findings

The study identifies the major issues surrounding water scarcity, its use and misuse and the barriers currently hindering RWH implementation in Malta. The paper argues that the key lies in rethinking innovative ways to work with the natural features and to use technology to enhance possible net beneficial effects by giving multipurpose solutions, whilst touching base on the validity and use of indigenous knowledge systems. Hence, a gauged implementation of water catchment using micro and macro approaches could bring compounded beneficial effects.

Originality/value

Malta has the highest possible baseline water stress index, yet empirical research on RWH in Malta is relatively lacking. This study addresses this gap and provides suggestions/recommendations related to the adoption of effective management practices and reforms promoting RWH that could better guide Maltese and other environmental policy makers to add resilience for coping with future water-related risks/uncertainties and to avert the impending water crisis.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Dandan Zhang, Chunlai Chen and Yu Sheng

– The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of public investment in agricultural R&D and extension on broadacre farming productivity in Australia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of public investment in agricultural R&D and extension on broadacre farming productivity in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression model is applied to estimate the effects of public investment in agricultural R&D and extension on Australian braodacre productivity.

Findings

The study reveals that public investment in agricultural R&D and extension has contributed almost two-thirds of average annual broadacre productivity growth between 1952-1953 and 2006-2007, the average internal rate of return to public investment in agricultural R&D and extension was 28.4 and 47.5 per cent a year, respectively, and overseas spill-ins is an important source of domestic agricultural productivity growth.

Practical implications

Policy implications: the findings suggest that increasing public investment in agricultural R&D and extension and maintaining agricultural R&D policy stability are equally important to have a sustained long-term agricultural productivity growth, and maintaining an open trade and investment regime is important to benefit from foreign knowledge spillovers which is especially important for developing countries.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the existing literature by employing more sophisticated econometric techniques with an extended data set for the period from 1952-1953 to 2006-2007. The study separates the contribution of public R&D investment and the extension investment, and also takes into account the contribution of overseas public investment on the TFP growth in the Australian broadacre sector.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Ekaterina Yatskovskaya, Jagjit Singh Srai and Mukesh Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel resource availability assessment for supply chain (SC) configuration. This approach involves understanding both local…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel resource availability assessment for supply chain (SC) configuration. This approach involves understanding both local resource availability and the demand-side implications of supplying global/regional markets as part of a more holistic SC design activity that incorporates local environmental factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed framework was derived from literature analysis, bridging relevant literature domains – natural capital theory, industrial ecology and SC configuration – in order to develop design rules for future resource-constrained industrial systems. In order to test the proposed framework, an exploratory case study, based on secondary data, was conducted.

Findings

Research findings suggest that this approach might better identify relationships and vulnerabilities between natural resource availability and the viability of regional/global SCs. The research suggests that natural resource availability depends upon three elements – local resource consumption, global resource demand and external environmental factors.

Research limitations/implications

The framework has two main limitations. The current work is focussed on a single industry case study used to exemplify the approach. Second, the framework does not consider other possible industries, which might enter or leave the specific location during the company’s operation. Furthermore, no assessment was made of the migration of populations within the area.

Practical implications

For practitioners, such as those in the agri-food sector, the resource availability assessment framework informs SC configuration design. For policymakers, the research aims to provide policy guidelines, which can help to improve water-saving strategies for a particular region. At a broader societal level, the research raises awareness of resource scarcity amongst industrial players and the wider public.

Originality/value

A resource availability assessment framework has been proposed, suggesting that the dynamics of both global and local resource demand, in conjunction with changing local environmental factors, can over time significantly deteriorate a firm’s natural resource impact on the local environment. Thus, the framework seeks to deliver mechanisms to evaluate potential vulnerabilities and solutions available to firms using a more proactive SC design method and to apply reconfiguration processes that account for natural resources, based primarily on network and resource attributes.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Iqra Hassan Syeda, Mansoor Muhammad Alam, Usman Illahi and Mazliham Muhammad Su'ud

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of smart agriculture systems and monitor and identify the technologies which can be used for deriving traditional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of smart agriculture systems and monitor and identify the technologies which can be used for deriving traditional agriculture system to modern agriculture system. It also provides the reader a broad area to work for the advancement in the field of agriculture and also explains the use of advanced technologies such as spectral imaging, robotics and artificial intelligence (AI) in the field of agriculture.

Design/methodology/approach

Smart uses of modern technologies were reviewed in the field of agriculture, which helps to monitor stress levels of plants and perform operations according to requirements. Operations can be irrigation, pests spray, monitoring crops, monitoring yield production, etc. Based on the literature review, a smart agriculture system is suggested. The parameters studied were spectral image processing, AI, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) (fixed and rotatory), water or soil moisture, nutrients and pesticides.

Findings

The use of autonomous vehicles and AI techniques has been suggested through which the agriculture system becomes much more efficient. The world will switch to the smart agriculture system in the upcoming era completely. The authors conclude that autonomous vehicle in the field of science is time-saving and health efficient for both plants and workers in the fields. The suggested system increases the productivity of crops and saves the assets as well.

Originality/value

This review paper discusses the various contemporary technologies used in the field of agriculture and it will help future researchers to build on this research. This paper reveals that the UAVs along with multispectral, hyperspectral or red, green and blue camera (depends on the need) and AI are more suitable for the advancement of agriculture and increasing yield rate.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Rania A. Abdel Khaleq and Benedykt Dziegielewski

The purpose of this paper is to present a proposal for formulating a national water demand management policy for Jordan. The objective is to stimulate discussion on the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a proposal for formulating a national water demand management policy for Jordan. The objective is to stimulate discussion on the development and adoption of a formal policy document.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews data on water availability and use in Jordan. This is followed by a discussion of a number of policy objectives and elements.

Findings

The paper results in the formulation of a policy that should be further reviewed and made official by the Ministry of Water and Irrigation in Jordan.

Originality/value

The paper is a new source of information on the necessary elements of water policy.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Juan D. Hernández, Jorge Barrientos, Jaime del Cerro, Antonio Barrientos and David Sanz

The purpose of this paper is to present a new low‐cost system based on a spherical robot for performing moisture monitoring in precision agriculture.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a new low‐cost system based on a spherical robot for performing moisture monitoring in precision agriculture.

Design/methodology/approach

The work arose from the necessity of providing farmers with alternative methods for crop monitoring. Thus, after analysing the main requirements, a spherical robot was chosen as a tentative approach. The presented work summarizes the work carried out in selecting the basics to apply in the robot, as well as its mechanical and electronic design. After designing and constructing the robot, several tests have been performed, in order to validate the robot for performing monitoring task and moving on different types of soil.

Findings

The performed tests reveal that spherical robot is a suitable solution for performing the task.

Research limitations/implications

Some improvements in control should be applied in order to reach a fully autonomous navigation in very slippery soils. Nevertheless, the performance of the robot in teleoperated mode allows validating of the system.

Practical implications

The robot turned out to be friendly and harmless in its use for this application. The cost of final series will be affordable in comparison with the cost of other methods. Endurance of the robot can be considered as fair.

Originality/value

The paper presents a new tool for farming based on non‐common robot.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Sanjay Sharma and Sanjaysingh Vijaysingh Patil

The purpose of this paper is to establish correlations among the input variables of production within themselves and input variables of consumption within themselves and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish correlations among the input variables of production within themselves and input variables of consumption within themselves and to forecast the production and consumption of the rice.

Design/methodology/approach

The production and consumption of rice crop is governed by diverse variables. In the present study five key input variables for production of rice based on literature review and the authenticated data available from agricultural sources have been selected. These variables are area sown, agricultural workers (AW), area irrigated, growth rate and yield per hectare. On similar basis four key input variables responsible for consumption of rice are considered, namely, price of rice, population, poverty ratio and per capita net national product (NNP).

Findings

Correlation analysis showed that priority wise production of rice depends upon yield per hectare, percentage irrigation, AW and area sown. The growth rate is found to be having insignificant correlation with other variables of production and hence was omitted from subsequent study. Correlation analysis also showed that priority wise consumption depends upon whole sale price per ton, population and the per capita NNP. The poverty ratio is found to be having insignificant correlation with other variables of consumption and hence was omitted from subsequent study. The outcomes of the correlation analysis are utilized for designing rule base for fuzzy inference system (FIS) to forecast the production and consumption of the rice. Subsequently Bayesian technique is used to forecast production and consumption and its results are compared with the results of fuzzy inference analysis.

Originality/value

There are many techniques used for forecasting purpose but FIS and Bayesian technique outperform others. In the present study, the authors therefore focussed on these two techniques. Bayesian technique takes into account the expert opinion at the current conditions whereas FIS uses previously designed rule base. Besides discussing the appropriateness of these two techniques for forecasting production and consumption of rice, their forecasting outcomes will help in logistical and operational planning of the resources at national level, farmers’ level and traders’ level.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 64 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2018

Raghu Rama D.T.V. Swamy, Piyush Tiwari and Anil Sawhney

The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors that affect the performance of projects being implemented on the public-private partnership (PPP) framework, with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors that affect the performance of projects being implemented on the public-private partnership (PPP) framework, with specific reference to urban drinking water sector in India.

Design/methodology/approach

A listing of factors that have a bearing on project performance have been developed based on a review of the literature. Through a survey, seven factors that are relevant to the Indian context were determined. Interviews were then conducted across a cross-section of government agencies, financial institutions, development agencies, private sector entities and consultants to understand the relative importance of these attributes. The analytical hierarchy process was used to develop relative weights of these factors.

Findings

Ranking and relative weights of the factors in descending order are stakeholder consent and support for water PPP projects (22.1 percent), appropriate project structure (17.4 percent), availability of realistic baseline information (16.2 percent), reasonable water tariffs (13.9 percent), public sector capacity (13.0 percent), well-developed market (9.5 percent) and water sector regulator (7.9 percent). Differences in perceptions amongst various stakeholder groups were also found.

Research limitations/implications

Water sector has not matured, and with the advent of newer formats of implementation models, there could be significant changes in the sector. As the number of projects available for study is limited, this exercise can be undertaken periodically and updated in relation to experiences in other infrastructure sectors.

Practical implications

This analysis provides inputs to policymakers and project proponents for structuring more sustainable urban drinking water PPP projects.

Originality/value

Indian infrastructure PPP market is attracting increased attention from researchers, though not much emphasis is being given to urban drinking water sector. This paper aims to contribute toward filling this research gap.

Details

Property Management, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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