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Case study
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Diana Nandagire Ntamu, Waswa Balunywa, John Munene, Peter Rosa, Laura A. Orobia and Ernest Abaho

By the end of their studies, students are expected to: undergraduate level. Learning objective 1: Describe the concept of social entrepreneurship. Learning objective 2…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

By the end of their studies, students are expected to: undergraduate level. Learning objective 1: Describe the concept of social entrepreneurship. Learning objective 2: Explain the sources and challenges of funding social entrepreneurial activities. Learning objective 3: Discuss the different strategies that social entrepreneurs may use to raise funds. Postgraduate level. Learning Objective 1: Use theory to explain the concept of social entrepreneurship. Learning objective 2: Discuss the role of social capital in facilitating resource acquisition for social entrepreneurial activities. Learning objective 3: Evaluate the current action for fundamental change and development (AFFCAD) funding model and propose strategies that may be used by a social enterprise to achieve financial sustainability when donor funding expires.

Case overview/synopsis

The past decade has seen the emergence of many social enterprises from disadvantaged communities in low-income countries, seeking to provide solutions to social problems, which in developed countries would normally be addressed by government sponsored welfare programmes. The social entrepreneurs behind such initiatives are typically drawn from the disadvantaged communities they serve. They are often young people committed to improving the lives of their most disadvantaged community members. Being poor themselves and located in the poorest communities, establishing their enterprise faces fundamental challenges of obtaining resources and if accessed, sustaining the flow of resources to continue and grow their enterprise. Targeting external donors and mobilizing social resources within their community is a typical route to get their enterprise off the ground, but sustaining momentum when donor funding ceases requires changes of strategy and management. How are young social entrepreneurs dealing with these challenges? The case focusses on AFFCAD, a social enterprise founded by Mohammed Kisirisa and his three friends to support poor people in Bwaise, the largest slum in Kampala city. It illustrates how, like many other similar social enterprise teams, the AFFCAD team struggled to establish itself and its continuing difficulties in trying to financially sustain its activities. The case demonstrates how the youngsters mobilised social networks and collective action to gain access to donor funding and how they are modifying this strategy as donor funding expires. From an academic perspective, a positive theory of social entrepreneurship (Santos, 2012) is applied to create an understanding of the concept of social entrepreneurship. The case uses the social capital theory to demonstrate the role played by social ties in enabling social entrepreneurs to access financial and non-financial support in a resource scarce context (Bourdieu, 1983; Coleman, 1988, 1990). The National Council for Voluntary Organisations Income Spectrum is used as a tool to develop the options available for the AFFCAD team to sustain their activities in the absence of donor support. The case provides evidence that social entrepreneurs are not limited by an initial lack of resources especially if they create productive relationships at multiple levels in the communities where they work. However, their continued success depends on the ability to reinvent themselves by identifying ways to generate revenue to achieve their social goals.

Complexity academic level

This case study is aimed at Bachelor of Entrepreneurship students, MBA, MSc. Entrepreneurship and Masters of Social Innovation students.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 September 2019

Samuel Ssekajja Mayanja, Joseph Mapeera Ntayi, John C. Munene, James R.K. Kagaari, Waswa Balunywa and Laura Orobia

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of ecologies of innovation in the relationship between positive deviance (PD) and entrepreneurial networking…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of ecologies of innovation in the relationship between positive deviance (PD) and entrepreneurial networking among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey design using quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected with the help of self-administrated questionnaires from 228 SMEs. Systematic sampling technique was used. Multiple regression data were analysed with the help of SPSS software.

Findings

The results indicated that ecologies of innovation partially mediate the relationship between PD and entrepreneurial networking. Besides, PD and entrepreneurial networking are significantly related.

Research limitations/implications

The data were cross-sectional in nature, thus limiting monitoring changes in resources accessed from social networks by entrepreneurs over time.

Practical implications

Managers of SMEs and policy makers should pay more attention to the views of employees with divergent views, ecologies of innovation in creating a conducive environment for creativity and innovation among SMEs.

Originality/value

The study of PD, ecologies of innovation and entrepreneurial networking using complexity theory among SMEs in Uganda is a contribution to literature.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 October 2019

Rebecca Isabella Kiconco, Waliya Gwokyalya, Arthur Sserwanga and Waswa Balunywa

This study aims to investigate the extent to which the theory of reasoned action (TRA) can be used to explain tax compliance among small business enterprises (SBEs) in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the extent to which the theory of reasoned action (TRA) can be used to explain tax compliance among small business enterprises (SBEs) in Uganda and extends the application and relevance of the theory to a new area of tax compliance. It contributes the TRA, as a predictor of tax compliance in a developing country context.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey targeting different categories of SBEs was carried out using interviewer-administered questionnaires. A sample of 384 SBEs was used in the study.

Findings

The TRA contributes critical insights on the tax compliance behaviour of small businesses in developing economies. It influences tax compliance behaviour. The study illustrates evidence about the negative attitudes SBEs have on intentions to comply with tax regulations and the extent to which these attitudes influence their compliance behaviour. Subjective norms positively influence tax compliance intentions in a positive manner. Overall, the appearance of these intentions shows a negative effect on tax compliance behaviour. These findings also imply that Uganda Revenue Authority needs to understand the social psychology of taxpayers and tailor these in their policies and efforts to increase compliance.

Research limitations/implications

The TRA has been used to explain behaviour in numerous situations in psychology. The study used this theory in a new geographical, economic and administrative environment; Uganda. This theory has proved relevant in explaining psychological, sociological and economic behaviour; specifically tax compliance. The TRA was revised to include a new construct of perceived behavioural control, which turned into the theory of planned behaviour. This could not be studied due to time and logistic constraints. Therefore, there is a need to investigate if this revised theory can explain tax compliance behaviour better.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that tax administration efforts and policies should consider the social-psychology aspects of the taxpayers to improve tax compliance.

Originality/value

This study adds a new arena of explaining tax compliance from a theory commonly used in psychology to a new setting in finance.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2021

Isa Nsereko, Samuel S. Mayanja and Waswa Balunywa

The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating role of novelty ecosystem in the relationship between prior knowledge and social entrepreneurial venture creation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating role of novelty ecosystem in the relationship between prior knowledge and social entrepreneurial venture creation (SEVC) among community-based organizations (CBOs) in Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is cross sectional and quantitative. Data were collected from CBO owner-managers. Mean, standard deviations, correlations and structural equation modeling were conducted to check the relationships among variables.

Findings

Results show that both prior knowledge and novelty ecosystem are significantly associated with SEVC. Results further indicate that novelty ecosystem partially mediates the relationship between prior knowledge and SEVC.

Research limitations/implications

The design was cross sectional in nature, thus limiting monitoring changes in knowledge and its effect on SEVC. The results should be interpreted as they are because there could be some endogeneity biases, which were not detected like measurement errors and failure to identify appropriate instruments.

Originality/value

This study provides an initial empirical evidence on the relationship between prior knowledge, novelty ecosystem and SEVC using evidence from a developing African country – Uganda. Mostly, this provides an initial evidence of the mediation role of novelty ecosystem in the relationship between prior knowledge and SEVC.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Reuel Johnmark Dakung, John Munene, Waswa Balunywa, Joseph Ntayi and Mohammed Ngoma

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of universities in preparing disabled students to become entrepreneurially inclined after graduation with the aim of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of universities in preparing disabled students to become entrepreneurially inclined after graduation with the aim of developing an entrepreneurial inclination (EI) model.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey was employed using 220 disabled universities’ students in the north-central Nigeria. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and structural equation model. All analyses were performed using SPSS version 22 and AMOS version 22.

Findings

The findings buttress the significant position of universities in promotion entrepreneurial spirit. It revealed that the university’s role (UR), entrepreneurship education (EE) and role models (RMs) have a positive influence on disabled students’ EI. Universities that make provisions for entrepreneurship infrastructure, knowledge and RMs to disabled students will boost their EI. Second, the more lecturers and RMs inspire students, method of teaching and demonstrating enthusiasm are applied in the teaching of entrepreneurship, the better it prepares students for entrepreneurial career after graduation.

Research limitations/implications

The study is only restricted to Federal Universities in the North-Central Nigeria. Further research could be conducted to cover other tertiary institutions in North-Central Nigeria. Furthermore, the study employed the cross-sectional approach. A longitudinal approach should be employed to study the trend over a period of at least two years. Finally, the factors identified in triggering EI may not be sufficient enough in explaining the phenomenon. There are other factors that may contribute in influencing EI of the disabled students that were not part of this study.

Practical implications

This study indicates a number of implications for the universities and policy makers. Specifically, EE, UR and RMs make significant contributions to inclination for disabled students. These factors are key for universities in Nigeria to consider in preparing these students to become entrepreneurial graduates. Policy makers and other stakeholders need to develop keen interest in designing entrepreneurship curriculum to accommodate the specific needs of students with disabilities.

Originality/value

This study is the first in Nigeria to empirically test the relationship between UR, EE and EI as well as the moderating effect of RMs among universities’ disabled students.

Details

Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-7604

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 June 2017

Antonio Cornelius Malfense Fierro, David Noble, Omaima Hatem and Waswa Balunywa

The purpose of this paper is to focus on large-scale portfolio entrepreneurship and its impact on the creation of stable wage employment in African economies.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on large-scale portfolio entrepreneurship and its impact on the creation of stable wage employment in African economies.

Design/methodology/approach

The three studies focussed on Egypt, Uganda, and Malawi were all exploratory, inductive, and qualitative studies, which involved semi-structured interviews with 65 entrepreneurial founders of some of these countries’ most prominent business portfolios between 2009 and 2012. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews, which lasted between one and four hours, with the founders of each of these portfolios.

Findings

This inductive and qualitative study finds a connection between the creation of stable wage-paying jobs and portfolio entrepreneurship in three countries, representing three of the four different archetypal African economies. It also finds a strong connection between the development of new industries and portfolio entrepreneurship.

Practical implications

The practical and societal implications of these findings are incredibly important. The current and looming shortage of stable wage employment in Africa is reaching calamitous proportions. The growth in religion-affiliated terrorism and high-risk economic migration to Europe can be directly related to the lack of employment opportunities in African nations. The findings indicate that portfolio entrepreneurs are major players in the creation of such employment opportunities and government policies focussing on this area, as compared to focussing solely on SMEs, may be more effective in mitigating some of the drivers for emigration and terrorism.

Originality/value

This is the only study of its kind that investigates the role of large-scale portfolio entrepreneurship in the growth of employment opportunities in Africa.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2020

Christopher Kusemererwa, John C. Munene, Orobia A. Laura and Juma Waswa Balunywa

The purpose of this paper is to establish whether all the dimensions of individual learning behavior matter for self-employment practice among youths, using evidence from Uganda.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish whether all the dimensions of individual learning behavior matter for self-employment practice among youths, using evidence from Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is a correlational and cross-sectional type. A questionnaire survey of 393 youths was used. The data collected were analyzed through SPSS.

Findings

The results indicate that meaning-oriented learning behavior, planned learning behavior and emergent learning behavior do matter for self-employment practice among youths in Uganda unlike instruction-oriented learning behavior.

Research limitations/implications

This study focused on self-employed youths who have gone through tertiary education in Uganda. Therefore, it is likely that the results may not be generalized to other settings. The results show that to promote self-employment practice among youths, the focus should be put mainly on meaning-oriented learning behavior, planned learning behavior and emergent learning behavior.

Originality/value

This study provides initial evidence on whether all the dimensions of individual learning behavior do matter for self-employment practice among youths using evidence from an African developing country – Uganda.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Moses Mpiima Kibirango, John C. Munene, Waswa J. Balunywa and Jovent K. Obbo

The purpose of this paper is to examine, explain, predict and guide the processes, mechanisms and outcomes of intrapreneurial behaviour to provide evidence that novelty…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine, explain, predict and guide the processes, mechanisms and outcomes of intrapreneurial behaviour to provide evidence that novelty ecosystems mediate the relationships between generative influence, positive deviance and intrapreneurial behaviour. It also enlightens the capacity of replicating the intrapreneurial best practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses an integrated approach of entrepreneurship and complexity theories. Its subjects were full-time designated university employees in the Republic of Kenya. A total number of 244 employees were selected using snowball sampling technique from ten public and private universities in the Kenya. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data.

Findings

The structural equation modelling path analysis and the bootstrapping results confirmed full mediation of novelty ecosystems in the relationship between generative influence and intrapreneurial behaviour. The findings, further, verified that novelty ecosystems partially mediate the relationship between positive deviance and intrapreneurial behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

Subjective appraisals were used, despite the fact that studied variables are ultimately based on what employees perceive. Future research should generate and include more objective measures.

Practical implications

Intrapreneurial behaviour can only be explained and predicted through novelty ecosystems. University leaders need to fully understand and facilitate novelty ecosystems.

Social implications

A deeper understanding of the power of generative influence, positive deviance and novelty ecosystems will not be fully realized until researchers devote as much energy and attention to facilitation as has been devoted to conflict.

Originality/value

This study extends existing intrapreneurial research into complexity approach.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Abstract

Subject area

Corporate entrepreneurship; Intrapreneurship; Human Resources.

Study level/applicability

MBA students in Human Resource, entrepreneurship and/or PhD students in the areas of Human Resource, Corporate Entrepreneurship and/or on Intrapreneurship studies.

Case overview

This case reveals that progressive change originated from individual’s positive deviance approaches, opportunistic sensitivity, ability to learn, evaluate and the ability to develop ideas on how to exploit or pursue identified opportunities (intrapreneurial behaviour).

Expected learning outcomes

The student will learn to deal with the complex nature of organisations and the tendencies of institutional processes to be uncertain, unpredictable, and uncontrollable; appreciate the internal workings of an organisation, the external environment; and understand the role of generative leadership, positive deviance, novelty ecosystems and intrapreneurial behaviour and the fact that connections and interactions in a social network are non-linear or non-proportional. This means that complex system predictions can be much more than simple regression predictions. They will be able to apply both bottom-up and top-down influences from proactive leadership or generative leadership events and benefit from positive results and the emergence of innovation.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS: 3 Entrepreneurship.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

Stephen Korutaro Nkundabanyanga, Venancio Tauringana, Waswa Balunywa and Stephen Naigo Emitu

The purpose of this study is to examine the association between accounting standards, legal framework and the quality of financial reporting by the Ministry of Water and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the association between accounting standards, legal framework and the quality of financial reporting by the Ministry of Water and Environment in Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a self‐administered questionnaire to survey 120 staff and stakeholders of the Ministry of the Water and Environment. Correlation analysis was employed to determine the association between accounting standards, legal framework and the quality of financial reporting.

Findings

Results indicate that accounting standards and legal framework are all positively and significantly associated with the quality of financial reporting, providing evidence of the effect of accounting standards and legal framework on the quality of financial reporting in Uganda

Research limitations/implications

Scarce literature using African data means that it is not possible to compare the findings to previous research.

Practical implications

The finding of an association between accounting standards, the legal framework and quality of financial reporting implies that the government of Uganda needs to adopt a more robust approach in enforcing compliance to improve the quality of financial reports produced by the Ministry of Water and Environment.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the dearth of evidence on government accounting literature in Africa by investigating for the first time, the association between accounting standards, legal framework and the quality of financial reporting by a government department.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

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