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Article

Manickam Ramesh Kumar, Ramalingam Malathy, Sundararajan Paramasivam, Ill-Min Chung, Seung-Hyun Kim and Prabakaran Mayakrishnan

The textile industry is one of the largest and most important industrial sectors in India. Because the textile industry consumes large quantities of water and produces…

Abstract

Purpose

The textile industry is one of the largest and most important industrial sectors in India. Because the textile industry consumes large quantities of water and produces highly polluted water discharge, its environmental impact is high. Water is expensive to use, treat and dispose of. Therefore, water conservation and reuse are critical necessity for the textile industry because decreasing water and wastewater treatment and recycling costs can be beneficial.

Design/methodology/approach

This research neutralized the pH during dyeing industry wastewater treatment. The system should be robust to erroneous sensor measurements. A pH meter was developed and used to monitor the pH of wastewater hourly before and after HCl treatment.

Findings

HCl was used to neutralize the pH of wastewater from 9 to 7.5. The amount of HCl was optimized depending on the wastewater. Three wastewater treatment methods were used, namely, HCl, wash water and reverse osmosis (RO) treatments. The HCl treatment was the most effective for decreasing the pH; the wash water treatment was the most effective for decreasing the total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) total hardness and chemical oxygen demand; and the RO treatment was the most effective for decreasing the biochemical oxygen demand, TDS, TSS, total hardness and Cl concentration.

Originality/value

The pH should be monitored during the textile dyeing because the addition of color to textile fabrics is the most effective at neutral pH. This study evaluated several parameters of wastewater, including pH, color, TSS and TDS. The fabricated digital pH meter provided superior results than conventional measuring devices. The goal was to maintain a neutral pH during dyeing and recycle wastewater to improve environmental sustainability. The newly developed digital pH meter was less expensive and more precise than traditional pH meters. Before reusing and recycling, wastewater underwent ultrafiltration and RO treatment.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Content available
Article

Cesar Casiano Flores, Hans Bressers, Carina Gutierrez and Cheryl de Boer

In Mexico, only 19.3 per cent of industrial water is treated (Green-Peace, 2014, pp. 3-4), whereas municipal treatment levels are approximately 50 per cent (CONAGUA, 2014a

Abstract

Purpose

In Mexico, only 19.3 per cent of industrial water is treated (Green-Peace, 2014, pp. 3-4), whereas municipal treatment levels are approximately 50 per cent (CONAGUA, 2014a). This paper aims to focus on how the wastewater treatment plant policy, from a circular economy perspective, is affected by the governance context at the Presa Guadalupe sub-basin. Circular economy can contribute to water innovations that help in improving water quality. However, such benefits are not easily achieved. This case provides an example of the complexity and challenges that the implementation of a circular economy model can face.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected via semi-structured in-depth interviews with the stakeholders that are members of the Presa Guadalupe Commission. The contextual interaction theory (CIT) is the theoretical basis for this analysis (Boer de and Bressers, 2011; Bressers, 2009).

Findings

The findings show that the wastewater treatment plant policy plays an important role in a circular economy model. Some incentives towards a circular economy model are already in place; however, the hurdles of a top-down implementation perspective, low availability of resources, prioritisation of short-term results, lack of enforcement of the “polluter pays” principle and a linear model of water systems need to be overcome. If Mexico wants to move towards a circular economy model and if the government wants to enforce sustainable development principles, wastewater treatment is a challenge that must be addressed.

Originality/value

There are few studies in the circular economy literature that have analysed its implementation under a governance arrangement perspective.

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Article

David West and Paul Mangiameli

In treating both sewage and storm runoff, wastewater treatment plants are important to maintaining a healthy environment. If the plant operations managers do not respond…

Abstract

In treating both sewage and storm runoff, wastewater treatment plants are important to maintaining a healthy environment. If the plant operations managers do not respond correctly to plant conditions, environmental damage resulting in the deterioration of human health may be the result. Unfortunately, there are no formal models to help these managers; they rely upon their own intuition to manage the plants. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of various models, originally used for manufacturing, to detect process conditions in wastewater treatment facilities. We compare and contrast the performance of five statistical models and three neural network architectures. The data used in the research is 527 daily measurements of 38 sensor readings of the process state variables of an urban wastewater treatment plant.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article

Heiko Gebauer, Bernhard Truffer, Christian Binz and Eckhard Störmer

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the intentional formation of business networks in the wastewater industry. It enriches the theory‐building of the formation of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the intentional formation of business networks in the wastewater industry. It enriches the theory‐building of the formation of business networks by drawing on theoretical contributions to business networks and capabilities. The paper describes, assesses and predicts scenarios relevant to the formation of business networks in the wastewater industry.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology employed is based on multiple sources of data in a multi‐method design, interpreting potential scenarios of business networks.

Findings

The findings reveal that water scarcity, population growth and economic constrains jeopardize existing business networks in the wastewater industry. Two potential scenarios: re‐inventing the centralized system through on‐site systems for mass‐markets; and expanding on‐site systems into mass‐markets seem realizable. A comparison of the two scenarios suggests that the first scenario is in a superior position to utilize the business opportunities offered.

Research limitations/implications

Research limitations arise from the qualitative nature of the research undertaken.

Practical implications

Capability alignments and barriers suggest that the re‐inventing the centralized system through on‐site systems for mass‐markets scenario, is the most suitable for implementation. The knowledge gained allows managers to outline a specific approach for developing the capabilities required, in order to take advantage of the alignments and overcome the barriers that may exist.

Originality/value

The paper highlights that building theories of business networks may benefit from combining the formation of business networks with dynamic and operational capabilities.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

Content available
Article

Nadeem Ahmad, Sirajuddin Ahmed, Viola Vambol and Sergij Vambol

All those effluent streams having compromised characteristics pose negative effects on the environment either directly or indirectly. Health care facilities and hospitals…

Abstract

Purpose

All those effluent streams having compromised characteristics pose negative effects on the environment either directly or indirectly. Health care facilities and hospitals also generate a large amount of effluent like other industries containing harmful and toxic pharmaceutical residual compounds due to uncontrolled use of drugs, besides others. The occurrence of antibiotic in the environment is of utmost concern due to development of resistant genes. These get mixed up with ground and surface water due to lack of proper treatment of hospital wastewater. The effect of pharmaceutical compounds on human society and ecosystem as a whole is quite obvious. There are no strict laws regarding discharge of hospital effluent in many countries. Contrary to this, the authors do not have appropriate treatment facilities and solution to solve day by day increasing complexity of this problem. Moreover, water discharged from different health facilities having variable concentration often gets mixed with municipal sewage, thus remains partially untreated even after passing from conventional treatment plants. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the occurrences and fate of such harmful compounds, need of proper effluent management system as well as conventionally adopted treatment technologies nowadays all around the globe. This mini-review would introduce the subject, the need of the study, the motivation for the study, aim, objectives of the research and methodology to be adopted for such a study.

Design/methodology/approach

Hospital effluents consisting of pathogens, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, etc, including phenols, detergents, toxic elements like cyanide and heavy metals such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), gadolinium (Gd), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), among others are commonly detected nowadays. These unwanted compounds along with emerging pollutants are generally not being regulated before getting discharged caused and spread of diseases. Various chemical and biological characteristics of hospital effluents are assessed keeping in the view the threat posed to ecosystem. Several research studies have been done and few are ongoing to explore the different characteristics and compositions of these effluent streams in comparison so as to suggest the suitable conventional treatment techniques and ways to manage the problem. Several antibiotic groups such as ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, sulfa pyridine, trimethoprim, metronidazole and their metabolites are reported in higher concentration in hospital effluent. The aquatic system also receives a high concentration of pharmaceutical residues more than 14,000 μg/L from treatment plants also and other surface water or even drinking water in Indian cities. Many rivers in southern parts of India receives treated water have detected high concentration drugs and its metabolites. As far as global constraints that need to be discussed, there are only selected pharmaceuticals compounds generally analyzed, issue regarding management and detection based on method of sampling, frequency of analysis and observation, spatial as well as temporal concentration of these concerned micropollutants, accuracy in detecting these compounds, reliability of results and predictions, prioritization and the method of treatment in use for such type of wastewater stream. The complexity of management and treatment as well need to be addressed with following issues at priority: composition and characterization of effluent, compatible and efficient treatment technology that needs to be adopted and the environment risk posed by them. The problem of drugs and its residues was not seen to be reported in latter part of 20th century, but it might be reported locally in some part of globe. This paper covers some aspect about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and treatment technologies that are adopted and best suitable nowadays various industries and monitoring the efficiencies of existing treatment systems. This mini-review would introduce the subject, the need, the motivation and objectives of the study and methodology can be adopted for such a study.

Findings

The compiled review gives a complete view about the types of antibiotics used in different health care facilities, their residue formation, occurrences in different ecosystems, types of regulations or laws available in different counties related to disposal, different type of treatment technologies, innovative combined treatment schemes and future action needed to tackle such type of effluent after its generation. The thesis also highlights the use of certain innovative materials use for the treatment like nanoparticles. It also discusses about the residues impact on the human health as well as their bioaccumulative nature. If the authors relate the past to the current scenario of pharmaceutical compounds (PhACs) in the environment, the authors will certainly notice that many diseases are nowadays not curable by simple previously prescribed Ab. Many research projects have been done in European countries that have shown the risk of such residues like Pills, Sibell, Poseidon, No pills, Neptune, Knappe, Endetech, etc. In the previous section, it was mentioned that there are no stringent laws for hospital wastewater and in many countries, they are mixed with domestic wastewater. Many difficulties are there with this research due to complex analysis, detection of targeted Ab, affecting waterbodies rate of flow, nature of treatment varies with season to season. The way nature is being degraded and harmful effect are being imposed, it is important to take immediate and decisive steps in this area. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serves as a nursery for antibiotic-resistant systems, hence monitoring with great attention is also needed. Many trials with different treatment process, in combination, were considered. Many countries are paying great attention to this topic by considering the severity of the risk involved in it.

Research limitations/implications

Previous studies by several scientists show that the pharmaceutical residues in the discharged effluent displayed direct toxic effects, and sometimes, detrimental effects in the mixture were also observed. The discharge of untreated effluent from hospitals and pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the natural ecosystem poses a significant threat to human beings. The pharmaceuticals, like antibiotics, in the aquatic environment, accelerate the development of the antibiotic-resistant genes in bacteria, which causes fatal health risks to animals and human beings. Others, like analgesics, are known to affect development in fishes. They also degrade the water quality and may lead to DNA damage, toxicity in lower organisms like daphnia and have the potential to bioaccumulate. A few commonly used nanoadsorbents for water and wastewater treatment along with their specific properties can also be used. The main advantages of them are high adsorption capacity and superior efficiency, their high reusability, synthesis at room temperatures, super magnetism, quantum confinement effect as well as eco-toxicity. This review will focus on the applicability of different nanoscale materials and their uses in treating wastewater polluted by organic and inorganic compounds, heavy metals, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, the use of various nanoadsorbents and nano-based filtration membranes is also examined.

Practical implications

A number of different pharmaceutical residues derived from various activities like production facilities, domestic use and hospitals have been reported earlier to be present in groundwater, effluents and rivers, they include antibiotics, psycho-actives, analgesics, illicit drugs, antihistamine, etc. In past few years environmental scientists are more concerned toward the effluents generated from medical care facilities, community health centers and hospitals. Various chemical and biological characteristics of hospital effluents have been assessed keeping in the view the common threats pose by them to the entire ecosystem. In this study, seven multispecialty hospitals with nonidentical pretreatment were selected for three aspects i.e. conventional wastewater characteristics, high priority pharmaceuticals and microbial analyses. The present work is to evaluate efficacy of advanced wastewater treatment methods with regard to removal of these three aspects from hospital effluents before discharge into a sewage treatment plant (STP). Based on test results, two out of seven treatment technologies, i.e. MBR and CW effectively reducing conventional parameters and pharmaceuticals from secondary and tertiary treatments except regeneration of microbes were observed in tertiary level by these two treatments.

Social implications

This review has aimed to identify the emerging contaminants, including pharmaceutical residues, highly consumed chemicals that are present in the hospital effluent, along with their physicochemical and biological characteristics. In this, the main objective was to review the occurrences and fate of common drugs and antibiotics present in effluents from hospital wastewaters. As far as global constraints that need to be discussed, there are only selected pharmaceuticals compounds generally analyzed, issue regarding management and detection based on method of sampling, frequency of analysis and observation, spatial as well as temporal concentration of these concerned micropollutants, accuracy in detecting these compounds, reliability of results and predictions, prioritization and the method of treatment in use for such type of wastewater stream are among the major issues (Akter et al., 2012; Ashfaq et al., 2016; García-Mateos et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2014; Mubedi et al., 2013; Prabhasankar et al., 2016; Sun et al., 2016; Suriyanon et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2016; Wen et al., 2004). This paper covers some aspect about the disposal and regulatory standard around the world toward hospital effluent discharge, its managements and treatment technologies that are adopted and best suitable nowadays.

Originality/value

This study many multispecialty hospitals with nonidentical pretreatment were selected for three aspects i.e. conventional wastewater characteristics high priority pharmaceuticals and microbial analyses. The present work is to evaluate efficacy of advanced wastewater treatment methods with regard to removal of these three aspects from hospital effluents before discharge into an STP. Based on test results, two out of different treatment effectively reducing conventional parameters and pharmaceuticals from secondary and tertiary treatments except regeneration of microbes were observed in the tertiary level by these two treatments were studies followed by ozonation and ultraviolet-ray treatment.

Details

Frontiers in Engineering and Built Environment, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-2499

Keywords

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Article

Khaled M. Abu‐Zeid

Many countries all over the world are facing water shortages. As population increases, water is being perceived as a very valuable resource. Every effort is exerted to use…

Abstract

Many countries all over the world are facing water shortages. As population increases, water is being perceived as a very valuable resource. Every effort is exerted to use water more efficiently and to make use of every drop of water to ensure the well being of future generations. New trends are developed and practiced in the area of water resources use and water saving. These trends vary from one country to another according to the degree of water scarcity, economic situations, and other factors. Developing non‐conventional water resources is an example of the recent trends in developing new water resources and water savings. Unlike rainfall, rivers, and groundwater which are considered conventional freshwater resources, the non‐conventional water resources include sea water desalination, agriculture wastewater reuse, and municipal wastewater reuse. This paper deals with the reuse of agriculture, municipal, and industrial wastewater as a new trend in developing additional water resources. Special interest is given to municipal wastewater, its characteristics and necessary treatment. Environmental and human health considerations for wastewater reuse, especially in agriculture, are also discussed. Possible consequences of wastewater reuse are introduced. Examples of wastewater reuse practices in some countries are also mentioned.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article

Howard H. Lo and Yung‐Tse Hung

The treatment performance of two‐stage secondary treatmentconsisting of a trickling filter followed by activated sludge processfor treatment of combined municipal and…

Abstract

The treatment performance of two‐stage secondary treatment consisting of a trickling filter followed by activated sludge process for treatment of combined municipal and industrial wastewater is determined. The municipal wastewater treatment plant is located in Solon, Ohio, where the treatment units include grit tanks, primary clarifiers, trickling filters, aeration tanks, secondary clarifiers, tertiary filters and chlorine contact tanks. The treatment performance data for a 12‐month period in 1989 was evaluated. The average total plant flow was 2.82 MGD (millions gallons per day) which consisted of 2.19 MGD industrial wastewater and 0.63 MGD domestic wastewater. Raw wastewater was of a high strength mainly due to the contribution from industrial sources. After different degrees of treatment the values of total suspended solids (TSS) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) met US Environmental Protection Agency standards. This plant has good treatment performance with 99 per cent BOD and 98 per cent TSS removal efficiencies.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article

Howard H. Lo and Yung‐Tse Hung

Evaluates the effect of bioaugmentation on the activated sludgetreatment of food wastewaters including those containing potato, starch,sugar and milk. Parameters of study…

Abstract

Evaluates the effect of bioaugmentation on the activated sludge treatment of food wastewaters including those containing potato, starch, sugar and milk. Parameters of study include live liquid microorganisms, dosage, aeration time and wastewater strength. Concludes that bioaugmentation with addition of live liquid micro‐organisms improves total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency and reduces sludge production. Aerobic bioaugmentation is effective in TOC removal from potato, sugar and milk wastewater but not effective in the case of starch wastewater.

Details

Environmental Management and Health, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-6163

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Article

Huseyin Guven and Aysegul Tanik

Rough estimations of water gain through greywater reuse and rainwater harvesting together with energy recovery from wastewater generated from a fictitious eco-city of…

Abstract

Purpose

Rough estimations of water gain through greywater reuse and rainwater harvesting together with energy recovery from wastewater generated from a fictitious eco-city of population 100,000 located in Istanbul, Turkey form the main framework of the study. As such, the highly important concept of water–energy nexus will be emphasised and domestic wastewater will be partly considered for water recycling and the rest for energy recovery. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Distribution of daily domestic water consumption among different household uses and the population in the residential area are the two governing parameters in the practical calculation of daily wastewater generated. Therefore, domestic wastewater will be initially estimated based on population, and in turn, the amount of greywater will be found from the per cent distribution of water use. After segregation of greywater, the energy equivalency of the rest of the wastewater, known as blackwater, will further be calculated. Besides, the long-term average precipitation data of the geographical location (Istanbul) are used in determining safe and sound rainwater harvesting. Harvesting is considered to be only from the roofs of the houses; therefore, surface area of the roofs is directly taken from an actual residential site in Turkey, housing the same population which is constructed in four stages. Similarly, the fictitious eco-city in Istanbul is assumed to be constructed in a stage-wise manner to resemble real conditions.

Findings

The water consumption of the fictitious eco-city ABC is considered as 15,000 m3/day by taking the unit water consumption 150 L/capita.day. Therefore, total water savings through on-site reuse and reuse as irrigation water (9,963 m3/day) will reduce water consumption by 64 per cent. Minimum 40 per cent water saving is shown to be possible by means of only greywater recycling and rainwater harvesting with a long-term average annual precipitation of 800 mm. The energy recovery from the rest of the wastewater after segregation of greywater is calculated as 15 MWh/day as electricity and heat that roughly correspond to electricity demand of 1,300 households each bearing four people.

Research limitations/implications

A fictitious eco-city rather than an actual one located in Istanbul is considered as the pilot area in the study. So far, an eco-city with population around 100,000 in Turkey does not exist. An important implication relates to rainwater harvesting. The amount of safe water to be gained through precipitation is subject to fluctuations within years and, thus, the amount of collected rainwater will highly depend on the geographical location of such an eco-city.

Practical implications

The study covering rough calculations on water savings and energy recovery from domestic wastewater will act as a guide to practitioners working on efficient water management in the eco-cities, especially in those that are planned in a developing country.

Originality/value

Practising water–energy nexus in an eco-city of population 100,000 regarding water savings and energy recovery from wastewater forms the originality of the study. Sustainable water use and energy recovery from wastewater are among the emerging topics in environmental science and technology. However, safe and sound applications are lacking especially in the developing countries. Guiding these countries with practical calculations on both water gain and energy recovery from wastewater (blackwater) is the value of the work done. Moreover, Istanbul is deliberately selected as a case study area for various reasons: its annual rainfall represents the worlds’ average, it is one of the most crowded megacities of the world that supply water demand from the surface water reservoirs and the megacity has not yet significantly increased wastewater reuse and recycling practices.

Details

Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6099

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Article

Sheetal Jaisingh Kamble, Anju Singh and Manoj Govind Kharat

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have long-time environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to assess the environmental footprint of two advanced wastewater

Abstract

Purpose

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have long-time environmental impacts. The purpose of this paper is to assess the environmental footprint of two advanced wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies in a life cycle and sustainability perspective and identify the improvement alternatives.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study life cycle-based environmental assessment of two advanced WWT technologies (moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR)) has been carried out to compare different technological options. Life cycle impacts were computed using GaBi software employing the CML 2 (2010) methodology. Primary data were collected and analysed through surveys and on-site visits to WWTPs. The present study attempts to achieve significantly transparent results using life cycle assessment (LCA) in limited availability of data.

Findings

The results of both direct measurements in the studied wastewater systems and the LCA support the fact that advanced treatment has the best environmental performance. The results show that the operation phase contributes to nearly 99 per cent for the impacts of the plant. The study identified emissions associated with electricity production required to operate the WWTPs, chemical usage, emissions to water from treated effluent and heavy metal emissions from waste sludge applied to land are the major contributors for overall environmental impacts. SBR is found to be the best option for WWT as compared to MBBR in the urban context. In order to improve the overall environmental performance, the wastewater recovery, that is, reusable water should be improved. Further, sludge utilisation for energy recovery should be considered. The results of the study show that the avoided impacts of energy recovery can be even greater than direct impacts of greenhouse gas emissions from the wastewater system. Therefore, measures which combine reusing wastewater with energy generation should be preferred. The study highlights the major shortcoming, i.e., the lack of national life cycle inventories and databases in India limiting the wide application of LCA in the context of environmental decision making.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this study express only the environmental impacts of the operation phase of WWT system and sludge management options. Therefore, it is recommended that further LCAs studies should be carried out to investigate construction and demolition phase and also there is need to reconsider the toxicological- and pathogen-related impact categories. The results obtained through this type of LCA studies can be used in the decision-making framework for selection of appropriate WWT technology by considering LCA results as one of the attributes.

Practical implications

The results of LCA modelling show that though the environmental impacts associated with advanced technologies are high, these technologies produce the good reusable quality of effluent. In areas where water is scarce, governments should promote reusing wastewater by providing additional treatment under safe conditions as much as possible with advanced WWT. The LCA model for WWT and management planning can be used for the environmental assessment of WWT technologies.

Originality/value

The current work provides a site-specific data on sustainable WWT and management. The study contributes to the development of the regional reference input data for LCA (inventory development) in the domain of wastewater management.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

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