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Article

Shuangshuang Liu and Xiaoling Li

Conventional image super-resolution reconstruction by the conventional deep learning architectures suffers from the problems of hard training and gradient disappearing. In…

Abstract

Purpose

Conventional image super-resolution reconstruction by the conventional deep learning architectures suffers from the problems of hard training and gradient disappearing. In order to solve such problems, the purpose of this paper is to propose a novel image super-resolution algorithm based on improved generative adversarial networks (GANs) with Wasserstein distance and gradient penalty.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed algorithm first introduces the conventional GANs architecture, the Wasserstein distance and the gradient penalty for the task of image super-resolution reconstruction (SRWGANs-GP). In addition, a novel perceptual loss function is designed for the SRWGANs-GP to meet the task of image super-resolution reconstruction. The content loss is extracted from the deep model’s feature maps, and such features are introduced to calculate mean square error (MSE) for the loss calculation of generators.

Findings

To validate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm, a lot of compared experiments are applied on three common data sets, i.e. Set5, Set14 and BSD100. Experimental results have shown that the proposed SRWGANs-GP architecture has a stable error gradient and iteratively convergence. Compared with the baseline deep models, the proposed GANs models have a significant improvement on performance and efficiency for image super-resolution reconstruction. The MSE calculated by the deep model’s feature maps gives more advantages for constructing contour and texture.

Originality/value

Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms, the proposed algorithm obtains a better performance on image super-resolution and better reconstruction results on contour and texture.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

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Article

Minghua Wei and Feng Lin

Aiming at the shortcomings of EEG signals generated by brain's sensorimotor region activated tasks, such as poor performance, low efficiency and weak robustness, this…

Abstract

Purpose

Aiming at the shortcomings of EEG signals generated by brain's sensorimotor region activated tasks, such as poor performance, low efficiency and weak robustness, this paper proposes an EEG signals classification method based on multi-dimensional fusion features.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the improved Morlet wavelet is used to extract the spectrum feature maps from EEG signals. Then, the spatial-frequency features are extracted from the PSD maps by using the three-dimensional convolutional neural networks (3DCNNs) model. Finally, the spatial-frequency features are incorporated to the bidirectional gated recurrent units (Bi-GRUs) models to extract the spatial-frequency-sequential multi-dimensional fusion features for recognition of brain's sensorimotor region activated task.

Findings

In the comparative experiments, the data sets of motor imagery (MI)/action observation (AO)/action execution (AE) tasks are selected to test the classification performance and robustness of the proposed algorithm. In addition, the impact of extracted features on the sensorimotor region and the impact on the classification processing are also analyzed by visualization during experiments.

Originality/value

The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm extracts the corresponding brain activation features for different action related tasks, so as to achieve more stable classification performance in dealing with AO/MI/AE tasks, and has the best robustness on EEG signals of different subjects.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

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Book part

Magdalena Nowicka-Franczak

Public acts of self-criticism in Eastern Europe – a genre cultivated and extorted by the communist parties – did not disappear with the end of communism. In the young…

Abstract

Public acts of self-criticism in Eastern Europe – a genre cultivated and extorted by the communist parties – did not disappear with the end of communism. In the young democracies of the region self-criticism has become an attempt to diagnose society’s ‘backward’ character and to develop ‘self-correction’ scenarios in order to participate in the Western modernising discourse. On the one hand, conservative and right-wing elites suppose that public acts of self-criticism (performed by politicians, artists or scholars) can endow the vetting procedures of the ancien régime with a sense of social catharsis and retroactive justice. On the other hand, liberal and left-wing intellectuals subject themselves to collective self-reckoning, not only with their choices made in the transition period, but also with the memory of WWII, in order to shape a civil society free of anti-Semitism and intolerance. An analysis based on the discourse-historical approach in critical discourse analysis, Reinhart Koselleck’s historical semantics and Michel Foucault’s notion of discourse, and carried out on the text corpus of selected acts of self-criticism in Poland, aims to diagnose the role these acts had in shaping public discourse on the troublesome past.

Details

National Identity and Europe in Times of Crisis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-514-6

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Article

John McCormick and Kerry Barnett

The purpose of this paper was to posit and test hypotheses concerned with relationships between teachers' demographics, locus of control and career stages.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to posit and test hypotheses concerned with relationships between teachers' demographics, locus of control and career stages.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample consisting of 416 Australian non‐executive high school teachers was gathered from 40 randomly selected high schools. Multilevel regression analysis reflecting the nested nature of the sample of teachers within schools, and allowing for testing for school effects, was employed.

Findings

The paper finds that significant gender and years of teaching experience differences were identified for a number of career stages. There were positive relationships between years of teaching experience and later career stages. A number of multilevel models relating locus of control and demographic variables to career stage were developed and are reported.

Originality/value

The paper shows that teachers' generalized beliefs about personal control may be related to career stages and school practices should nurture beliefs in personal control, rather than dependence on powerful others in the school setting.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article

Linda M. Cohen

The purpose of this paper is to highlight how a commonly‐overlooked resource – physical assets – can be used to advantage as both a tactical and strategic tool during

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight how a commonly‐overlooked resource – physical assets – can be used to advantage as both a tactical and strategic tool during mergers and acquisitions (M&A). It aims to present an overview of strategies for managers to consider when faced with M&A – both for deterring and defending against unwanted acquirer attention, and for managing M&A post‐transaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Integrating findings from different research streams (e.g. financial, management, geography and real estate), and drawing on interviews and recent M&A reports, the paper distills physical asset strategies into a general overview and a two‐stage framework.

Findings

Firms' physical assets can play a significant role in driving, defending and managing M&A. By affecting both financial and organizational outcomes, it is shown how physical assets are a powerful strategic resource within the manager's toolkit. Deter‐and‐defend strategies reduce M&A vulnerability and defend against hostile raiders; Managing M&A strategies improve post‐M&A revenue generation, efficiency gains and increased organizational effectiveness.

Practical implications

For managers facing M&A, this paper highlights a range of strategic options which are often overlooked in M&A research. Beyond M&A, many of these strategies can also be used by any firm facing financial and performance pressures.

Originality/value

The paper highlights a category of M&A strategies that can have a significant impact on M&A outcomes, but is often underplayed in general management and strategy research. It elaborates on a range of strategy options. Also, by integrating findings from diverse research streams, this paper offers a broadened perspective of M&A strategies.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Book part

Jamie Morgan

The purpose of this paper is to explain how the current “crisis” in the UK pension system arose. I argue that it is a result of a combination of changes in government…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to explain how the current “crisis” in the UK pension system arose. I argue that it is a result of a combination of changes in government policy and basic instabilities always inherent in the financial system. Policy changes increased the vulnerability of the pension system to those instabilities. The background to these changes and also the frame of reference in terms of which the “crisis” itself is now phrased is broadly neoliberal. Its theoretical roots are in ideas of the efficiency of free markets. Its policy roots are expressed in a series of similar neoliberal policy tendencies in other capitalist states. I further argue that neoliberal solutions to the pension crisis simply offer more of the very matters that created the problems in the first place. Moreover, the very terms of debate, based in markets, financialisation of saving and individualisation of risk, disguise a more basic debate about providing a living retirement income for all. This is a debate that New Labour is simply not prepared to constructively engage with in any concrete fashion.

Details

The Hidden History of 9-11-2001
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-408-9

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Article

Sergey Filippov

The focus of this paper is the emergence of Russia's multinational companies. It aims to analyse their motives to internationalise as well as the approaches to…

Abstract

Purpose

The focus of this paper is the emergence of Russia's multinational companies. It aims to analyse their motives to internationalise as well as the approaches to internationalisation. While relevance of the theoretical perspectives is highlighted, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the present‐day phenomenon of emerging Russian multinationals.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies on a qualitative approach for the analysis of the nature of Russian multinationals. The phenomenon of the emerging Russian multinationals is analysed through the prism and using insights from a number of subjects, namely transition studies, politics, innovation studies and international business studies.

Findings

The paper traces the evolution of Russian companies; the idiosyncratic path of their formation serves as a background for understanding of their internationalisation strategies. A special attention is devoted to the R&D activities of Russian multinational companies, and access to foreign technology is found to be an important driver of internationalisation.

Research limitations/implications

The paper highlights relevance of further research on Russian multinationals and outlines research avenues.

Practical implications

The paper is rich in its practical implications. Specifically, it elaborates on the European Union‐Russian bilateral relations and the role of Russian multinationals in the European economies. The issue of political involvement is raised, and the paper seeks to identify whether Russian companies serve as tools of foreign policy, or they operate as business agents.

Originality/value

Despite their increasingly important role in the global economy, Russian companies have been largely overshadowed by the emergence of Indian and Chinese multinationals and not sufficiently addressed, even neglected, in the literature. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to fill in some gaps in the literature regarding this research area.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 5 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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Article

Porchiung Ben Chou, Michael A. Ehrlich and Ronald Sverdlove

By applying models of social and economic networks to financial institutions, the purpose of this paper is to address the issues of how policy makers can promote financial…

Abstract

Purpose

By applying models of social and economic networks to financial institutions, the purpose of this paper is to address the issues of how policy makers can promote financial network stability and social efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors characterize the decentralized network formation of financial institutions in three stages through which institutions choose to become member banks connected to a central bank, bank-holding company subsidiaries or non-banks. Financial institutions choose one of the three roles in an endogenous process by considering the effects of sharing shocks among the members of the network. In the model, there is a social-welfare-maximizing government regulator at the center of the network.

Findings

The authors show that the stable equilibrium network is not always the efficient network, so the central authority must use policy instruments to ensure that the stable equilibrium network is as close as possible to the efficient network.

Research limitations/implications

To obtain the theoretical results, the authors make assumptions about the utility function and risk aversion of a financial institution, as well as about the costs of network formation. These assumptions might need to be relaxed to bring the model closer to real-world institutions.

Practical implications

The results suggest that regulators must try to set their policy variables to make the efficient network as close as possible to the stable network.

Originality/value

The contribution is to incorporate concepts from social network theory into the modeling of financial networks. The results may be of use to regulators in maintaining the stability of the financial system.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article

Chris Baumann, Hume Winzar and Tony Fang

The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, the paper demonstrates how inter-ocular testing (looking at the data) of Schwartz values from world values study (WVS…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, the paper demonstrates how inter-ocular testing (looking at the data) of Schwartz values from world values study (WVS) provides a surprisingly different picture to what the authors would expect from traditional mean comparison testing (t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Second, the authors suggest that the ReVaMB model can be applied to an East Asian philosophical perspective. Relativity, the authors argue, is a factor when East Asian wisdom, philosophies and ideologies (Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Legalism) “drive” outcomes such as work ethic. Third, the paper serves as an editorial to a special issue in CCSM on East Asian wisdom and its impact on business culture and performance in a cross-cultural context. Common themes are Yin Yang, how different cultures deal with paradox, and Zhong Yong, with accompanying concerns of how to conceptualise and deal with balance of opposites.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted ten variables of the Schwartz values scales used in the WVS and subjected them to principle components analysis to reduce the number of variables. The authors found a two-factor solution: one relating to personal material success and adventure and excitement; another relating to success and personal recognition. The authors labelled these factors as Altruism and Hedonism. The analysis is based on an overall sample of 84,692 respondents in 60 countries. In addition to traditional statistical testing, the authors conduct inter-ocular testing. The authors also suggest that the ReVaMB model can be applied to East Asian wisdom.

Findings

Three recommendations help to arrive at more accurate conclusions when comparing groups: the authors recommend to aspire to “consistent look and statistic”. If the data distribution does not agree with the statistics, then the researcher should take a closer look. To avoid misinterpreting statistics and other analysis, the authors recommend inter-ocular testing, i.e. eyeballing data in a scientific fashion. The authors provide specific examples how to do that. The authors recommend to test for common-language effect size (CLE), and also recommend a new rule of thumb, i.e. a split of 60/40 as minimum difference to make any generalisation; 70/30 is worth considering. The rule of thumb contributes to better differentiation between real and “not real” differences.

Originality/value

The authors introduce two concepts: the “inter-ocular test”, which simply means to “look at your data”, and the Chinese word, 错觉 (Cuòjué) which roughly translates to “illusion”, “wrong impression”, or “misconception”. This study argues against accepting simplistic averages for data analysis. The authors provide evidence that an inter-ocular test provides a more comprehensive picture of data when comparing groups rather than simply relying on traditional statistical mean comparison testing. The “word of caution” is to avoid premature conclusions on group comparisons with statistical testing alone. The authors also propose an extension of the original ReVaMB model from a confucian orientation to a broad East Asian philosophical perspective. Culture does determine attitudes and behaviour which in turn contribute to the shaping of cultures, depending on situation, context, location and time. The “context” for a situation to occur should be tested as moderators, for example, between East Asian wisdom (Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Legalism) and behavioural or attitudinal dimensions such as work ethic.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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