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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Zehlia Babaci‐Wilhite, Macleans A. Geo‐JaJa and Lou Shizhou

The emergence of the Chinese aid consensus has come to have profound implications for sustainability. The Beijing Consensus “sovereignty doctrine” of non‐interference…

Abstract

Purpose

The emergence of the Chinese aid consensus has come to have profound implications for sustainability. The Beijing Consensus “sovereignty doctrine” of non‐interference, presents a stark contrast to the Washington Consensus architecture of imposed conditionalities and the serving of geopolitical interests. For this reason, from Africa's perspective, the Beijing Consensus appears to represent the preferred comprehensive meta‐narrative for Africa. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the attributes of “good” aid architecture in relation to the peculiarities of Africa's challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

In examining its principles, objectives, framework differences and impact, the Beijing model shows that it supports the human rights which “unleash”, empower and protect self‐directed development grounded in ownership and in the strategic interests of recipients.

Findings

The Washington Consensus has been problematic for African development because it is economistic and exclusively instrumentalist. While conceding to this shortcoming, the inability of the consensus to appreciate the unique and complex development problems of Africa is more troubling. Comparing the two, the Beijing Consensus, which is multidimensional and encompasses the intrinsic and non‐economic roles of development aid, with the consequence of over‐emphasizing expanding local policy, is adjudged practical for Africa. The conclusion is that the dominant Washington Consensus is too poorly articulated and structured to respond to declared determination for ownership, mitigating capabilities deprivation, and improving development control.

Originality/value

This paper has argued that the basic approach of the Beijing Consensus has been more generous and more attractive for sustainable development in Africa. Much more important, perhaps, is the ability of the consensus to appreciate the unique and complex development problems which occur as a consequence of donor deafness on limited rights and conditionalities. In sum, the Beijing Consensus results in exclusionary changes of “less magnitude and speed” and promotes poverty reduction and sustainable development. Taken together, these factors and practices mean that the Beijing Consensus best serves the staircase of a nation's pathway to indigenous development, when compared with the Washington Consensus. Such a comprehensive meta‐narrative that builds alliances and creates a foundation for enlightened and effective politics of development aid will “unleash”, empower and protect the full potential of Africa.

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Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2014

Eduardo Fayos-Solà, Laura Fuentes Moraleda and Ana Isabel Muñoz Mazón

There is no clear understanding on the terms and concepts of development, both in the academic literature of tourism and in general. What constitutes “growth”, and what is…

Abstract

There is no clear understanding on the terms and concepts of development, both in the academic literature of tourism and in general. What constitutes “growth”, and what is “development”? The emphasis on mathematical modeling has favored the use of simplifying hypothesis, with dubious practical results for the real problems of development. This chapter discusses the most relevant aspects of theories of development, enunciated at different times in the course of the last two centuries, with the purpose of illuminating different theoretical approaches to analysis and policy formulation that may support actual strategy and practice in tourism.

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Tourism as an Instrument for Development: A Theoretical and Practical Study
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-680-6

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Book part
Publication date: 24 June 2015

Elitsa R. Banalieva, Laszlo Tihanyi, Timothy M. Devinney and Torben Pedersen

Do multinational enterprises evolve differently in emerging and developed economies? Although one camp argues that emerging economy multinationals are different from their…

Abstract

Do multinational enterprises evolve differently in emerging and developed economies? Although one camp argues that emerging economy multinationals are different from their developed country counterparts owing to the underdeveloped institutions in their home countries, another camp counters that they are the same and the existing international business theories can fully explain their strategies. A third camp suggests a more nuanced perspective by finding value in both approaches. In this introductory chapter, we review this debate and offer new perspectives on how to extend existing theories by accounting for four specific aspects of the home country institutional environments of emerging economies: breadth, depth, timing, and duration of exposure to institutional development. We then discuss how the chapters in this volume extend these ideas.

Details

Emerging Economies and Multinational Enterprises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-740-6

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Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Rolf Straubhaar

Throughout Latin America, policy-makers are struggling to reconcile two conflicting political pressures: (i) the push to become more globally competitive on the basis of…

Abstract

Throughout Latin America, policy-makers are struggling to reconcile two conflicting political pressures: (i) the push to become more globally competitive on the basis of international assessments such as the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), and (ii) the simultaneous need to address long-standing, entrenched inequities in both educational quality and access throughout much of the region. This chapter documents how policy-making elites throughout Latin America are trying to address these two goals by incorporating “evidence-based” policy solutions that can be empirically defended as promoting equity. However, scholars throughout Latin America argue that instead of promoting equity, an increasing focus on accountability in educational policy at the national level throughout the region has resulted instead in a shift in priorities from the governance of educational systems to evaluation of those systems, with the state functioning primarily as an Evaluative State. This argument is developed through secondary analysis of the Hispanophone and Lusophone academic education literatures of Latin America, whose robust and rigorous studies of these trends at both national and regional levels remain little explored within the Anglophone academic tradition.

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The Global Educational Policy Environment in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-044-2

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2010

Christopher J. Coyne and Rachel L. Mathers

The fatal conceit is the assumption that the world can be shaped according to human desires. This chapter argues that the logic of the fatal conceit can be applied to…

Abstract

The fatal conceit is the assumption that the world can be shaped according to human desires. This chapter argues that the logic of the fatal conceit can be applied to foreign interventions which go beyond the limits of what can be rationally constructed by reason alone. In suffering from the fatal conceit, these interventions are characterized by: (1) the realization that intentions do not equal results, (2) a reliance on top-down planning, (3) the view of development as a technological issue, (4) a reliance on bureaucracy over markets, and (5) the primacy of collectivism over individualism. These characteristics explain why interventions extending beyond the limits of what can be rationally constructed tend to fail.

Details

What is so Austrian about Austrian Economics?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-261-7

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2019

Anton Klarin and Pradeep Kanta Ray

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of Russian institutional upheavals on industrial development.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of Russian institutional upheavals on industrial development.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a longitudinal case study analysis of three Russian pharmaceutical firms exploring the role of state support in developing a self-sustained competitive innovation-dependent industry.

Findings

Russia’s shock therapy transition to a newly liberalised economy the 1990s without a supportive institutional framework led to severe setbacks in its modernisation process. A weak institutional context was not conducive to development of its fledgling organisations. In late 2000s, Russian Government initiated large-ranging institutional support in favour of strategic industries. This resulted in a shift from short-term profit-seeking arbitrage strategies to long-term investment strategies towards vertical integration, R&D and human resource development. Findings indicate countries that wish to forge competitive industries need to develop a strong supportive institutional mechanism that allows targeted industries to modernise and compete on a global scale. To ensure the effectiveness of execution of strategic policies, coherent communication channels and collaboration between the industry and the state is necessary.

Originality/value

While research on large emerging economies, such as China and India, is extensive, research on Russia and surrounding states is sparse. Most of the research on Russia is based around large resource-sector organisations. This study is novel in its uncovering various phases of development of an innovation-dependent industry.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2014

Abstract

Details

Tourism as an Instrument for Development: A Theoretical and Practical Study
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-680-6

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Abstract

Details

The World Economic Forum and Transnational Networking
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-459-3

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