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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Maruska Giselle Salvatierra Blaisdell and Changsang Yun

This study aims to examine the effect of laundering on the softness and smoothness of terry-cloth towels by different washing machine type, washing temperature, drying…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of laundering on the softness and smoothness of terry-cloth towels by different washing machine type, washing temperature, drying method and the use of fabric softener, using a newly developed sound spectrum analysis known as Textile Softness Analyzer.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiment was designed to analyze the most significant laundering parameter in the reduction of softness and smoothness of terry cloth during one laundering cycle up to ten cycles by testing samples using TSA machine.

Findings

A front-loading washer had a significant effect on reducing softness and smoothness in comparison to a top-loading machine; line-drying resulted in a higher decrease in softness and smoothness than tumble-drying. Washing temperature showed no significant effect, and the use of softener during washing was able to reduce the negative effect of line-drying on the softness and smoothness of terry cloth.

Originality/value

This paper provided information on the laundering parameters that can maintain the softness and smoothness of terry-cloth towels, and this was examined with sound spectrum analysis to measure softness and smoothness of textiles.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2020

R. Rathinamoorthy and S. Raja Balasaraswathi

Microfiber is one of the major sources of microplastic emission into the environment. In recent times, research on microfiber has gained momentum, and research across…

Abstract

Purpose

Microfiber is one of the major sources of microplastic emission into the environment. In recent times, research on microfiber has gained momentum, and research across different disciplines was performed. However, no complete study was performed from the viewpoint of textiles to analyse the microfiber shedding behaviour by relating the properties textiles. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the microfiber shedding behaviour in textiles.

Design/methodology/approach

Articles on the microfiber shedding across different disciplines were collected and analysed systematically to identify the influencing factor. The influence of laundry parameters is found to be majorly discussed section, yet very few research data is found on the effect of yarn and fabric properties on the microfiber shedding.

Findings

Most of the articles listed laundry detergent addition, higher temperature, use of softeners, type of washing machines used and amount of liquid used as the major factors influencing the fiber shedding. Concerning the fiber and yarn characteristics, yarn twist, fiber type (staple/filament), method of production, fabric structure and specific density are reported as influencing factors. Some articles highlighted the influence of ageing of textiles on the fiber shedding.

Originality/value

The review identified the research gap in the textile sector and reports that so far, no research performed on microfiber shedding with the textile parameters. The review further urges the importance of research works to be performed in the textile by considering the fabric and yarn properties.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Jan Brusselaers, Ellen Bracquene, Jef Peeters and Yoko Dams

The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent a consumer’s repair strategy impacts the annual costs of ownership of a washing machine and two types of vacuum cleaner.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent a consumer’s repair strategy impacts the annual costs of ownership of a washing machine and two types of vacuum cleaner.

Design/methodology/approach

The annual cost of ownership is determined by calculating the annual life cycle cost (LCC) for the respective devices. The annual LCCs of the different scenarios allow a comparison of the different repair strategy options. A Monte Carlo simulation is run to introduce parameter variability. The device’s failure rate is estimated by a combination of data sets on the devices’ performance.

Findings

Results demonstrate that the repair of the devices considered is a more favourable option over replacement. A consumer who aims for the lowest annual LCC should allow for a high number of repairs per device, without putting a maximum on the cost per repair. However, the consumer should become more cautious when a device approaches the end of its expected lifetime. Finally, the purchase of warranty can be interesting when the warranty covers a sufficiently long proportion of the device’s (expected) lifetime and when its cost does not exceed a threshold proportion of the initial purchase price.

Research limitations/implications

The costs for repair might be overestimated. Future research can focus on the reduction of repair costs following self-repair.

Practical implications

The results provide strong arguments in favour of repair instead of replacement of broken devices.

Originality/value

This is the first research to quantify the influence of consumer behaviour in the context of repair of devices on the ownership costs of these devices.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1981

THIS being the beginning of a New Year, we are apt to reminisce. We search our memory for past happenings that might just possibly be a pointer for the future.

Abstract

THIS being the beginning of a New Year, we are apt to reminisce. We search our memory for past happenings that might just possibly be a pointer for the future.

Details

Work Study, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Emma Sofia Kaappa, Atte Joutsen, Alper Cömert and Jukka Vanhala

The purpose of this paper was to offer more reliable dry electrode materials for long-term measuring and determine how repeated machine washing affects the measured…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to offer more reliable dry electrode materials for long-term measuring and determine how repeated machine washing affects the measured impedance and surface resistance of the sample electrodes. The aim was to manufacture electrodes that could be used for the measurement of ECG. Skin friendly, metal sheet type, electrodes could be a solution.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to two conventional electrodes already used in heart rate belts, the authors prepared and tested three different sheet metal electrodes. Three 20-mm-diameter electrodes were manufactured from the following materials: silvered knit, conductive polymer, stainless steel, silver and platinum. Electrode impedance was measured at seven frequencies from 1 Hz to 1 MHz, by placing two electrodes face-to-face. Measurements were taken on unused electrodes and after multiple machine washes at 40°C.

Findings

Analysis of the measurements indicates that with every material tested, the impedances are elevated after repeated washes. All metallic materials have impedances in the range of 0.01 to 4.5 Ω. Metal sheet electrodes can be integrated comfortably into the textile, and they endure textile maintenance without loss of electrical properties.

Practical implications

Metal sheet electrodes function well in long-term vital signs monitoring, provide a reliable signal and are resistant to maintenance. For the reasons described in this research, they can be used as a long-term wearable sensor.

Originality/value

Novel electrode material for long-term measuring research is important in many disciplines such as health care and apparel manufacturing. These findings suggest that pure metal electrodes are better than conductive textiles in long-term measuring.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1955

THE coining of the phrase “work study” implies that someone wanted, without a noisy grinding of axes, to give time and motion study, as practised, a boost. So “work study”…

Abstract

THE coining of the phrase “work study” implies that someone wanted, without a noisy grinding of axes, to give time and motion study, as practised, a boost. So “work study” was born, all the old techniques were dressed up in a “new look,” and the whole show was presented to industry as “different”—it was a box‐office hit.

Details

Work Study, vol. 4 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1942

Although a sheet of viscose film, such as cellophane, is so compact in structure as to be quite airtight, experimental work has shown that water vapour can evaporate as…

Abstract

Although a sheet of viscose film, such as cellophane, is so compact in structure as to be quite airtight, experimental work has shown that water vapour can evaporate as quickly from a vessel closed with it as from the open container. A wrapper composed of viscose film can be rendered impermeable to moisture vapour by covering the surfaces with a very thin layer of moisture‐proof transparent coating which often contains, as an essential ingredient, a small quantity of wax. It is wrappings of the latter “ moisture‐proof ” type which are normally used round cigarette cartons and often round biscuits and sweet packages. Unbroken films of wax are resistant to the passage of moisture vapour, and waxed papers are therefore largely used for the protection of foodstuffs. Not all waxed papers, or so‐called moisture‐vapour‐proof transparent wrappings, are satisfactorily impermeable to moisture vapour, and it is essential to test such materials to determine their actual protective powers. While complete protection against moisture exchange is advisable for most types of goods liable to dry out or for those which will deliquesce, it should be realised that there may be other factors that will prevent their being used. Some goods coated with cane sugar are found to keep best if in packings where they can “ breathe.” If, owing to a rise in temperature, the atmosphere in the moisture‐vapour‐proof wrapping should become saturated with moisture vapour, this would be deposited in droplets on the surface of the goods if the package were suddenly cooled. A dilute solution of sugar might be formed at the point of deposition, which would then be a favourable medium for the growth of aerial moulds and micro‐organisms. In many cases wrongly wrapped foods betray their deterioration by easily apparent signs, such as the hardness of bread, the stickiness of sweets or the odour of putrificd material. It is, however, quite possible for a loss in quality to occur which is only noticeable in flavour deterioration when the article is consumed, and an important instance of this is tea. Care must be taken that the wrapping itself does not impart a foreign flavour to the foodstuff packed in it, or induce one through permitting or accelerating chemical changes, such as oxidation (development of rancidity). Some of the transparent moisture‐vapour‐proof wrappings on the market have a strong flavour liable to contaminate goods wrapped in them, as have some waxed papers and ordinary “ boards ” used for cartons. Printing inks and adhesives used on cartons may also affect the flavour and odour of foodstuffs, unless properly chosen and properly used on the cartons. These odours will penetrate wrappers if the latter are not airtight, and instances are known where really expensive articles of food have been spoiled in flavour because strong‐smelling strawboards have been used as the foundation of the very elaborate and decorative boxes in which the foodstuff was packed. Rancidity development in fatty foods may be accelerated in several ways. It is well known that sunlight promotes the formation of rancidity, and fatty foods in ordinary transparent wrappings may deteriorate on this account. Attempts have been made to produce coloured transparent wrappers which will absorb the active light rays, and so prevent rancidity developing while at the same time allowing the goods wrapped to be visible. Some of these wrappers were so dark in colour that they were valueless for display purposes, but, according to advertised claims, some golden yellow transparent wrappers of good transparency and protective power are now available. There are available, however, wrappers treated with anti‐oxidants of the oat‐flour type which are claimed to arrest the development of surface rancidity of fatty foods packed in them. The last generation has seen the advent of scientific control and development in the catering business. Individual restaurants or hotels cannot afford to employ chemists, and with the exception of the large organisations owning a series of restaurants, the hotelier or restaurateur has to rely on the efforts of consultants or on the makers of the plant and machinery installed in his establishment. This help has been very valuable particularly as the amount of mechanical aids in restaurant kitchens has become during the last half century very considerable. Such devices as mechanical beaters or whippers, small doughing machines, mechanically or electrically controlled refrigerators, are but examples. Possibly one of the most interesting developments has been in the installation of mechanical washing machines for plates, dishes, cups, knives, etc. The number of pieces of china and cutlery is perhaps not appreciated. The modest two‐course lunch means that twelve articles, all of different sizes, shapes or materials of construction, must be washed; the seven‐course dinner requires 30–40 articles. The organisation to provide these articles in a steady stream sufficient for the needs of some hundreds of customers in the course of an hour or so must be very complicated, and one of the important cogs in the machine is “ washing up.” In the domestic scullery, unless particular precautions are taken, hot, hard water and soap are taken, and, by their admixture, produce a shiny scum which is mixed up with the soapy water. This scum and the water itself become loaded with grease during the washing process and the china is removed, carrying on its surface dirty, greasy, soapy water with its complement of soap scum. These are then wiped off with a drying cloth clean at first, but becoming gradually impregnated with grease, soap and scum, with the result that the surface of the china is finally covered with a thin transparent film of these objectionable substances. If the china, after removal from the wash‐bowl and when still wetted with grease‐laden soapy water, were rinsed under the hot tap until all this wash water were removed and replaced by clean hot water, and the china were then allowed to dry of its own accord, it would be chemically free from grease and would require no polishing. It would, moreover, not have to be handled at all. The essential factors of mechanical washing are therefore : (1) A detergent treatment that will emulsify all greasy substances and dislodge adherent food debris. Soap and suitable alkalis are used in this treatment. (2) A rinse treatment using clean hot water that will remove all detergent water from the china. (3) A drying treatment that is spontaneous and is carried out without touching the articles. Thus the production of washed articles entails a machine washer supplied with hot, softened water and suitable detergents; controls of rate of water supply, temperature, injection of detergent and rate of movement of china through the machine are of course all automatic. Treatment is generally in four stages—first a detergent treatment by high pressure jets, then a first and a second rinse treatment again by pressure jets, and finally a last rinse treatment provided by the incoming clean, hot, softened water taken directly from supply. The clean china is now so hot that within a few seconds of its emergence from the machine it is dry. It is then ready for use. It is only within the last century that “ gastronomy ” has been popularised, for the bulk of the population is now catered for with more care than ever before. The presentation of meals has advanced enormously, and the palatability of food has been studied with far more concern than ever before. Palatability, the controlling factor in eating, is a complicated attribute, and includes all those factors which can be considered as appealing to the senses. Sensation‐producing qualiites are odour, flavour, texture, temperature and appearance, appearance including form, design, size and colour. Palatability is no sure guide to food selection—“ Eat what you like and you need have no further concern about your food ”—modern scientific thought has demonstrated the fallacy of such a statement; nevertheless there are more factors of importance than the “ completeness ” of a food. To be informed that a mass of food contained all the necessary factors for proper nutrition has no effect on the gastric secretions, but the odour of a frying steak may make the mouth water : a badly baked meat pic, no matter how nutritious, lacks the appeal of one with the colour properly developed. This catering for masses of people has raised a number of important questions which the chemist has answered in many cases. As in the case of chain‐stores, where the public expects to get the same goods at the same price, be they purchasing in Manchester or Sidmouth, so in the case of chain‐restaurants the public demand the same standard of goods wherever they may happen to be eating. The consequence of this is that the cooking of a potato, the roasting of a joint, the frying of a fillet of fish, the production of a poached egg on toast, have to be standardised, and the chemist has collaborated with the engineer to produce the plant and machinery which will ensure, within reasonable limits, that the public be satisfied in so far as this consideration is concerned. Only a scientist can answer such questions as : for how many hours and under what conditions may a tin of sardines be kept after opening? What is the “ life ” of a meat pic in summer and what in winter? How long can Russian salad prepared under standard conditions be kept? What are the best conditions for the preparation and keeping hot of boiled cabbage : Incidentally the scientist has been forced to give attention to many problems outside the realm proper of food : for example, the standardisation of the crockery and glasses to reduce breakage to a minimum, the question of the colours to be used for the plates and cups and saucers, so that fading by the chemical treatment or by mechanical abrasion in washing or in general use be brought to a minimum. The solution of problems of the service of food in restaurants is not perhaps a spectacular field of work for the scientist, but, in view of the millions of meals served daily in England, its importance can hardly be over‐estimated. Such are some of the impacts of Science on Food. The sketch is naturally incomplete and many aspects have not been mentioned at all. The application of new scientific knowledge to food problems is continually assuming greater importance in the feeding of the people. This does not imply that science is supplanting the art of the chef; it may modify, perhaps simplify, the processes concerned with the preparation of food, but its main function is to interpret the principles on which the art is founded, and to adapt the accumulated knowledge to modern conditions.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1989

B.S.C. Hilkene

A bacteriological survey was conducted on beer glasses from threelicensed premises in South Somerset. A total of 120 glasses wasexamined, 40 from each site. It was…

Abstract

A bacteriological survey was conducted on beer glasses from three licensed premises in South Somerset. A total of 120 glasses was examined, 40 from each site. It was concluded that a need for improvement in hygiene standards in the washing and handling of glasses is required.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 91 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2008

Mehmet Topalbekiroğlu and Hatice Kübra Kaynak

Testing the effect of machine washing and drying on dimensional stability produces information about the fabric types that satisfy consumers during end use. At present, it…

Abstract

Purpose

Testing the effect of machine washing and drying on dimensional stability produces information about the fabric types that satisfy consumers during end use. At present, it is a known fact that the weave patterns affect the dimensional stability property of woven fabrics. But the essential requirement is to determine the magnitude of this effect for weave types and establish the proper weave types for end use in definite tolerances. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dimensional stability properties of 100 percent cotton woven fabrics as a function of weave type.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 12 woven fabrics with different weave derivatives are woven with 100 percent cotton and Ne 30/1 combed ring spun yarn for this investigation. These samples are then washed and dried according to domestic washing and drying standard test procedures. The shrinkage values are measured and then expressed as a percentage of the initial dimensions.

Findings

It was observed that weave pattern has a significant effect on the dimensional behavior of woven fabrics. Weave patterns with a high number of interlacings have lower shrinkage values. At the same time, lower yarn crimp values restricted the fabric shrinkage and resulted in better dimensional stability. According to one way ANOVA results, the effect of weave type on dimensional stability is found to be significant (p<0.01). In addition to these, Pearson correlation analysis showed that there is an important, positive and fair relationship between the number of washing cycles and total shrinkage.

Research limitations/implications

The study covers 100 percent cotton woven fabrics with one type of warp and weft sett. The only finishing treatment applied to the sample fabrics was desizing. No dyeing was carried out.

Originality/value

Understanding the magnitude of the effect of weave type on dimensional stability of cotton woven fabrics produces more knowledge about products which satisfy the customers with respect to dimensional stability during usage.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Ankur Bahl, Anish Sachdeva and Rajiv Kumar Garg

The purpose of this paper is to prepare a methodology to evaluate availability analysis of distillery plant using Petri nets (PN). The effect of various failures, repair…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare a methodology to evaluate availability analysis of distillery plant using Petri nets (PN). The effect of various failures, repair rate and availability of repair facilities on the system has been studied.

Design/methodology/approach

The PN model of a system is developed to study the dynamic behavior of the system under various working conditions. Availability analysis of the plant is presented taking into consideration of failure and repair rates of their subsystems and has been carried out using Monte Carlo simulation.

Findings

The bottle washing machine is the most critical machine from a maintenance point of view which has more compact on the system performance as compared to other machines. The availability analysis of distillery plant helps the management to adopt a suitable maintenance policy to improve upon plant production and plant availability.

Originality/value

The application of this proposed PN-based approach is very useful in finding the most critical subsystem and its effect on the performance of the system in terms of availability and plant production. Further, the advantage of the PN approach is that dynamic behavior of the system under consideration is modeled with graphic representation of the system and given distribution can be associated with the subsystems for analysis. The superiority of this approach over others, such as network, fault tree and Markov analysis, is outlined in the paper.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 35 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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