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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Muhammad Usman and Asmak Ab Rahman

This paper aims to study waqf practice in Pakistan with regard to its utilisation in funding for higher educational institutions (HEIs) and investigates waqf raising, waqf

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study waqf practice in Pakistan with regard to its utilisation in funding for higher educational institutions (HEIs) and investigates waqf raising, waqf management and waqf income utilisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the views of 11 participants who are actively involved in the waqf, its raising, management and income utilisation, and is divided into three subcategories: personnel of higher educational waqf institution, personnel of waqf regulatory bodies and Shari’ah and legal experts as well as archival records, documents and library sources.

Findings

In Pakistan, both public and private awqaf are existing, but the role of private awqaf is greater in higher education funding. However, due to lack of legal supervision private awqaf is considered as a part of the not-for-profit sector and legitimately registered as a society, foundation, trust or a private limited company. Waqf in Pakistan is more focusing on internal financial sources and waqf income. In terms of waqf management, they have firm guidelines for investing in real estate, the Islamic financial sector and various halal businesses. Waqf uses the income for developmental and operational expenditure, and supports academic activities for students and staff. Waqfs are also supporting some other HEIs and research agencies. Thus, it can be revealed that a waqf can cater a sufficient amount for funding higher educational institutions.

Research limitations/implications

In Pakistan, both public and private awqaf are equally serving society in different sectors, but the role of private awqaf is much greater in funding higher education. Nevertheless, the government treats private awqaf as a part of not-for-profit sector in the absence of a specific legal framework and registers such organisations as society, foundation, trust or private limited company. The waqf in Pakistan mostly relies on internal financial resources and income from waqf assets. As the waqf managers have over the time evolved firm guidelines for investment in real estate, Islamic financial sector and various other halal businesses, and utilisation of waqf income on developmental and operational expenditures, academic activities of students and educational staff, other HEIs and research agencies, it can be proved that the waqf can potentially generate sufficient amount for funding HEIs.

Practical implications

The study presents the waqf as a social finance institution and the best alternative fiscal instrument for funding works of public good, including higher education, with the help of three selected waqf cases. Hence, the paper’s findings offer some generalisations, both for the ummah at large and Pakistan.

Social implications

The paper makes several policy recommendations for policymakers, legislators and academicians, especially the government. As an Islamic social finance institution, the waqf can help finance higher education anywhere around the world in view of the fact that most countries grapple with huge fiscal deficits and are hence financially constrained to meet growing needs of HEIs.

Originality/value

The study confirms that the waqf can be an alternative source for funding higher education institutions whether it is managed by the government or is privately controlled.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Anna Che Azmi and Mohamed Hisham Hanifa

– This study aims to examine whether the financial reporting practices of organisations managing waqf (Islamic endowed trust funds) are Sharia-compliant.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether the financial reporting practices of organisations managing waqf (Islamic endowed trust funds) are Sharia-compliant.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports on a case study of two Islamic-based organisations that manage waqf. The financial statements of these organisations are analysed using content analysis to assess their compliance with the Accounting and Auditing Organisation for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) Sharia Standard No. 33 (SS 33) on waqf.

Findings

The authors found that both Islamic-based organisations use different sets of accounting procedures and practices, but that these accounting practices do not contradict the Sharia requirements prescribed in the SS 33 on waqf. However, the SS 33 on waqf requires that waqf funds to be utilised as stipulated by the waqif (donor) and that the accounting practices of both organisations do not adequately address this disclosure requirement. This study also found that the existing accounting practices adopted by organisations that manage waqf need to incorporate more disclosure on their Sharia-based financing and their investment of waqf funds.

Research limitations/implications

This study found that the AAOIFI’s SS33 on waqf is a useful guide for identifying the gap between Sharia principles and conventional financial reporting practices for non-profit organisations, and that there are aspects of Sharia-based disclosure practices that are not adequately implemented in financial reporting practices of institutions managing waqf.

Practical implications

This study proposes two essential Sharia-based disclosure practices for Islamic-based organisations that manage Islamic-based funds such as waqf. These two aspects are the disclosure on whether waqf funds are adequately utilised as stipulated by the waqif (donor) and what modifications to their existing financial reporting of their Sharia-based financing and investments are required to comply with the unique nature of waqf.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study how Sharia principles can be incorporated into the financial reporting practices of organisations that manage Islamic-based funds such as waqf.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Siti Mashitoh Mahamood and Asmak Ab Rahman

The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of waqf in financing higher education. Nowadays, higher education is costly and this has prevented students…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of waqf in financing higher education. Nowadays, higher education is costly and this has prevented students, especially those who are self-financed, from accessing such learning environments. This paper offer an alternative solution to relieve such a situation, namely, through the application of an endowment-based or waqf educational institution. The study suggests a way to establish an endowment university by concentrating the discussion on the concept and principles of its establishment, as well as sharing the experiences of the Malaysian waqf universities and the Turkish Foundation Universities/Vakif Üniversitesi in financing their universities using waqf, i.e. a pious endowment instrument.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical data were mainly collected using in-depth interviews with the universities’ higher management authorities and some of the members of the board of trustees.

Findings

The findings show that the role of waqf or pious endowment is significant in providing financial assistance to their communities as well as strengthening their academic quality. In addition, tawhidic epistemology together with morality and ethics have influenced waqf donors or founders to donate their wealth and property to enrich and sustain universities and higher education.

Originality/value

This article provides the experiences of the Malaysian Waqf Universities and the Turkish Foundation Universities/Vakif Üniversitesi in financing their universities using waqf. It also contains some good examples from the experience of several earlier Islamic civilizations, in particular those of the Ottoman Empire and the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. In addition, examples of the implementation of waqf and endowment-based universities in the UK and USA as well as the Al-Azhar University of Egypt is also included.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2019

Maliah Sulaiman and Muntaka Alhaji Zakari

This paper aims to measure the financial sustainability and vulnerability of state-managed waqf institutions in Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to measure the financial sustainability and vulnerability of state-managed waqf institutions in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study mainly applied the commonly used Tuckman and Chang’s (1991) model to measure the financial health of non-profits. Content and ratio analysis of the 2014 audited reports of seven institutions were used to determine their equity balance, revenue concentration, administrative costs and operating margin ratios.

Findings

The results indicate that only one waqf institution was financially sustainable in all the four components.

Research limitations/implications

Because the data used are not the latest and focussed only on a single year, the findings may not be necessarily true, currently. Second, the study focussed only on Malaysia. Thus, the results may not be generalisable to other waqfs in other countries or to privately managed waqf institutions. Accordingly, future research should address these limitations.

Practical implications

The findings provide useful insights into the financial sustainability of waqf institutions and highlight the need for policymakers in Malaysia and other Muslim countries to give due attention to the holistic accountability of waqf institutions to ensure waqf’s systematic revival.

Originality/value

The paper, being the first to investigate the financial sustainability and vulnerability of state waqf institutions in Malaysia, serves as a reference for future researchers.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Mohamed Al Amine Sano and Salina Kassim

The purpose of this paper is to seek to establish an effective governance framework for waqf (Islamic endowment) in the Republic of Guinea that would assist in enhancing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek to establish an effective governance framework for waqf (Islamic endowment) in the Republic of Guinea that would assist in enhancing socio-economic activities and eradicating poverty in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

It examines key governing features within the said country’s waqf legal framework and undertakes a comparison with other countries’ legal frameworks. This paper also examines waqf-related legal references of Guinea and other countries and analyses relevant online sources such as journal articles, research papers, webpages as well as informal discussions with persons informed on the subject matter within and without the Republic of Guinea.

Findings

This paper identifies a number of prevailing issues affecting the development of the institution of waqf in the Republic of Guinea and, thereafter, proposes key reformatory measures. These include the passing of general codified legislation that comprehensively governs waqf affairs in the country and the setting up of a dedicated supervisory entity and competent managerial bodies to ensure the smooth and effective operation of the institution in the country.

Originality/value

This research proposes an innovative and befitting governance framework for waqf operations in the Republic of Guinea. These recommendations, if correctly adopted, would ensure the viability and efficacy of the institution of waqf in the Republic of Guinea and would lead to socio-economic development, as has been the case in other nations. Moreover, other countries with underdeveloped waqf governance systems could also model their waqf operations based on these recommendations, as they are most likely already encountering or going to encounter identical issues in this particular field.

Details

ISRA International Journal of Islamic Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0128-1976

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2017

Malik Shahzad Shabbir

The aim of this paper is to study the current status and development of waqf lands in Malaysia, specifically in the state of Selangor, Malaysia and propose a new model for…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to study the current status and development of waqf lands in Malaysia, specifically in the state of Selangor, Malaysia and propose a new model for categorisation of its waqf lands. Previous studies on waqf lands and allocation of financial resources on these lands have been general and scanty.

Design/methodology/approach

They lack the focus of categorising waqf lands according to sectors, economic attributes and strategic locations so that it was not easy to match these lands to the kind of resources and investment models required for their development. The present research is carried out to categorise waqf lands and prioritise them according to four major sectors, namely agriculture, commercial, residential and religious

Findings

The study is quantitative in nature and uses a multi criteria decision-making method, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to prioritise the waqf lands by taking inputs from the officers working in Selangor Islamic Religious Council and some other related organisations. The study concludes with recommendations and suggestions for future research.

Originality/value

I have proposed a new model for the categorisation of waqf lands. Previous studies on waqf lands and its allocation of financial resources have been general and revealing. The present research is carried out to categorise waqf lands and prioritise them according to four major sectors, namely agriculture, commercial, residential and religious.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2018

Azniza Hartini Azrai Azaimi Ambrose, Mohamed Aslam Gulam Hassan and Hanira Hanafi

The purpose of this paper is to formulate a model for waqf financing of public goods and mixed public goods in Malaysia which constitute the country’s federal government…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to formulate a model for waqf financing of public goods and mixed public goods in Malaysia which constitute the country’s federal government expenditures. The model is built on the basis of understanding the concept of waqf, learning from waqf institutions of the past and present and addressing specific Malaysian waqf issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses both primary and secondary data. The primary data originate from semi-structured interviews of waqf academicians from the Islamic economics and Islamic finance fields, waqf government officials and private sector institutions that are involved in waqf management. The secondary data come from the Malaysian Federal Constitution, law enactments, books, e-books, bulletins, journals, conference proceedings, government reports and websites.

Findings

By synthesizing the data, it is found that return from cash waqf investment in unit trust can be used to finance 11 items of federal government expenditures. The overall process can be managed by Yayasan Waqaf Malaysia through a collaboration with an Islamic unit trust firm.

Practical implications

This research shows how waqf can practically assist the Malaysian federal government in financing public goods and mixed public goods. It indirectly shows an alternative source of financing for these goods. Other economies can also learn and adapt from the model developed in this paper.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to revive the function of waqf as a provider of public goods and mixed public goods from Islamic history. Inadvertently, this paper also introduces waqf as a possible fiscal tool.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Nazrul Hazizi Noordin, Siti Nurah Haron and Salina Kassim

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on management of waqf institutions by developing a contingency framework and outlining approaches that can be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on management of waqf institutions by developing a contingency framework and outlining approaches that can be followed to instigate a comprehensive performance measurement system (PMS).

Design/methodology/approach

It conducts a thorough and critical review of the literature on relevant performance measurement literature of third sector organizations and waqf institutions.

Findings

The findings suggest that an effective PMS is undoubtedly significant in promoting good governance and ethical management of waqf institutions. However, the current practice of performance measurement in waqf institutions is less standardized and does not cover its entire aspects of performance as a religious as well as a voluntary organization. It is also found that most waqf institutions’ management and researchers primarily rely on financial reporting and economic indicators to report to the stakeholders about the performance of waqf institutions.

Practical implications

The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, the authors develop a contingency framework for assessing performance of waqf institutions. Second, the authors outline eight necessary steps that can serve as guidelines for waqf institutions in designing their own comprehensive PMS.

Originality/value

The novelty of this paper lies in highlighting the feasibility of adopting qualitative approaches by waqf institutions. This study hopes to shed light on a standard measurement system that can be adopted by the waqf institutions to ensure efficiency and sustainability of the waqf institutions, not just in Malaysia but in the Muslim world.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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