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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Wanxia Zhao and Yonghua Zou

This study aims to examine the cross-institutional variation in university greenness and analyze its underlying dynamics.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the cross-institutional variation in university greenness and analyze its underlying dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

This study constructs a University Greenness Index (UGI) and conducts multivariate regression.

Findings

This study finds variation within two dimensions; in the vertical dimension, top-tier universities have significantly higher UGIs than tier-2 universities, and in the horizontal dimension, agricultural and forest, engineering and technology and generalist universities have significantly higher UGIs than other specialist universities. The dynamics underlying the greenness variation lies in different universities’ motivations and resources, which are associated with China’s higher education administrative system, especially the mechanism by which funding is allocated.

Research limitations/implications

The Internet-search-based greenness index has some inherent limitations. First, there exists a gap between green information expression and real green achievement. Second, this research may be difficult to apply to other countries, because of the specific characteristics of China’s higher education system.

Practical implications

Based on the empirical results, two policy implications can be generated. First, for the problem of the vertical dimension variation, related institutional transformation should be launched to promote university greenness. Second, for the problem of the horizon dimension variation, specialist universities can take advantage of an interdisciplinary approach to promote greenness.

Originality/value

This research helps scholars and administrators to better understand the progress being made and the achievements realized with regard to green university initiatives in China.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Wanxia Zhao and Yonghua Zou

The purpose of this paper is to examine green university initiatives in the context of China, using Tsinghua University, which is China’s green university pioneer, as a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine green university initiatives in the context of China, using Tsinghua University, which is China’s green university pioneer, as a case study.

Design/methodology/approach

The research method used for this paper is a case study based on participant observation and document analysis. The approach to data collection includes the examination of archive records, yearbooks and statistical information regarding Tsinghua University.

Findings

This paper finds that Tsinghua’s green university initiative is a response to Tsinghua’s strategy of establishing a word-class university, with a goal of bearing more responsibility in promoting a sustainable society. Tsinghua employs one principle (green university) and three dimensions (green education, green research and green campus) to frame its green university initiative. Tsinghua’s green university initiative has earned many achievements, but it has also faced many challenges, such as ignoring social justice, fragmented coordination efforts and the lack of effective communication and assessment mechanisms.

Practical implications

As a leading university and the pioneering green university in the country, Tsinghua University is very influential with regard to the development of green universities in China. Many other universities have designed their own programs based on Tsinghua’s experiences in the green university initiative. As such, Tsinghua’s experiences provide reference values to other universities in China.

Originality/value

This paper comprehensively examines the evolution, framework, achievements and challenges of the green university initiative of Tsinghua University. It helps the audience to know how China’s universities understand and practice education for sustainable development.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2010

Heidi Ross, Ran Zhang and Wanxia Zhao

This chapter examines the changing state–university–student relationships in post/socialist China since the late 1980s. We begin with an introduction to four salient…

Abstract

This chapter examines the changing state–university–student relationships in post/socialist China since the late 1980s. We begin with an introduction to four salient themes in scholarship on Chinese post/socialism that are highly relevant to higher education: globalization, gradualism, civic society, and a critique of holism. These themes help us explain interrelated educational trends that affect the state–university–student relationship: the globalization, “massification,” and stratification of higher education; the redefined role of the state in university governance and management; higher education marketization and privatization; and the quest for meaning and (e)quality in and through higher education. Our general argument is that during the “socialist” period the main relationship central to higher learning was between the state and students. Universities were agents of the state; from a legal point of view, indeed, universities did not have an independent status from the state. In the “post-socialist” era the university–student relationship has become more significant. We examine this reconfiguration through two case studies, one on the development of college student grievance and rights consciousness, and the other on reforms in higher education student services administration. When looked at from the point of view of the state, we see that appropriation and implementation of policies and regulations shaping student rights and services are in partial contradiction with state policies to accelerate economic growth and bolster party authority. From the point of view of universities, we see institutions grappling with how to deliver on forward-looking structures and actions while navigating between the state's policy mandates and growing expectations and demands of its student and business stakeholders. From the point of view of students, we see how constrained agency, uncertainty, and the power of the credential motivates social praxis. At all levels of the state–institution–student relationship actors are employing a kind of pragmatic improvisation (one of the salient features of post/socialism) captured by the well-known Chinese proverb “groping for stones to cross the river.” This saying is an apt metaphor for the tentative searching by state, institution, and individual for a safe foothold in the post/socialist world.

Details

Post-Socialism is not Dead: (Re)Reading the Global in Comparative Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-418-5

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2010

Abstract

Details

Post-Socialism is not Dead: (Re)Reading the Global in Comparative Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-418-5

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2010

Olga Bain teaches at the Graduate School of Education and Human Development at George Washington University, Washington, DC. Her research interests include educational…

Abstract

Olga Bain teaches at the Graduate School of Education and Human Development at George Washington University, Washington, DC. Her research interests include educational policies in post-socialist countries, internationalization and globalization of higher education, faculty productivity and women's advancement in academia, and higher education financing. Olga Bain has consulted for the American Council on Education, the Academy of Educational Development, the International Research and Exchanges Board, the Council of Europe, the Salzburg Seminar, and others. She authored the book University Autonomy in the Russian Federation since Perestroika (2003, RoutledgeFalmer) as well as book chapters and articles in peer-reviewed journals. She holds a Ph.D. degree in social foundations of education, comparative and higher education from the University at Buffalo, NY, and a candidate of sciences degree in sociolinguistics from St. Petersburg University, Russia.

Details

Post-Socialism is not Dead: (Re)Reading the Global in Comparative Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-418-5

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2010

Iveta Silova

The study of (post)socialism has always had a complicated relationship with comparative education. Tracing the changing emphases of research on (post)socialism during and…

Abstract

The study of (post)socialism has always had a complicated relationship with comparative education. Tracing the changing emphases of research on (post)socialism during and after the Cold War, this chapter highlights how (post)socialist studies moved from being highly politicized during the Cold War, to becoming subsumed by convergence and modernization theories after the collapse of the socialist bloc, to reemerging as a part of broader “post” philosophies reflecting the uncertainties and contradictions of social life. This chapter proposes to treat post-socialism not only as a geographic area, but also as a conceptual category that allows us to engage in theorizing divergence, difference, and uncertainty in the context of globalization. It is a space from which we can further complicate (not clarify) our understanding of ongoing reconfigurations of educational spaces in a global context, and ultimately challenge the evolutionary scheme of thought and established concepts of Western modernity. For comparative education and social theory more broadly, post-socialism can thus become a challenge (or an agenda) for future debates – whether theoretical or methodological – about global processes and their multiple effects on education and societies today, in the past, and in the future.

Details

Post-Socialism is not Dead: (Re)Reading the Global in Comparative Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-418-5

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Changjun Zheng, Tinghua Xu and Wanxia Liang

In order to improve banks' ability to fight against risks, China's financial regulatory authorities refer to the Basel Accord, and bank capital adequacy ratio is taken as…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to improve banks' ability to fight against risks, China's financial regulatory authorities refer to the Basel Accord, and bank capital adequacy ratio is taken as an important means of control. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the internal mechanism between capital buffers and risk adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the dynamic characteristics of a bank's continuing operations, the authors established an unbalanced panel of China's commercial bank balance‐sheet data from 1991 to 2009 and used the Generalized Method of Moments to examine the relationship between short‐term capital buffer and portfolio risk adjustments.

Findings

The authors' estimations show that the relationship between capital and risk adjustments for well capitalized banks is positive, indicating that they maintain their target level of capital by increasing (decreasing) risk when capital increases (decreases). In contrast, for banks with capital buffers approaching the minimum capital requirement, the relationship between adjustments in capital and risk is negative. That is, low capital banks either increase their buffers by reducing their risk, or gamble for resurrection by taking more risk as a means to rebuild the buffer. Moreover, the authors' estimations show that the management of short‐term adjustments in capital and risk is dependent on the size of the capital buffer.

Research limitations/implications

From the current research documents, there are few empirical researches on capital buffers and risk adjustment, and the research sample time limits of current papers are a little earlier. The researches did not reflect China's commercial banks' capital buffer and risk adjustment after the new Basel Accord.

Practical implications

Banks' adjustment speed of target level depends on the size of capital buffer, proving that the speed of adjusting capital buffer of banks with smaller capital buffer is significantly faster than their counterparts with larger capital buffers.

Originality/value

The paper uses the dynamic feature of banks' lasting operations as the logical starting point, which is ignored by the current researches, and investigates the internal mechanism between capital buffers and risk adjustment.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

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