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Poor bending response is a major shortcoming of lower-order elements due to excessive representation of shear stress/strain field. Advanced finite element (FE…
Poor bending response is a major shortcoming of lower-order elements due to excessive representation of shear stress/strain field. Advanced finite element (FE) formulations for classical elasticity enhance the bending response by either nullifying or filtering some of the symmetric shear stress/strain modes. Nevertheless, the stress/strain field in Cosserat elasticity is asymmetric; consequently any attempt to nullify or filter the anti-symmetric shear stress/strain modes may lead to failure in the constant couple-stress patch test where the anti-symmetric shear stress/strain field is linear. This paper aims at enhancing the bending response of lower-order elements for Cosserat elasticity problems.
A four-node quadrilateral and an eight-node hexahedron are formulated by hybrid-stress approach. The symmetric stress is assumed as those of Pian and Sumihara and Pian and Tong. The anti-symmetric stress components are first assumed to be completely linear in order to pass the constant couple-stress patch test. The linear modes are then constrained with respect to the prescribed body-couple via the equilibrium conditions.
Numerical tests show that the hybrid elements can strictly pass the constant couple-stress patch test and are markedly more accurate than the conventional elements as well as the incompatible elements for bending problems in Cosserat elasticity.
This paper proposes a hybrid FE formulation to improve the bending response of four-node quadrilateral and eight-node hexahedral elements for Cosserat elasticity problems without compromising the constant couple-stress patch test.
The purpose of this paper is to concern the community festival of a Jing minority village in the China–Vietnam border area. Since it was designated as a national-level…
The purpose of this paper is to concern the community festival of a Jing minority village in the China–Vietnam border area. Since it was designated as a national-level Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2006, the festival has undergone many changes. The festival has steadily expanded and evolved, assuming characteristics of globalization. How is the globalized character of the Wanwei festival manifested? What are the forces behind the elevation of this local festival onto the register of national events and how did it turn into an event organized by the township?
The paper is based on the results of the author’s research on the culture of Kinh people in Wanwei from 2000 to the present. From the anthropological approach, the author mainly uses method of participant observation and in-depth interviews. The author has observed the Wanwei communal festival from 2000 to the present, interviewing about 40 villagers in Wanwei in depth, they can be leaders, intellectuals, civil servants, officials or working people.
The paper is a case study of the new aspect of globalization of a village festival. The author argues that globalization can lead to a spread of global flows but in this process of globalization, villagers also want to define the local identity, they reinvent the tradition, rewrite history, create new nuances for the gods with many different purposes. Practicing the current Wanwei village festival is a vivid example of globalization from below and the politics of tradition.
The paper adds a theoretical dimension to current globalization research. The paper also points out the political, economic and social dynamics that govern the transformation of a village festival in particular and the village culture in general in the border areas. The paper is a testament to the dynamism and flexibility of villagers when participating in the current globalization process.