Search results

1 – 10 of over 6000
Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Qinjie Yang, Guozhe Shen, Chao Liu, Zheng Wang, Kai Zheng and Rencheng Zheng

Steer-by-wire (SBW) system mainly relies on sensors, controllers and motors to replace the traditionally mechanical transmission mechanism to realize steering functions…

Abstract

Purpose

Steer-by-wire (SBW) system mainly relies on sensors, controllers and motors to replace the traditionally mechanical transmission mechanism to realize steering functions. However, the sensors in the SBW system are particularly vulnerable to external influences, which can cause systemic faults, leading to poor steering performance and even system instability. Therefore, this paper aims to adopt a fault-tolerant control method to solve the safety problem of the SBW system caused by sensors failure.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control framework to deal with sensors failure in the SBW system by hierarchically introducing fault observer, fault estimator, fault reconstructor. Firstly, the fault observer is used to obtain the observation output of the SBW system and then obtain the residual between the observation output and the SBW system output. And then judge whether the SBW system fails according to the residual. Secondly, dependent on the residual obtained by the fault observer, a fault estimator is designed using bounded real lemma and regional pole configuration to estimate the amplitude and time-varying characteristics of the faulty sensor. Eventually, a fault reconstructor is designed based on the estimation value of sensors fault obtained by the fault estimator and SBW system output to tolerate the faulty sensor.

Findings

The numerical analysis shows that the fault observer can be rapidly activated to detect the fault while the sensors fault occurs. Moreover, the estimation accuracy of the fault estimator can reach to 98%, and the fault reconstructor can make the faulty SBW system to retain the steering characteristics, comparing to those of the fault-free SBW system. In addition, it was verified for the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control framework.

Research limitations/implications

As the SBW fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control in this paper only carry out numerical simulation research on sensors faults in matrix and laboratory/Simulink, the subsequent hardware in the loop test is needed for further verification.

Originality/value

Aiming at the SBW system with parameter perturbation and sensors failure, this paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control framework, which integrates fault observer, fault estimator and fault reconstructor so that the steering performance of SBW system with sensors faults is basically consistent with that of the fault-free SBW system.

Details

Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-9802

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Lijuan Zheng, Chengyong Wang, Xin Zhang, Xin Huang, Yuexian Song, Kefeng Wang and Lunqiang Zhang

Micro-holes are drilled and plated in flexible printed circuit boards (FPCs) for connecting circuits from different layers. More holes, with diameters smaller than 0.3 mm…

Abstract

Purpose

Micro-holes are drilled and plated in flexible printed circuit boards (FPCs) for connecting circuits from different layers. More holes, with diameters smaller than 0.3 mm, are required to be drilled in smaller areas with flexible circuits’ miniaturization. The micro-hole quality of micro-drilling is one of the biggest issues of the flexible circuit manufacturers’ production. However, it is not easy to control the quality of micro-holes. The purpose of this study was to conduct research on the tool wear characteristics of FPC drilling process and its influence on micro-hole quality to improve the micro-hole quality of FPC.

Design/methodology/approach

The tool-wear characteristics of micro-drills after FPC drilling were observed. The influence of spindle speed, feed rate, number of drilled holes and entry board materials on tool-wear was analyzed. The hole qualities of FPC micro-drilling were measured and observed. The relationship between tool-wear and hole quality was analyzed.

Findings

The result showed that the tool-wear characteristics of FPC micro-drilling was similar to the tool-wear characteristics of rigid printed circuit board (RPC) micro-drilling. Abrasive wear occurred on both the main cutting edges and the chisel edges of micro-drills, even though there was no glass fiber reinforcing the cloth inside FPC. Resin adhesion was observed on the chisel edge. The influence of feed and number of drilled holes on tool-wear was significant. Tool-wear significantly influences the hole quality of FPC. Tool-wear will largely decrease the hole position accuracy of FPC micro-holes. Tool-wear will increase the thickness of PI nail heads and the height of exit burrs. Fracture was the main difference between tool wear of FPC and RPC micro-drilling. Resin adhesion of RPC was much more severe than FPC micro-drilling. Increasing the spindle speed properly may improve tool life and hole quality.

Originality/value

The technology and manufacturing of FPC has been little investigated. Research on micro-drilling FPC and research data is lacking so far. The micro-hole quality directly affects the reliability of FPC. Thus, improving the micro-hole quality of FPC is very important.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 December 2019

Wei Xue, Rencheng Zheng, Bo Yang, Zheng Wang, Tsutomu Kaizuka and Kimihiko Nakano

Automated driving systems (ADSs) are being developed to avoid human error and improve driving safety. However, limited focus has been given to the fallback behavior of…

Abstract

Purpose

Automated driving systems (ADSs) are being developed to avoid human error and improve driving safety. However, limited focus has been given to the fallback behavior of automated vehicles, which act as a fail-safe mechanism to deal with safety issues resulting from sensor failure. Therefore, this study aims to establish a fallback control approach aimed at driving an automated vehicle to a safe parking lane under perceptive sensor malfunction.

Design/methodology/approach

Owing to an undetected area resulting from a front sensor malfunction, the proposed ADS first creates virtual vehicles to replace existing vehicles in the undetected area. Afterward, the virtual vehicles are assumed to perform the most hazardous driving behavior toward the host vehicle; an adaptive model predictive control algorithm is then presented to optimize the control task during the fallback procedure, avoiding potential collisions with surrounding vehicles. This fallback approach was tested in typical cases related to car-following and lane changes.

Findings

It is confirmed that the host vehicle avoid collision with the surrounding vehicles during the fallback procedure, revealing that the proposed method is effective for the test scenarios.

Originality/value

This study presents a model for the path-planning problem regarding an automated vehicle under perceptive sensor failure, and it proposes an original path-planning approach based on virtual vehicle scheme to improve the safety of an automated vehicle during a fallback procedure. This proposal gives a different view on the fallback safety problem from the normal strategy, in which the mode is switched to manual if a driver is available or the vehicle is instantly stopped.

Details

Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-9802

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Zhiyuan Li, Lijuan Zheng, Chengyong Wang, Xin Huang and Jiechi Xie

The flexible printed circuit (FPC) board with the characteristic of light and thin strengthened confronted the growing miniaturization requirements of the electronic…

Abstract

Purpose

The flexible printed circuit (FPC) board with the characteristic of light and thin strengthened confronted the growing miniaturization requirements of the electronic product and the popularity of wearable devices. The reliability of circuit could be influenced by the hole quality of FPC, such as burrs, which is one of the major problem in FPC.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, micro-drill with a diameter of 0.1 mm was used to drill the double-sided flexible copper clad laminate. The thrust force, the burr and tool wear were investigated. The influencing factors of the height of the burrs were studied. The relationship between the thrust force and the height of the burrs was also explored. Finally, the formation mechanism of burrs was analyzed.

Findings

The entrance burrs were usually less than the exit burrs. The burr height increased with the feed per rotation. The height of the burr increased with the increase of the thrust force for the plastic deformation of the copper foil was dominant. The abrasion of the drill gave rise to increase the height of burr. In micro-hole drilling, the growth of burrs can be suppressed effectively by reducing the clearance between the FPC and the backup plate. The thrust force would be controlled in a certain range to reduce the burr with specific drilling parameters. There existed a certain relationship of Gaussian distribution between the height of the burrs and the thrust force of FPC.

Originality/value

The reliability of the integrated circuit was directly affected by the burrs of the FPC. This research on the formation mechanism of FPC burrs and forecast of burr height provided a firm foundation for further work in the area of improvement of the micro-hole quality.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Yi Sun, Chengjin Xu, Hailing Zhang and Zheng Wang

Climate change will have a significant impact on China’s potential agricultural production and change the distribution of the population in various regions of China, thus…

Abstract

Purpose

Climate change will have a significant impact on China’s potential agricultural production and change the distribution of the population in various regions of China, thus producing population migration. This paper aims to analyze China’s population migration in response to climate change and its socio-economic impact.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the Potential Agriculture Production Index is introduced as an analytical tool with which to estimate the scale of the population migration induced by climate change. Also, this paper constructs a multi-regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and analyzes the effect of change in the population distribution pattern on regional economies, regional disparity and resident welfare.

Findings

The key finding of this paper is that, as a result of changes in potential agricultural production induced by climate change, the Circum-Bohai-Sea region, the industrialized region and the industrializing region, which are the main destination regions of the migrating population, will face a severe labor shortage. In response to population migration, the economic growth rate of the immigrating population regions has accelerated. Correspondingly, the economic growth rate of the emigrating population regions has decreased. In addition, the larger the scale of population migration is, the larger the economic impact is. Migration increases inner-regional disparity and decreases inter-regional disparity. However, overall regional disparity is only somewhat decreased.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a Potential Agriculture Production Index to estimate the scale of the population migration and introduce a multi-regional CGE model to analyze the correlated social-economic impacts.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 9 no. 03
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Lijuan Zheng, Chengyong Wang, Xin Zhang, Yuexian Song, Lunqiang Zhang and Kefeng Wang

The purpose of this study is to present the entry drilling process of flexible printed circuit board (FPCs) and its influence on hole quality, especially hole location…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present the entry drilling process of flexible printed circuit board (FPCs) and its influence on hole quality, especially hole location accuracy. Compared with the traditional PCB drilling process, the technology of drilling FPCs is facing more problems, such as hole location accuracy, smear on the hole wall surface, burned hole wall surface, etc. Moreover, the materials of FPCs are quite different from the rigid printed circuit boards (RPCs). FPCs no longer contain glass fiber cloths to reinforce resin, resulting in flexibility. Micro-hole quality is the most important issue in FPC drilling. Suggestions were given to obtain higher hole qualities and higher FPC reliability.

Design/methodology/approach

The entry drilling process of FPC with different kind of entry boards was observed by a high-speed camera. The hole qualities of FPC micro-drilling, especially hole location accuracy and hole entrance quality, were measured. The relationship between entry boards and hole quality was analyzed.

Findings

Significant sliding occurred when drilling FPC with using no-entry board or pure aluminum plate entry board. On the contrary, no significant sliding occurred when using LC-110 or resin-coated aluminum foil (MVC) entry boards. The type, thickness and use-pattern of entry boards influenced hole location accuracy of FPCs seriously. In addition, entry board also influenced the micro-hole entrance quality and micro-hole diameter. The entrance quality of drilling FPC with LC-110 entry board was the best. The diameter variation of drilling FPC with MVC entry board was the smallest. The hole location accuracy decreased as the thickness of entry board increased. Thus, the best use-pattern of entry board was putting a LC-110 under MVC entry board, resulting in best entrance quality and hole location accuracy.

Originality/value

The technology and manufacturing of FPCs in China are obviously behind. Research of FPCs micro-drilling and research data are lacking so far. Thus, it is most necessary to improve the technology level of FPCs micro-drilling in China. Researches on hole quality, especially hole location accuracy of FPCs drilling, were performed in this paper. Suggestions were given to obtain higher hole quality of FPCs.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Shan Li, Li Juan Zheng, Cheng Yong Wang, Bing Miao Liao and Lianyu Fu

In an integrated circuit (IC) substrate, more fillers, including talcum powder and aluminium hydroxide, are added, which leads to much higher rigidity and hardness…

Abstract

Purpose

In an integrated circuit (IC) substrate, more fillers, including talcum powder and aluminium hydroxide, are added, which leads to much higher rigidity and hardness compared with a traditional printed circuit board. However, the micro drilling of IC substrates is harder. This paper aims to test the drilling process of IC substrates to improve the drilling process and the micro hole quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Substrate drilling by a micro drill with 0.11-mm diameter was used under several drilling conditions. The influence of drilling conditions on the drilling process was observed. Drilling forces, drill wear and micro hole quality were also studied.

Findings

The deformation circle around holes, hole location accuracy, bugle hole and burrs were the major defects of micro holes that were observed during the drilling of the substrate. Reducing the drilling force and drill wear was the effective way to improve hole quality.

Originality/value

The technology and manufacturing of IC substrates has been little investigated. Research data on drilling IC substrates is lacking. The micro hole quality directly affects the reliability of IC substrates. Thus, improving the drilling technology of IC substrates is very important.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Viju Subramoniapillai and Govindharajan Thilagavathi

In recent years, oil spill pollution has become one of the main problems of environmental pollution. Recovering oil by means of sorbent materials is a very promising…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, oil spill pollution has become one of the main problems of environmental pollution. Recovering oil by means of sorbent materials is a very promising approach and has acquired more attention due to its high cleanup efficiency. Compared to synthetic fibrous sorbents, the use of natural fibers in oil spill cleanups offers several advantages including environmental friendliness, degradable features and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, studies on developing sorbents using natural fibers for oil spill cleanup applications have become a research hotspot.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews the work conducted by several researchers in developing oil sorbents from fibers such as cattail, nettle, cotton, milkweed, kapok, populous seed fiber and Metaplexis japonica fiber. Some featured critical parameters influencing the oil sorption capacity of fibrous substrates are discussed. Oil sorption capacity and reusability performance of various fibers are also discussed. Recent developments in oil spill cleanups and test methods for oil sorbents are briefly covered.

Findings

The main parameters influencing the oil sorption capacity of sorbents are fiber morphological structure, fiber density (g/cc), wax (%), hollowness (%) and water contact angle. An extensive literature review showed that oil sorption capacity is highest for Metaplexis japonica fiber followed by populous seed fiber, kapok, milkweed, cotton, nettle and cattail fiber. After use, the sorbents can be buried under soil or they can also be burned so that they can be vanished from the surface without causing environmental-related issues.

Originality/value

This review paper aims to summarize research studies conducted related to various natural fibers for oil spill cleanups, fiber structural characteristics influencing oil sorption and recent developments in oil spill cleanups. This work will inspire future researchers with various knowledge backgrounds, particularly, from a sustainability perspective.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Abstract

Details

Application of Big Data and Business Analytics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-884-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Juanping Xu, Jinxu Li, Zheng Wang, Hao Fu and Ming Wu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the soft annealing time on the microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of Fe-0.22C-11.54Mn-2.05Al steels.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the soft annealing time on the microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of Fe-0.22C-11.54Mn-2.05Al steels.

Design/methodology/approach

Steels A and B with different morphologies were prepared by cold rolling after warm rolling, long/short softening annealing and finally annealing at 700 °C for 30 min. Uncharged and charged samples were subjected to tensile, and HE behavior was studied by electron backscattered diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

Findings

The two samples exhibited similar tensile strengths. The homogeneous equiaxed microstructure of steel B was found to be more conducive to relieve its HE sensitivity. Steel A exhibited bimodal-grained microstructures – blocky and lath. The formation of crack in the blocky grains of steel A resulted in a significant reduction in its plasticity and tensile strength.

Originality/value

The high HE susceptibility of steel A is mainly connected with the inhomogeneity of martensite transformation.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 68 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 6000