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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Arun Chandrasekhar, Eric Beyne, Walter De Raedt, Bart Nauwelaers and Tania Van Bever

This paper highlights the electrical behaviour of the interconnects on a 120‐pin Ball Grid Array (BGA) package from 500 MHz upto 8 GHz. The measurements are made using IMEC's…

Abstract

This paper highlights the electrical behaviour of the interconnects on a 120‐pin Ball Grid Array (BGA) package from 500 MHz upto 8 GHz. The measurements are made using IMEC's MCM‐D thin film technology as the substrate and with a test set‐up called MoPoM (MCM‐on‐Package‐on‐MCM). The interconnects are classified based on length and measured with adjacent interconnects grounded as well as floating. Circuit models are extracted from the measurement and the simulation respectively for an RF interconnect including the wirebond. Comparison of the circuit models with each other and with the measurement show agreement atleast upto 6 GHz. One of the interconnects is also measured before and after globtopping and a considerable change in the impedance match is observed. The effect of package loading is found to be negligible.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2000

Philip Pieters, Walter De Raedt and Eric Beyne

The thin film multilayer multichip module technology (MCM‐D) was originally used for the interconnection of high speed digital circuits in a single module. Nowadays, the…

Abstract

The thin film multilayer multichip module technology (MCM‐D) was originally used for the interconnection of high speed digital circuits in a single module. Nowadays, the technology is more and more evolving towards use in the interconnection of RF and microwave circuits with integrated passive components. This paper gives an overview of this evolution towards microwave MCM‐D technology and the recent advances with respect to the integration of high quality passive components. With a discussion on the flip chip mounting of active devices, the link towards fully integrated high frequency front‐end systems is pointed out.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Liang Wang, Maarten Cauwe, Steven Brebels, Walter De Raedt and Jan Vanfleteren

Ultra-thin chip packaging (UTCP) is one of the flexible assembly technologies, by which thinned dies are encapsulated inside spin-coated dielectric films. For sake of higher…

Abstract

Purpose

Ultra-thin chip packaging (UTCP) is one of the flexible assembly technologies, by which thinned dies are encapsulated inside spin-coated dielectric films. For sake of higher density integration and bending stress suppression, two UTCPs can be stacked vertically. The purpose of this paper is to present an improved UTCP process flow to embed thinned chip in a symmetric dielectric sandwich for a flat topography. The UTCP flat top surface is suitable for metallization and further 3D stacking.

Design/methodology/approach

In the new process, a central photosensitive polyimide film is introduced, in which a cavity is made for the embedded chip. The cavity is defined by lithography using the chip itself as a photo-mask. In this way, the cavity size and position is self-aligned to the chip. The chip thickness is compensated by the surrounding central layer, and a UTCP with flat topography (flat UTCP) is realized after top dielectric deposition.

Findings

A batch of daisy chain test vehicles was produced. The feasibility of the process flow is verified by optical and electrical measurements. The result shows 100 percent yield, which is much better than previous work. A thermal humidity test showed no significant degradation of the flat UTCPs after 1,000 hours.

Originality/value

High yield fabrication of flat UTCP is first shown. An innovative self-alignment lithography step is introduced to make a cavity in dielectric for chip thickness compensation by using the chip itself as a photo-mask.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Martin Goosey

211

Abstract

Details

Circuit World, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Book part
Publication date: 1 September 2014

Kerstin Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Holger Hoffmann, Steffen Walter, Sascha Gruss, David Hrabal and Harald C. Traue

Emotion recognition and emotion expression/regulation are important aspects of emotional intelligence (EI). Although the construct of EI is widely used and its components are part…

Abstract

Emotion recognition and emotion expression/regulation are important aspects of emotional intelligence (EI). Although the construct of EI is widely used and its components are part of many investigations, there is still no sufficient picture set that can be used for systematic research of facial emotion recognition and practical applications of individual assessments. In this research we present a new Facial Action Coding System validated picture set consisting of six emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise). Basic principles of stimulus development and evaluation process are described. The PFA-U can be used for future studies in organization for the assessment of emotion recognition, emotion stimulation, and emotion management.

Details

Individual Sources, Dynamics, and Expressions of Emotion
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-889-1

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Kadir Çakar

The purpose of this paper is to examine how crises impact overall tourist behaviour and travel preferences in times of crisis events, both man-made and natural disasters. In doing…

1360

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how crises impact overall tourist behaviour and travel preferences in times of crisis events, both man-made and natural disasters. In doing so, the present paper has been designed to provide a new conceptualization of travellers’ shifting preferences in terms of the selection of holiday destinations through the new concept of tourophobia and to classify this as a new type of tourist behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study uses a literature review as a qualitative deductive content analysis of 58 field studies published by major hospitality and tourism journals. By using a deductive content analysis approach, the current paper is designed to delineate tourist behaviour through a generic review of relevant literature detailing travellers’ preferences in times of crisis.

Findings

The developed concept of tourophobia and the suggested model, which proposes two possible scenarios, shows that traveller behaviour is heterogeneous in terms of the destination selection process; this finding is based on a content analysis of the articles chosen. Further, by using the developed model, the decline in travel and tourism can also be explained by an increase in what is termed in this paper “tourophobia”, which results from the various devastating effects of crises.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed model is expected to help destination managers and marketers to segment and forecast the future market demand of tourist travel preferences, thereby enabling them to form effective marketing strategies and increase their responsiveness during difficult times. Only articles from hospitality and tourism journals were subjected to content analysis; this is a major limitation of the study.

Originality/value

The present research contributes to current knowledge by describing the concept of tourophobia as a tourist behaviour in times of crisis. As an emerging phenomenon, it is also introduced as being one criterion for the selection of destinations and, therefore, is regarded as a driver for tourist behaviour, thus generating the originality of the paper. This study strives to provide a new direction for future studies on tourist behaviour, rather than offering new empirical data.

目的

本文旨在研究在人为和自然灾害的危机事件中, 危机是如何影响旅游者的整体行为和旅游偏好的。在此过程中, 本论文旨在通过旅游恐惧症的概念, 对旅游者在选择度假目的地方面的偏好变化提供一个新的概念化过程, 并将其归类为一种新的旅游行为类型。

设计/方法

本研究采用文献回顾的方法, 对发表在主流酒店和旅游学术期刊上的58个实地研究进行定性演绎分析。本文运用演绎内容分析法, 通过对危机时期旅游者偏好的相关文献的综述, 勾勒出旅游者的行为特征。

发现

旅游恐惧症的发展概念和假设模型提出了两种可能的情况, 表明旅行者的行为在目的地选择过程中是异质的;这一发现是基于对所选文章的内容分析。此外, 通过使用已开发的模型, 旅游业和旅游业的衰退也可以用本文所称的“旅游恐惧症”的增加来解释, 这是由危机的各种破坏性影响造成的。

研究缺陷

该模型有望帮助旅游目的地管理者和营销者对旅游偏好的未来市场需求进行细分和预测, 从而形成有效的营销策略, 增强他们在困难时期的反应能力。本文的一个主要局限是, 仅对酒店和旅游期刊的文章进行了内容分析。

原创性

本研究通过将旅游恐惧症的概念描述为危机时期的一种旅游行为, 为当前的知识做出了贡献。旅游恐惧症作为一种新出现的现象, 也是旅游目的地选择的一个标准, 因此它被认为是旅游行为的驱动因素, 从而体现了本文的独创性。本研究旨在为未来的旅游行为研究提供一个新的方向, 而不是提供新的实证数据。

Propósito

El objetivo del presente documento es examinar cómo las crisis impactan el comportamiento turístico general y las preferencias de viaje en tiempos de crisis, relacionadas con desastres naturales, así como, provocadas por el hombre. Al hacerlo, el presente documento ha sido diseñado para proporcionar una nueva conceptualización de las preferencias cambiantes de los viajeros en términos de la selección de destinos de vacaciones a través del nuevo concepto de “tourophobia”, y para clasificar esto como un nuevo tipo de comportamiento turístico.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El presente estudio emplea una revisión de la literatura basado en un análisis de contenido deductivo cualitativo de 58 estudios de campo publicados por las principales revistas de hotelería y turismo. Al utilizar un enfoque de análisis de contenido deductivo, el documento actual está diseñado para delinear el comportamiento turístico a través de una revisión genérica de literatura relevante que detalla las preferencias de los viajeros en tiempos de crisis.

Resultados

El concepto desarrollado de “tourophobia” y el modelo sugerido, que propone dos escenarios posibles, muestra que el comportamiento del viajero es heterogéneo en términos del proceso de selección del destino; Este hallazgo se basa en un análisis de contenido de los artículos elegidos. Además, mediante el uso del modelo desarrollado, la disminución de los viajes y el turismo también puede explicarse por un aumento en lo que se denomina en este documento “tourophobia”, que resulta de los diversos efectos devastadores de las crisis.

Limitaciones/implicaciones de la investigación

Se espera que el modelo propuesto ayude a los directores de planificación turística de destinos, así como a los de marketing a segmentar y pronosticar la demanda futura del mercado con respecto a las preferencias de viajes turísticos, lo que les permite formar estrategias de marketing efectivas y aumentar su capacidad de respuesta en tiempos difíciles. Solo los artículos de revistas de hotelería y turismo fueron sometidas al análisis de contenido; ésta constituye una limitación importante del estudio.

Originalidad/valor

La presente investigación contribuye al conocimiento actual al describir el concepto de “tourophobia” como un comportamiento turístico en tiempos de crisis. Como fenómeno emergente, también se presenta como un criterio para la selección de destinos y, por lo tanto, se considera un motor del comportamiento turístico, generando así la originalidad del documento. Este estudio se esfuerza por proporcionar una nueva dirección para futuros estudios sobre el comportamiento turístico, en lugar de ofrecer nuevos datos empíricos.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

151

Abstract

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Timothy W. Armistead

The purpose of this paper is to discuss unresolved problems that are reflected in the social scientific research on the linguistic detection of deception in statements, with…

1051

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss unresolved problems that are reflected in the social scientific research on the linguistic detection of deception in statements, with particular attention to problems of methodology, practical utility for law enforcement statement analysts, and epistemology.

Design/methodology/approach

The author reviewed the design, data, statistical calculations, and findings of English language peer‐reviewed studies of the linguistic detection of deception in statements. In some cases, the author re‐analyzed the study data.

Findings

Social scientific research holds promise for the development of new methods of linguistic detection of deception that are more thoroughly validated than the linguistic methods law enforcement investigators have been using for many years. Nonetheless, published studies reflect one or more of the following sources of weakness in developing and evaluating detection models: the use of analytes (statements) of uncertain validity; the problematic universality and practical utility of linguistic variables; the widespread use of deficient proportion‐of‐stimuli‐correct “hit rate” calculations to assess the accuracy of detection methods; a possibly irresolvable epistemological limit to the ability of any linguistic detection method to prove deception without confirmation by means external to the analysis.

Research limitations/implications

The research was limited to English language studies in the linguistic detection of deception literature and to the re‐calculation of data in the research literature. Whether the paper has implications for future studies depends on the success of two arguments that are made: the published research projects in the field reflect one or more of four methodological problems that create doubt about the validity and/or the practical utility of their results; and the linguistic detection of deception is subject to an epistemological problem which theoretically limits the ability of any linguistic method of detection to establish with certainty the status of any particular questioned statement.

Originality/value

This is the first published paper to identify and discuss a possibly irresolvable epistemological issue in the detection of deception by linguistic means, as well as unresolved issues of methodology and of utility to law enforcement analysts that characterize the research and the detection models in this field. It is also the first published paper to deconstruct the simple hit rate (and its variants) in order to demonstrate its deficiencies.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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