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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1940

Walter A. Hite

EXPERIMENTAL, engineering may be considered as the cornerstone of the aeronautical industry, regardless of the fact that the very nature of the work involved often calls…

Abstract

EXPERIMENTAL, engineering may be considered as the cornerstone of the aeronautical industry, regardless of the fact that the very nature of the work involved often calls for large expenditures without prospect of immediate return. Unlike engineering, the sales of a new model are not answerable to any known formulæ, making it necessary to consider that all capital invested in an experimental project may be lost, unless sales sufficient to defray all development costs are realized.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Imad B. Baalbaki and Naresh K. Malhotra

By standardizing the marketing effort over similar worldwidesegments and differentiating it across dissimilar worldwide segments,the international marketing manager is…

Abstract

By standardizing the marketing effort over similar worldwide segments and differentiating it across dissimilar worldwide segments, the international marketing manager is able to reap the advantages of both standardization and customization. The choice of the variables by which to segment the global market is crucial. Traditionally, purely environmental bases (geographic, political, economic, and cultural) were used as bases for international market segmentation. Proposes that international marketers group relevant markets based on both environmental as well as marketing management bases. The marketing management bases are classified as: (1) product‐related; (2) promotion‐related; (3) price‐related; and (4) distribution‐related. Derives number of propositions with direct implications for international marketing strategy and segmentation with respect to these bases. Highlights the managerial implications of the variables encompassed by these bases. Proposes the empirical investigation of the derived propositions as a research agenda for the future.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Book part
Publication date: 24 August 2011

Breda Kenny and John Fahy

The study this chapter reports focuses on how network theory contributes to the understanding of the internationalization process of SMEs and measures the effect of…

Abstract

The study this chapter reports focuses on how network theory contributes to the understanding of the internationalization process of SMEs and measures the effect of network capability on performance in international trade and has three research objectives.

The first objective of the study relates to providing new insights into the international market development activities through the application of a network perspective. The chapter reviews the international business literature to ascertain the development of thought, the research gaps, and the shortcomings. This review shows that the network perspective is a useful and popular theoretical domain that researchers can use to understand international activities, particularly of small, high technology, resource-constrained firms.

The second research objective is to gain a deeper understanding of network capability. This chapter presents a model for the impact of network capability on international performance by building on the emerging literature on the dynamic capabilities view of the firm. The model conceptualizes network capability in terms of network characteristics, network operation, and network resources. Network characteristics comprise strong and weak ties (operationalized as foreign-market entry modes), relational capability, and the level of trust between partners. Network operation focuses on network initiation, network coordination, and network learning capabilities. Network resources comprise network human-capital resources, synergy-sensitive resources (resource combinations within the network), and information sharing within the network.

The third research objective is to determine the impact of networking capability on the international performance of SMEs. The study analyzes 11 hypotheses through structural equations modeling using LISREL. The hypotheses relate to strong and weak ties, the relative strength of strong ties over weak ties, and each of the eight remaining constructs of networking capability in the study. The research conducts a cross-sectional study by using a sample of SMEs drawn from the telecommunications industry in Ireland.

The study supports the hypothesis that strong ties are more influential on international performance than weak ties. Similarly, network coordination and human-capital resources have a positive and significant association with international performance. Strong ties, weak ties, trust, network initiation, synergy-sensitive resources, relational capability, network learning, and information sharing do not have a significant association with international performance. The results of this study are strong (R2=0.63 for performance as the outcome) and provide a number of interesting insights into the relations between collaboration or networking capability and performance.

This study provides managers and policy makers with an improved understanding of the contingent effects of networks to highlight situations where networks might have limited, zero, or even negative effects on business outcomes. The study cautions against the tendency to interpret networks as universally beneficial to business development and performance outcomes.

Details

Interfirm Networks: Theory, Strategy, and Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-024-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Helen McGrath and Thomas O'Toole

The purpose of this paper is to identify the early stage network engagement strategies that new ventures use to gain traction in interaction in the development of network…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the early stage network engagement strategies that new ventures use to gain traction in interaction in the development of network capability.

Design/methodology/approach

Using 24 new ventures in the micro-brewing industry in Ireland, Belgium and the USA as an empirical base, the authors use an inductive case study approach owing to the exploratory nature of the research aim and the lack of prior literature in the area.

Findings

The findings suggest five early stage network engagement process strategies in network capability development: business-to-business network prospecting; co-branding/co-promoting activities; from maker-mindset to adapting; social media platforming; and recognition and activation of network role.

Research limitations/implications

The findings are limited to the micro-brewery sector at one point in time, although in multiple country contexts. Analyzing other sectors and taking a temporal view of strategizing, analyzing the sector at another time point, would show how dynamics in engagement change as the actors acquire new experiences from interaction.

Practical implications

The potential to gain from network resources and the paucity of these resources in new ventures makes early stage engagement strategizing for network capability development an attractive business strategy for new firms. All firms are born within a social network that has economic importance. Identifying the five early stage network engagement strategies can mitigate the challenge for the new venture in moving from the initial social network to collaborating within wider business networks to gain access to resources, technology and customers.

Originality/value

Strategizing in new venture contexts is a relatively new stream of research for the industrial marketing and purchasing group. This paper adds to the growing body of literature that places interaction, relationships and networks at the heart of strategy making and provides important insights for new ventures, which may lead to earlier and greater success for the firms. The authors respond to calls for increased research addressing capability development in a new venture context and for research to take a more interactive perspective on new venture processes.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

Fernando Fastoso and Jeryl Whitelock

This paper's objectives are firstly to systematically analyse patterns of research in international advertising standardisation (IAS) conducted among managers and secondly…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper's objectives are firstly to systematically analyse patterns of research in international advertising standardisation (IAS) conducted among managers and secondly to suggest fruitful paths for future research in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis of academic papers published in major marketing, advertising and international business journals.

Findings

Results show that overall future research would benefit from a unified definition of and measurement procedures for advertising standardisation as only these can ensure the advancement of knowledge in the field. Additionally, more research is needed in order to further explore process issues in advertising standardisation, especially a newly proposed perspective related to the implementation process of the standardisation decision. Finally, an interesting avenue for future research relates to the study of the subjectivity involved in the standardisation decision.

Research limitations/implications

As with all literature reviews, this paper is limited to analysing works in a selection of the top academic journals in the field. However, a careful choice of the most important journals has been made, providing a good reflection of knowledge in the area.

Originality/value

This paper appears to be the first literature review focusing on manager studies in the field of IAS.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Robert Huggins

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework to distinguish different forms of network resource that govern knowledge‐based alliances and facilitate innovation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical framework to distinguish different forms of network resource that govern knowledge‐based alliances and facilitate innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper seeks to build theory through a critical analysis of the relevant literature.

Findings

The paper draws on the notion of network resources to better understand those assets firms have at their disposal to facilitate knowledge‐based interactions and relationships that catalyze innovation. It seeks to integrate the concept of social capital, which the paper argues largely concerns resources related to the social relations and networks held by those individuals within a particular firm. As a means of describing and identifying network resources that are more strategically held by the firm as a whole, the paper introduces the concept of network capital. Network capital is defined as consisting of investments in calculative relations by firms through which they gain access to knowledge to enhance expected economic returns. Therefore, the paper argues that it is possible to make a distinction between the two types of network resource: network capital and social capital.

Research limitations/implications

Making a distinction between network capital and social capital is relevant to both scholars and decision‐makers as it provides a framework for analyzing the underlying complexity of inter‐firm networks and variability across a range of dimensions, conditions and contingencies. It also provides a framework for evaluating which networks a firm can or cannot manage and invest in to meet its requirements.

Originality/value

The paper develops a new and more refined framework for analyzing and evaluating knowledge‐based alliances and innovation‐driven networks between firms and other actors.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 30 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Arthur Cheng-Hsui Chen, Shaw K. Chen and Chien-Lin Ma

The objective of this research is to explore the relationship between brand experience and customer equity (value equity, brand equity, and relationship equity). We…

Abstract

The objective of this research is to explore the relationship between brand experience and customer equity (value equity, brand equity, and relationship equity). We examine the impacts of different contact points’ experiences (media contact, physical environment contact, people contact, and product usage contact) and different dimensions of brand experience on customer equity. Further we investigate the possible moderating effects of different brand positioning and strategies – hedonic and utilitarian, on this relationship. The data which are collected via online survey includes 410 observations with brand experience and 83 without brand experience, 493 valid samples in total. We found that positive and strong brand experience is the key factor for building strong customer equity. Although the impacts of all four contact points’ brand experiences are significant, product usage contact has the most powerful influence on customer equity and its individual drivers. The results also indicate that the different brand positioning strategies do have moderating effects. For utilitarian brand, only brand experience at product usage contact point has significant impact on customer equity and its three drivers. For hedonic brand, all four contact points’ experiences have significant relationships with customer equity. Finally, the four experience dimensions (sensory, affective, intellectual, and behavioral) have different impacts on customer equity and its three drivers at different experience contact points.

Details

Advances in Business and Management Forecasting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-534-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Dennis M. Sandler and David Shani

In the heated debate about marketing globalization, the issue ofbrand standardization has received much less attention compared withadvertising standardization. When both…

Abstract

In the heated debate about marketing globalization, the issue of brand standardization has received much less attention compared with advertising standardization. When both issues have been addressed, empirically or conceptually, they have not been considered simultaneously. The current study develops and empirically tests a framework to simultaneously consider brand and advertising standardization strategies. A survey was conducted among brand managers in firms operating in Canada, with data collected on a brand level. The results revealed an independence of brand and advertising standardization practices. It was also found that brand standardization was practised to a much higher degree than advertising standardization, with the most used combined strategy involving brand name standardization and non‐standardization of advertising. Effects of product type and brand age were also investigated. The findings clearly indicate that companies tend to “brand globally, advertise locally”.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2016

Eddy S. Ng and Emma Parry

Interest in generational research has garnered a lot of attention, as the workplace is seeing multiple generations (i.e., the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers…

Abstract

Interest in generational research has garnered a lot of attention, as the workplace is seeing multiple generations (i.e., the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials) working side-by-side for the first time. However, it is unclear how multiple generations of workers interact with each other and affect the workplace. Although there is extant literature on generational differences, some scholars have argued that the effect sizes are small and the differences are not meaningful. The focal aim of this chapter is to present the current state of literature on generational research. We present the relevant conceptualizations and theoretical frameworks that establish generational research. We then review evidence from existing research studies to establish the areas of differences that may exist among the different generations. In our review, we identify the issues arising from generational differences that are relevant to human resource management (HRM) practices, including new workforce entrants, aging workers, the changing nature of work and organizations, and leadership development. We conclude with several directions for future research on modernizing workplace policies and practices, ensuring sustainability in current employment models, facilitating future empirical research, and integrating the effects of globalization in generational research.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Yee Kwan Tang

This study aims at providing exploratory insights into the initiative and capabilities of Chinese SMEs to develop and utilize diverse networks to support…

Abstract

This study aims at providing exploratory insights into the initiative and capabilities of Chinese SMEs to develop and utilize diverse networks to support internationalization. Such network development and utilization efforts are fundamental to the analysis and explanation of Chinese firms’ internationalization patterns and outcomes. Extending from the existing network studies in the Chinese context that generally put emphasis on strong‐tie and ethnic‐oriented networks, this paper investigates and explains explicitly the use and effects of both strong‐ and weak‐tie networks in the international development of Chinese SMEs. Indepth case studies on four rapidly internationalized Chinese SMEs are conducted. The case findings demonstrate that weak‐tie networks are essential to the firms’ business development in foreign markets; and were proactively developed and utilized in the course of the firms’ development. The cases also provide alternative perspectives to the beliefs and values underpinning strong‐tie networks presumed in existing literature. The findings draw attention to the changing business values and approaches of the Chinese firms aiming at developing internationally. Managerial implications concerning the significant influence of effective networking on internationalization are pinpointed.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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