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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Md. Kamrul Hasan, Mario Joseph Hayek, Wallace A. Williams, Jr, Stephanie Pane-Haden and Maria Paula Martinez Gelvez

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this paper seeks to formalize a definition of activist entrepreneurship and differentiate it from social entrepreneurship…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this paper seeks to formalize a definition of activist entrepreneurship and differentiate it from social entrepreneurship. Second, this paper proposes a model that explains how the storytelling process, in the form of the message and means of communication, influences the activist identity process and consequently the legitimacy of the activist entrepreneur.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explains the historical method and offers an overview of the unique case of Madam C.J. Walker and analyzes how she gained legitimacy as an activist entrepreneur by conveying psychological capital (Psycap) concepts in her message and political skill in the means of her communication. The paper also analyzed books being written on her and also letters that were exchanged between herself and her lawyer F.B. Ransom.

Findings

The authors have found out that Madam Walker used Psycap elements such as self-efficacy, hope, resiliency and optimism as message and elements of political skill such as social astuteness, interpersonal skill, networking ability and apparent sincerity as means to communicate the message toward her followers and built a legitimate social identity where she had won the trust of them.

Research limitations/implications

The primary limitation of this paper is that it is theoretical in nature and uses only one case study to support the theoretical model. However, when analyzing complex relationships, historical cases offer a wealth of insight to solve the problem at hand.

Originality/value

By using the elements of the model discussed in the research paper properly, people could create a legitimate identity for themselves where any message they give to their employees, colleagues and sub-ordinates would be viewed as a selfless one and that would increase the chances of their messages or orders being accepted and obeyed by the followers.

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Article
Publication date: 20 October 2021

Saurabh Srivastava, Swati Panda and Wallace A. Williams

This paper aims to investigate the process of innovation in firms founded by user-entrepreneurs. It also empirically investigates the role of customer involvement and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the process of innovation in firms founded by user-entrepreneurs. It also empirically investigates the role of customer involvement and user-entrepreneurs’ learning goal orientation in the innovation process.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey design is used to collect data from entrepreneurs managing small businesses. A total of 255 entrepreneurs responded to the survey questionnaire. The partial least square structural equation model was used to test the measurement and structural model.

Findings

Results suggest a positive association of user-entrepreneurship with innovation and customer involvement. Results also confirmed that customer involvement mediates the relationship between user-entrepreneurship and innovation. In addition, results suggest that the higher learning orientation (LO) of user-entrepreneurs plays a vital role in innovation by strengthening the relationship between user-entrepreneurship and customer involvement.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on small entrepreneurial firms with less than equal to or less than 250 employees. The results may not be generalizable to larger user-entrepreneurial firms. Also, this study is based on American entrepreneurs. Therefore, the results may not be generalizable to other countries.

Practical implications

Evidence for the role of customer involvement and LO in the innovation process can be used by entrepreneurs and small business owners in hiring and training decisions. Also, the findings suggest the important role played by customers in the innovation process. Firms can use this insight to involve their customers in the product development process to secure better innovation outcomes.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the innovation and entrepreneurship literature by emphasizing the critical role of customer networks in user-entrepreneurs’ innovation performance. It offers a process model that offers empirical evidence supporting the positive role of customer involvement in new ventures. It highlights the role of the LO of user-entrepreneurs in the customer engagement process.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

John H. Humphreys, Milorad M. Novicevic, Mario Hayek, Jane Whitney Gibson, Stephanie S. Pane Haden and Wallace A. Williams, Jr

The purpose of this study is to narratively explore the influence of leader narcissism on leader/follower social exchange. Moreover, while researchers acknowledge that…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to narratively explore the influence of leader narcissism on leader/follower social exchange. Moreover, while researchers acknowledge that narcissistic personality is a dimensional construct, the preponderance of extant literature approaches the concept of narcissistic leadership categorically by focusing on the reactive or constructive narcissistic extremes. This bimodal emphasis ignores self-deceptive forms of narcissistic leadership, where vision orientation and communication could differ from leaders with more reactive or constructive narcissistic personalities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors argue that they encountered a compelling example of a communal, self-deceiving narcissist during archival research of Robert Owen’s collective experiment at New Harmony, Indiana. To explore Owen’s narcissistic leadership, they utilize an analytically structured history approach to interpret his leadership, as he conveyed his vision of social reform in America.

Findings

Approaching data from a ‘history to theory’ perspective and via a communicative lens, the authors use insights from their abductive analysis to advance a cross-paradigm, communication-centered process model of narcissistic leadership that accounts for the full dimensional nature of leader narcissism and the relational aspects of narcissistic leadership.

Research limitations/implications

Scholars maintaining a positivist stance might consider this method a limitation, as historical case-based research places greater emphasis on reflexivity than replication. However, from a constructionist perspective, a focus on generalization might be considered inappropriate or premature, potentially hampering the revelation of insights.

Originality/value

Through a multi-paradigmatic analysis of the historical case of Robert Owen and his visionary communal experiment at New Harmony, the authors contribute to the extant literature by elaborating a comprehensive, dimensional and relational process framework of narcissistic leadership. In doing so, the authors have heeded calls to better delineate leader narcissism, embrace process and relational aspects of leadership and consider leader communication as constitutive of leadership.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Shaping Social Enterprise
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-251-0

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2010

Wallace A. Williams, Miriam Moeller and Michael Harvey

The purpose of this paper is to examine Trompenaars' cultural dimensions using reference point theory to propose the adjustment difficulties that inpatriates will…

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2861

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Trompenaars' cultural dimensions using reference point theory to propose the adjustment difficulties that inpatriates will experience when entering the home market/global headquarters organization culture.

Design/methodology/approach

Specifically, it examines means by which the organization may maintain the inpatriate's perspective while at the same time provide training/development to assist in integrating the inpatriate manager into the global management team.

Findings

The paper proposes that the inpatriate's origin plays a significant part in determining the difficulty of adjusting to the headquarter culture as well as to the general culture of the new home country. The need for reference points (internal, external and time) becomes vital in that each allows for a better understanding of the adjustment process.

Research limitations/implications

With regard to the two variables (macro and organizational culture) examined, it should be noted that cultural distance is not of sole importance in the adjustment process of the inpatriate. Additional factors to consider include job type, previous experience in home country of the organization, local support groups and other socialization tactics.

Practical implications

To facilitate the cross‐cultural adjustment process, active attempts by human resource management staff must be undertaken to help ensure adjustment. Successful adjustment would allow inpatriates to provide valuable insight and contribute to the global organizations' success.

Originality/value

This paper adds value by providing a theoretically based framework for the adjustment of inpatriates that can be tested and modified by future researchers. Furthermore, it provides a guide to inpatriate adjustment so that their maximum value to the organization can be achieved.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Leigh Ann Bynum, Russell W. Clayton, Mario Hayek, Miriam Moeller and Wallace A. Williams

This paper analyzes Chandler's biography of Henry Varnum Poor to assess Chandler's contribution to management history as a biographer.

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621

Abstract

Purpose

This paper analyzes Chandler's biography of Henry Varnum Poor to assess Chandler's contribution to management history as a biographer.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Winter's content thematic analysis, measure Poor's motivational needs for achievement, affiliation‐intimacy, and power, as they are depicted by Chandler throughout the stages of Poor's career as a business editor, analyst, and reformer.

Findings

Our analysis shows that Chandler views Poor's motivation as stable throughout Poor's three professional roles. This paper found that Chandler views Poor as primarily driven by his need for power, followed by a significant need for achievement, and a minor need for affiliation throughout his working life.

Originality/value

This research is unique because it provides the first social‐scientific assessment of Chandler's contribution to management history as a biographer.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Mario Hayek, Wallace A. Williams, Russell W. Clayton, Milorad M. Novicevic and John H. Humphreys

The purpose of this paper is to extend the body of knowledge of authentic leadership in extreme contexts by developing a framework grounded in the Sartrean existentialist…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the body of knowledge of authentic leadership in extreme contexts by developing a framework grounded in the Sartrean existentialist perspective on authenticity and illustrating this framework using the works of Xenophon.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use Sartre’s existential view of authenticity to develop a framework of authentic leadership in extreme contexts. They then use this framework to examine Xenophon’s recount of the retreat of the 10,000 in the classic work, Anabasis. For this analysis, the authors iterate between the ideas of the past and the concepts of the present to understand how this classic has influenced and informed the current body of knowledge about leadership.

Findings

Using a Sartrean existentialist lens, “in extremis” authentic leaders exhibit an awareness of context extremity, responsibility in leading and following to share risks in extreme contexts and self-determination that inspires mutual trust and loyalty.

Practical implications

A Sartrean existentialist perspective suggests that authentic leaders in extreme contexts reflect authenticity by exhibiting and encouraging freedom of choice. By espousing this perspective, authentic leaders create common goals and interests that appeal to followers' intrinsic motivation which has been found to result in positive individual and organizational outcomes.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the authentic leadership literature by using an existential conceptualization of authenticity to examine leadership in extreme contexts. This conceptualization might be more appropriate than the Aristotelian virtue-based deterministic philosophy that has dominated authentic leadership research.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Milorad M. Novicevic, Russell W. Clayton and Wallace A. Williams

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chester Barnard's decisional model utilizing the lens of image theory. The main claim is that the individual decision‐making model…

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2398

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine Chester Barnard's decisional model utilizing the lens of image theory. The main claim is that the individual decision‐making model proposed by Barnard in his Notes on the Significance of Decisive Behavior can be evaluated within the framework of image theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper performed a comparative analysis of Barnard's and image theory's models of decision making to outline congruence and incongruence between Barnard's early conceptualization of individual decision making and the contemporary understanding of image theory.

Findings

The findings provide support to the claim that image theory is an appropriate framework to describe Barnard's model.

Originality/value

The unique contribution of this study is that it provides the first theoretical analysis of Barnard's model of individual decision making. Barnard's model of individual decision making is little known because it was posthumously published in his Notes on the Significance of Decisive Behavior 35 years after Barnard's death.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Milorad M. Novicevic, M. Ronald Buckley, Russell W. Clayton, Miriam Moeller and Wallace A. Williams

The purpose of this paper is to commemorate Alfred Chandler, a truly outstanding business historian, through the unique lens of his revisionists.

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562

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to commemorate Alfred Chandler, a truly outstanding business historian, through the unique lens of his revisionists.

Design/methodology/approach

By developing a classifying framework, Chandler's revisionists is analyzed based on the extent to which they critique Chandler's interpretation of the role of managers in large organizations.

Findings

The revisionist critiques of Chandler's works is traced and examine how they can contribute to the intent of commemorating Chandler and his works.

Practical implications

The most relevant revisionists of Chandler's works are highlighted in a manner that might be valuable for the understanding of how Chandler's revisionists can be interpreted within both functional and critical paradigms.

Originality/value

The unique contributions of this study is its focus on providing a specific form of commemoration through the lens of Chandler's revisionists and thus putting “Chandler in a larger frame” of management history.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Shawn Carraher and John Humphreys

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734

Abstract

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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