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Wai-Hang Yee and Sandra van Thiel
The paper proposes that public sector organizations facing institutionalized reform pressure may not only integrate the reform into their operation when it fits but also…
The paper proposes that public sector organizations facing institutionalized reform pressure may not only integrate the reform into their operation when it fits but also pace the integration while undergoing organizational cultural transformations to fit with the reform. The newly cultivated cultural characteristics, nonetheless, need to be compatible externally with the ideational basis of the reform and internally with existing values and beliefs embodied by the organizations.
Building on a neo-institutionalist perspective, the paper develops a model which considers the possibilities and conditions that local cultural change in the reforming organizations may facilitate reform integration. To test the model's analytical potential, the paper analyzed reform responses of semi-autonomous agencies from Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden under the New Public Management (NPM) reform. Ordinary least square (OLS) regression models were performed on the survey data collected from agency heads (or representative) during the peak of the reform trend. Analyzing this sample of later adopters whose government generally enjoyed high degrees of capacity and autonomy provided a preliminary test to the model's potential.
Significant statistical relations were found between the adoption of operation-level NPM practices and the extent that an agency's cultural characteristics fit with both the ideational basis of NPM and the exiting value-belief mix the agency embodied. Agency characteristics of “proactive responsiveness” and “goal-oriented cooperation” were found significantly related to adoption of NPM practices, showing the possibility of cultivating local cultural changes in reforming organizations.
While compatible with neo-institutionalist emphasis on local continuity, the paper describes an alternative scenario of reform integration for public managers.
Hoi-Lam Ma and Wai-Hung Collin Wong
Risk management is crucial for all organizations, especially those in the global supply chain network. Failure may result in huge economic loses and damage to company…
Risk management is crucial for all organizations, especially those in the global supply chain network. Failure may result in huge economic loses and damage to company reputation. Risk assessment usually involves quantitative and qualitative decisions. The purpose of this paper is to apply fuzzy logic to capture and inference qualitative decisions made in the House of Risk (HOR) assessment method.
In the existing HOR model, aggregate risk potential (ARP) is calculated by the risk event times the risk agent value and its occurrence. However, these values are usually obtained from interviews, which may involve subjective decisions. To overcome this shortcoming, a fuzzy-based approach is proposed to calculate ARP instead of the current deterministic approach.
Risk analyses are conducted in five major categories of risk sources: internal, global environment, supplier, customer and third-party logistics provider. Moreover, each category is further divided into different sub-categories. The results indicate that the fuzzy-based HOR successfully inferences the inputs of the risk event, risk agents and its occurrence, and can prioritize the risk agents in order to take proactive decisions.
The proposed fuzzy-based HOR model can be used practically by manufacturers in the global supply chain. It provides a framework for decision makers to systematically analyze the potential risks in different categories.
The proposed fuzzy-based HOR approach improves the traditional approach by more precise modeling of the qualitative decision-making process. It contributes to a more accurate reflection of the real situation that manufacturers are facing.