Search results

1 – 10 of 17
Article
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Wael Mostafa

In contrast to earlier studies, the most recent studies on the incremental value relevance of earnings and cash flows from operations find that both earnings and cash…

Abstract

Purpose

In contrast to earlier studies, the most recent studies on the incremental value relevance of earnings and cash flows from operations find that both earnings and cash flows have incremental value relevance beyond each other. An interesting question that follows is whether these findings hold after controlling the extremity of earnings and cash flows. This study, therefore, aims to examine the incremental value relevance of earnings and cash flows in the following four cases: moderate earnings and moderate cash flows, moderate earnings and extreme cash flows, extreme earnings and moderate cash flows and extreme earnings and extreme cash flows.

Design/methodology/approach

To evaluate the incremental value relevance (information content) of earnings and cash flows for each of the four cases mentioned above, we examine the statistical significance of the slope coefficients for regression of returns on both unexpected earnings and unexpected cash flows from operations.

Findings

The results show that (i) both moderate and extreme earnings have incremental value relevance beyond both moderate and extreme cash flows, (ii) moderate cash flows have incremental value relevance beyond both moderate and extreme earnings and (iii) extreme cash flows lack incremental value relevance beyond moderate earnings; however, they (extreme cash flows) have incremental value relevance beyond extreme earnings. These results suggest that earnings and cash flows have incremental value relevance. However, only in cases when cash flows are extreme and earnings are moderate, cash flows do not possess incremental value relevance. In further analysis, we find that the value relevance for cash flows and earnings decreases when they are extreme and transitory. Moreover, the value relevance for cash flows increases when they are moderate (not extreme) and the other competing measure (earnings) is transitory and extreme.

Practical implications

The results support the idea that earnings and cash flows from operations complement each other in explaining variation in returns. However, when cash flows are extreme and less informative, investors rely more on earnings in firm valuation, especially when earnings are moderate. Because earnings are unlikely to persist to be permanent across the years, these results can be interpreted as indicating that cash flows and earnings information are used jointly by investors.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous studies, we control for the extremity of earnings and cash flows when evaluating the incremental value relevance of earnings and cash flows from operations.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Wael Mostafa

Motivated by the lack of research on the value relevance of accounting information in the emerging markets of Middle Eastern countries, and the unique institutional and…

1836

Abstract

Purpose

Motivated by the lack of research on the value relevance of accounting information in the emerging markets of Middle Eastern countries, and the unique institutional and accounting setting in Egypt, this paper aims to investigate the relation between capital market and accounting information in the emerging market of Egypt. Specifically, based on Egyptian data, this study examines the value relevance of earnings, cash flows from operations and book values.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the value relevance of the above accounting measures, this study uses statistical associations between accounting information and capital market values: the association between earnings and annual returns; the association between cash flows and accruals, and annual returns; and the association between earnings and book values of equity, and stock prices.

Findings

The results show that, first, earnings have value relevance. However, earnings changes are significantly more successful than earnings levels in explaining security returns. These results suggest that changes in earnings are largely permanent; hence, earnings follow (close to) a random walk model. Second, contrary to what is stated in the literature, cash flows from operations are not successful in explaining stock returns. This result suggests that cash flows are less important and not value relevant in Egypt compared to the USA or the UK. A possible explanation is that cash flows in Egypt are very volatile (high variance) and not persistent, so the market does not rely on them. Third, individually, both earnings and book values significantly explain stock prices; however, jointly, earnings have incremental explanatory power beyond book values for stock prices whereas book values do not. These results suggest that in Egypt the income statement is much more important than the balance sheet for valuation purposes. Overall, these results are interesting because they do not completely replicate the results from other countries.

Practical implications

The existence of value relevance for earnings despite the apparent lack of value relevance for cash flows can be interpreted as indicating that accruals are designed to offset and smooth cash flows’ volatility and low value relevance, so that earnings are relatively more persistent and relevant. These results show that earnings potentially are a much more important and informative measure of a firm’s value than cash flows from operations in Egypt. However, we certainly need the cash flows information as an ex-post validation of the prior earnings. Overall, it appears that the investors in Egypt are looking at the accounting data when evaluating the value of the firm, which is a good sign. However, the empirical findings of this paper are discussed.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the limited research on value relevance of accounting information in the emerging market of Egypt.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 39 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Wael Mostafa

This paper aims to examine the association between earnings management and the value relevance of earnings (the latter is operationalized by earnings response…

2968

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the association between earnings management and the value relevance of earnings (the latter is operationalized by earnings response coefficient). Specifically, this study examines whether opportunistic earnings management has a negative impact on the value relevance of earnings for a sample of firms listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange.

Design/methodology/approach

Different from prior work and due to data limitations in the Egyptian market, this paper first examines for the existence of earnings management based on the whole operating performances of the firms by testing whether firms with low/poor operating performance are more likely to choose income-increasing actions (strategies) than firms with high operating performance. After confirming that low operating performance firms manage earnings upward, the authors then assess whether this opportunistic earnings management by these low operating performance firms reduces the value relevance of earnings. This is performed by estimating a model of the relationship between stock returns and accounting earnings with a dummy variable that allows parameter shifts for earnings of low operating performance firms.

Findings

The results show that discretionary accruals are positive and significantly higher for firms with low operating performance than those for firms with high operating performance. These results indicate that low operating performance firms increase the earnings management practices by probably increasing their reported earnings opportunistically to mask their low performance. Furthermore, the results show that the earnings response coefficient is significantly smaller for earnings of low operating performance firms than that for earnings of high operating performance firms. These results suggest that earnings of firms with low operating performance (that are engaged in opportunistic earnings management strategies) have less value relevance than earnings of firms with high operating performance, i.e. the informativeness of managed earnings is lower than that of non-managed earnings.

Practical implications

Based on these results, it is plausible that the presence of opportunistic earnings management adversely affects the value relevance of accounting earnings.

Originality/value

Consistent with previous results from developed countries, this study shows that earnings management is a significant factor that affects value relevance of earnings in Egypt.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Mina Sami and Wael Abdallah

This paper examines the impact of cryptocurrency market on the stock market performance in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. A comparative analysis is extended…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the impact of cryptocurrency market on the stock market performance in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. A comparative analysis is extended to distinguish this impact between Gulf countries and other economies in the region.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis uses the information of cryptocurrencies and the stock market indices of the Gulf countries for the period 2014–2018 on a daily basis. Two strategies have been implemented to fulfill the goal of the study: first, the tests strategy, which is applied using the cointegration analysis and panel-specific forms of Granger causality; second, the regression strategy, which is applied mainly using the instrument variable with generalized method of moments (IV-GMM) method.

Findings

The results show that there is a significant relationship between the cryptocurrency market and the stock market performance in the MENA region. On the one hand, for the Gulf countries that claim full obedience to the Islamic Sharia rules, each 1% increase in the cryptocurrency returns reduces the stock market performance by 0.15%. On the other hand, for the non-Gulf (other MENA) countries that have flexibility in applying the Islamic Sharia rules or do not follow it, the stock market performance increases by 0.13%, for each 1% increase in the cryptocurrency returns.

Originality/value

The paper proposes two main contributions: First, the paper introduces the cryptocurrency returns as one of the determinants of the stock market performance in the MENA region. This impact is distinguished based on the degree of applying the Islamic Sharia rules and the vision of the government to the stock market. Second, the paper provides an empirical guideline for governments in the MENA region for efficient measures in their stock market, given the important expansion of the cryptocurrency market and the government type.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Mina Sami and Wael Abdallah

The paper uses firm level data for the top listed firms in New York exchange stock over the period 2000–2017. The analysis is mainly based on 237 firms that already…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper uses firm level data for the top listed firms in New York exchange stock over the period 2000–2017. The analysis is mainly based on 237 firms that already experienced losses at the end of the fiscal year. The study aims to use the properties of the dynamic panel data, specifically the methodology proposed by Arenllo and Bond (1991), to fulfill the objectives of the paper.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper focuses on the dividend policy management of the firms when they experience a loss at the end of the fiscal year. The objective is to examine how such a policy management affects the sustainability of the firm (measured by the future sales and total factor productivity[TFP]) and the wealth of its shareholders (measured by the Stock Returns).

Findings

The results show that the distressed firms that distribute dividends at the end of the loss period are able to maintain sustainability and to reach more favorable wealth situation of their shareholders relative to the firms who abstain to pay; the dividend policy during periods of loss is still able to send positive signals about the firm in the market; and the dividend policy can be considered as a predictive indicator for a sustainable firm whose shareholders can also predict their capital gains.

Originality/value

Agreed upon the literature that the firms during the period of crisis are likely to change their dividend policy, this study offers robust evidence that the dividend policy of distressed firms affects their sustainability (measured by sales and TFP) and the wealth status of their shareholders (measured by the Stock Returns).

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Wael Mostafa

Many studies examine the relative information content of earnings and cash flows from operations. Most studies find that earnings have higher information content than cash…

Abstract

Purpose

Many studies examine the relative information content of earnings and cash flows from operations. Most studies find that earnings have higher information content than cash flows. An interesting question that follows is whether these findings hold after controlling the extremity of earnings and cash flows. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative information content of earnings and cash flows in the following four different cases: first, moderate earnings vs moderate cash flows, second, extreme earnings vs moderate cash flows, third, moderate earnings vs extreme cash flows, and fourth, extreme earnings vs extreme cash flows.

Design/methodology/approach

To assess the relative information content of earnings and cash flows for each of the four cases mentioned above, the authors compare the explanatory power for regression of returns on unexpected earnings relative to regression of returns on unexpected cash flows. Therefore, the author compares the adjusted R2 of the model with earnings variables and the model with cash flows variables using Vuong's test, that examines the statistical significance of the difference between adjusted R2s of the rival (non-nested) models, and interpret a statistically higher adjusted R2 as an indicator for higher relative information content.

Findings

The results show that: first, when both earnings and cash flows are moderate, earnings are more highly associated with stock market price changes than cash flows, second, when both earnings and cash flows are extreme, earnings also have greater relative information content than cash flows, third, when the extremity differs between earnings and cash flows, the moderate variable is superior to the other extreme variable in explaining security returns. These results suggest that earnings are definitely more value relevant than cash flows. However, only in cases when cash flows from operations are moderate and earnings are extreme, cash flows possess higher information content than earnings.

Practical implications

The explanatory power for stock returns will be higher for earnings or cash flows depending on which is more highly persistent. This result reverses the conventional finding of the superiority of earnings over cash flows in explaining security returns.

Originality/value

In contrast to previous studies, the authors control for the extremity of earnings and cash flows when evaluating the relative information content of earnings and cash flows from operations.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2015

Tarek Eldomiaty, Ola Attia, Wael Mostafa and Mina Kamal

The internal factors that influence the decision to change dividend growth rates include two competing models: the earnings and free cash flow models. As far as each of…

Abstract

The internal factors that influence the decision to change dividend growth rates include two competing models: the earnings and free cash flow models. As far as each of the components of each model is considered, the informative and efficient dividend payout decisions require that managers have to focus on the significant component(s) only. This study examines the cointegration, significance, and explanatory power of those components empirically. The expected outcomes serve two objectives. First, on an academic level, it is interesting to examine the extent to which payout practices meet the premises of the earnings and free cash flow models. The latter considers dividends and financing decisions as two faces of the same coin. Second, on a professional level, the outcomes help focus the management’s efforts on the activities that can be performed when considering a change in dividend growth rates.

This study uses data for the firms listed in two indexes: Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA30) and NASDAQ100. The data cover quarterly periods from 30 June 1989 to 31 March 2011. The methodology includes (a) cointegration analysis in order to test for model specification and (b) classical regression in order to examine the explanatory power of the components of earnings and free cash flow models.

The results conclude that: (a) Dividends growth rates are cointegrated with the two models significantly; (b) Dividend growth rates are significantly and positively associated with growth in sales and cost of goods sold only. Accordingly, these are the two activities that firms’ management need to focus on when considering a decision to change dividend growth rates, (c) The components of the earnings and free cash flow models explain very little of the variations in dividends growth rates. The results are to be considered a call for further research on the external (market-level) determinants that explain the variations in dividends growth rates. Forthcoming research must separate the effects of firm-level and market-level in order to reach clear judgments on the determinants of dividends growth rates.

This study contributes to the related literature in terms of offering updated robust empirical evidence that the decision to change dividend growth rate is discretionary to a large extent. That is, dividend decisions do not match the propositions of the earnings and free cash flow models entirely. In addition, the results offer solid evidence that financing trends in the period 1989–2011 showed heavy dependence on debt financing compared to other related studies that showed heavy dependence on equity financing during the previous period 1974–1984.

Details

Overlaps of Private Sector with Public Sector around the Globe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-956-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2017

Tarek Ibrahim Eldomiaty, Islam Azzam, Mohamed Bahaa El Din, Wael Mostafa and Zahraa Mohamed

The main objective of this study is to examine whether firms follow the financing hierarchy as suggested by the Pecking Order Theory (POT). The External Funds Needed (EFN…

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to examine whether firms follow the financing hierarchy as suggested by the Pecking Order Theory (POT). The External Funds Needed (EFN) model offers a financing hierarchy that can be used for examining the POT. As far as the EFN considers growth of sales as a driver for changing capital structure, it follows that shall firms plan for a sustainable growth of sales, a sustainable financing can be reached and maintained. This study uses data about the firms listed in two indexes: Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA30) and NASDAQ100. The data cover quarterly periods from June 30, 1999, to March 31, 2012. The methodology includes (a) cointegration analysis in order to test for model specification and (b) causality analysis in order to show the generic and mutual associations between the components of EFN. The results conclude that (a) in the majority of the cases, firms plan for an increase in growth sales but not necessarily to approach sustainable rate; (b) in cases of observed and sustainable growth of sales, firms reduce debt financing persistently; (c) firms use equity financing to finance sustainable growth of sales in the long run only, while in the short run, firms use internal financing, that is, retained earnings as a flexible source of financing; and (d) the EFN model is quite useful for examining the hierarchy of financing. This study contributes to the related literature in terms of utilizing the properties of the EFN model in order to examine the practical aspects of the POT. These practical considerations are extended to examine the use of the POT in cases of observed and sustainable growth rates. The findings contribute to the current literature that there is a need to offer an adjustment to the financing order suggested by the POT. Equity financing is the first source of financing current and sustainable growth of sales, followed by retained earnings, and debt financing is the last resort.

Details

Growing Presence of Real Options in Global Financial Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-838-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Wael Mostafa and Rob Dixon

In contrast to recent US studies, almost all prior UK studies have not supported the incremental information content of cash flow beyond earnings. In addition, to date no…

1744

Abstract

Purpose

In contrast to recent US studies, almost all prior UK studies have not supported the incremental information content of cash flow beyond earnings. In addition, to date no UK study has addressed the effect of earnings extremity on the incremental information content of cash flow and earnings whilst controlling for the extremity of cash flow. Therefore, and in order to assess the generality of recent US findings, the aim of this study is to examine the incremental information content of cash flow from operations and earnings and the effect of extreme earnings on the incremental information content of cash flow from operations in the UK firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on market‐based accounting research, this study uses statistical associations between accounting data (earnings and cash flow) and stock returns to assess/measure the incremental information content (value relevance) of cash flow and earnings and the effect of extreme earnings on the incremental information content of cash flow and earnings. The paper follows the recent methodology in this area that employs the level and change of cash flow and earnings as an estimation of their unexpected components and isolates the extreme cash flow and earnings apart from the moderate ones.

Findings

The results show that both earnings and cash flow from operations have incremental information content beyond each other. It is also found that extreme earnings lead to incremental information content for only moderate (not extreme) cash flow. These results are consistent with the findings of the recent US studies.

Practical implications

Overall, the findings of this study support the usefulness of using cash flow information, in addition to earnings in firm valuation by investors in the UK market, especially when earnings are extreme and cash flow is moderate. The accounting interpretation of these results, in terms of disclosure of earnings components, is discussed.

Originality/value

The study makes the following contributions to the incremental information content of cash flow and earnings literature in the UK. First, this study employs actual cash flow data derived from cash flow statements. Second, none of the prior UK studies shares the current research focus, which is to examine the effect of earnings extremity on the incremental information content of cash flow and earnings whilst controlling for the extremity of cash flow itself. Third, this study employs a large sample size for a more recent period.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2015

Abstract

Details

Overlaps of Private Sector with Public Sector around the Globe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-956-1

1 – 10 of 17