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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1992

WILLIAM HOWARTH

The paper starts by considering the history of environmental legislation and the need for integrated pollution control. After describing the establishment of Her Majesty's…

Abstract

The paper starts by considering the history of environmental legislation and the need for integrated pollution control. After describing the establishment of Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) and the difficulty caused by HMIP's relationship with other environmental agencies, the paper notes the Government's intention to create a unified Agency for environmental protection. The author examines the debate over the form the new Agency should take and the disagreement regarding what powers currently held by the National Rivers Authority (NRA) should be devolved on the Agency. In the course of this, the author notes distinctions made between regulatory, operational and management functions of the NRA and proposed for the Agency.

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Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1920

In his report for the year 1919, Dr. WILLIAM J. HOWARTH, C.B.E., Medical Officer of Health for the City of London, makes some very important observations in regard to the…

Abstract

In his report for the year 1919, Dr. WILLIAM J. HOWARTH, C.B.E., Medical Officer of Health for the City of London, makes some very important observations in regard to the conveyance and handling of meat. He points out that a considerable responsibility rests upon the Sanitary Committee to ensure that the food passing through the City is of a satisfactory character, and the following matters are of interest. Meat is purchased at Smithfield by butchers from all parts of Greater London, and even from districts outside. It is removed from the market either in the purchaser's own carts, or in vans belonging to the numerous carriers who attend the market. From the stalls in the market it is carried to the waiting carts either by the purchasers or by market porters. The meat is either conveyed in trucks which are provided or on the backs and shoulders of these persons. The number of carts in waiting to receive meat is so considerable that during the busier hours they form practically a continuous barricade round the market. The rear parts of the carts are brought up to the edge of the causeway. These vans and carts carry a considerable amount of meat, in the form of quarters or cuts of larger or smaller size and offal. The division of the meat facilitates increased loading. It often happens that the supply arrives at the carts more quickly than it can be packed, and, as a consequence, it is allowed to stand about on the trucks for a longer time than is desirable. During this waiting period the meat is sometimes deposited on the footway. It should be noted that the sectioning of meat results in large areas of muscular tissues being exposed, and as the cut surface is moist, dust readily settles on it with the resulting disadvantages which are common to dust deposition; dust is excessive in dry weather as the streets in the loading‐up areas are fouled by the large number of horses which stand about. As regards the pavement, I need only mention that there is considerable fouling of the surface by blood and particles of fat, etc., which are trodden into a hard layer mixed with street refuse. The further risk of contamination by animals is obvious. Dr. HOWARTH further observes, I have had occasion officially to complain of one more than usually gross instance of piling meat on the ground. In this case the meat was separated from the wet ground by a layer of coarse sacking, the edge of the cover being also practically flush with the sides of the pile. The surroundings were foul. As regards the carts, the general practice is to cover the bottom of the cart with straw. In other cases a kind of sacking is used with or without an under layer of straw, and in exceptional cases white calico or some similar matter is used. Some of the carts do not come to the market in a thoroughly clean condition. They are certainly washed at times but not every day. The straw may be clean but it is not a suitable material on which to place the cut sections of meat. The cloths I have seen used day by day, being washed, in some cases, not oftener than once a week. Blood‐stained cloths should be washed before being used again. White cloths are more desirable, as staining and dirt readily show and this results in greater care being displayed. The procedure during packing is open to criticism. I have often seen, even on wet days, men, whose boots were soiled with road dirt, get into the cart to fill the front part. In doing so they soil the straw or cloth at the rear and on this soiled part meat is afterwards laid. If a white cover were used this would probably be rolled up at the back, whilst the front was being packed, and it would be straightened out as the packing progressed. I have seen a dog in a cart in which uncovered joints of meat were lying, and the dog would have been driven away in the cart if I had not objected. My protest in this and other cases was received badly. This is simply mentioned as an instance of disregard of an obvious precautionary essential. I have seen men stretching over uncovered meat to reach the front of the cart, and in exceptional cases have seen them with their feet on it. I have also noticed, at times, meat soiled with roadway dirt. As regards the transfer of meat from the stalls to the cart, I take exception to the infrequency of change of overalls by the porters, and to meat being carried on a man's head when he is wearing a cap which has done duty for weeks without being washed. Meat is not allowed to be placed on the floor of the stalls inside the market, and practically every trader has slightly raised wooden benches. There are no such facilities outside the market, nor are there any powers to require them to be provided. It seems strange that whilst in the slaughterhouses due regard must be paid to the observance of cleanliness, and in the markets the traders recognise the advantage of cleanliness and order, and further that butchers at their shops encourage brightness and cleanliness as is evidenced by good lighting, clean benches bright brass and steel fittings, and clean‐looking tiles to line the shop, so little regard should be paid to the elementary rules of cleanliness in the interval which elapses between purchase from the wholesale dealer and the reception of the meat at the shop.

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British Food Journal, vol. 22 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1974

Tom Schultheiss, Lorraine Hartline, Jean Mandeberg, Pam Petrich and Sue Stern

The following classified, annotated list of titles is intended to provide reference librarians with a current checklist of new reference books, and is designed to…

Abstract

The following classified, annotated list of titles is intended to provide reference librarians with a current checklist of new reference books, and is designed to supplement the RSR review column, “Recent Reference Books,” by Frances Neel Cheney. “Reference Books in Print” includes all additional books received prior to the inclusion deadline established for this issue. Appearance in this column does not preclude a later review in RSR. Publishers are urged to send a copy of all new reference books directly to RSR as soon as published, for immediate listing in “Reference Books in Print.” Reference books with imprints older than two years will not be included (with the exception of current reprints or older books newly acquired for distribution by another publisher). The column shall also occasionally include library science or other library related publications of other than a reference character.

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Reference Services Review, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1923

We deeply regret to announce the death, on October 4th, of Mr. William Thomson, F.R.S., F.I.C., Director of the Royal Institution Laboratory, Manchester, and Public…

Abstract

We deeply regret to announce the death, on October 4th, of Mr. William Thomson, F.R.S., F.I.C., Director of the Royal Institution Laboratory, Manchester, and Public Analyst for Stockport.—Mr. Thomson was associated with the “BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL” from the time when the Journal was established, and was a member of the Consulting Scientific Staff of the British Analytical Control.

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British Food Journal, vol. 25 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1927

The curative effects of lemon and orange juice in treatment of scurvy have been known for about two hundred years, and long precede our knowledge of the accessory food…

Abstract

The curative effects of lemon and orange juice in treatment of scurvy have been known for about two hundred years, and long precede our knowledge of the accessory food factors in any chemical sense. It is now generally known that scurvy is caused by the absence of water‐soluble vitamin C from the diet. The anti‐scorbutic factor occurs in fresh fruits, especially orange, lemon, and tomato. Lime juice is inferior in this respect. It is also present in green vegetables and some tubers. Being readily destroyed by oxidation, it is not usually present in dried fruits or preserved lemon or lime juice. After sprouting, seeds and roots become a comparatively rich source. Thus, in contradistinction to vitamin B, which is found chiefly in dried seeds, vitamin C is associated with fresh fruit and vegetables in which active metabolic processes are proceeding. Light does not appear to be necessary for its generation in seeds on germination. The requirements by animals of this vitamin vary considerably. Thus rats, mice and rabbits can be fed without apparent harm on a diet which contains no vitamin C, but man and the ape, monkey and guinea pig are susceptible to scurvy on such a diet.

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British Food Journal, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1948

H.M. TOMLINSON

I was not in the library seeking help on the subject of Art, but the long row of books about pictures stopped me; and, not in the hope that I might learn to paint, I…

Abstract

I was not in the library seeking help on the subject of Art, but the long row of books about pictures stopped me; and, not in the hope that I might learn to paint, I dipped into the volumes, and wondered. Would an artist who attended earnestly to the experts on the mortal parts of truth and beauty ever go near an easel? I think he might be in danger of paralysis through doubt. Perhaps he would turn to criticism. Of course the man who can do it, and knows he can, the fellow whose child‐like innocence is favoured now and then with what has been called the instant apprehension of totality (let nobody, please, ask what that means), that man, presumably, attends to the experts only on wet and blank days when he needs cheering up.

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Library Review, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1916

At a meeting of the Council of the Royal Borough of Kensington on the 9th May, Councillor R. DUDLEY BAXTER, Chairman of the Law and General Purposes Committee of the…

Abstract

At a meeting of the Council of the Royal Borough of Kensington on the 9th May, Councillor R. DUDLEY BAXTER, Chairman of the Law and General Purposes Committee of the Council, brought up a Report as follows:—

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British Food Journal, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 20 December 2013

Riley E. Dunlap

After briefly covering Bill Freudenburg’s early years, this essay reviews his major scholarly contributions and professional accomplishments while a faculty member at…

Abstract

After briefly covering Bill Freudenburg’s early years, this essay reviews his major scholarly contributions and professional accomplishments while a faculty member at Washington State University, the University of Wisconsin, and the University of California-Santa Barbara. Bill’s unique strengths – especially his keen sociological imagination – and crucial conceptual, theoretical and empirical contributions are highlighted, as well as his commitment to providing valuable mentoring for students and colleagues. The enduring importance of his work is ensured by the continuing application and extension of his ideas by other scholars.

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1902

In the very able and striking address which he recently delivered before the Society of Arts, Sir WILLIAM PREECE insisted that commercial success—whether of a man, of a…

Abstract

In the very able and striking address which he recently delivered before the Society of Arts, Sir WILLIAM PREECE insisted that commercial success—whether of a man, of a body of men, or of a nation—is referable to the working of distinct laws, the recognition and study of which may justly be said to constitute a “science of business.” In terms rendered the more severe by their dispassionate and moderate character, Sir WILLIAM referred to the lamentable ignorance displayed by the legislature, by the manufacturer, and by the general public, of what may bo regarded as the most elementary facts and methods upon which such a science must be based. He pointed to the loose and bungling character of our commercial legislation; to the lack of co‐operation and combination; to the nonexistence of a properly organised and effective consular service whereby full information could be supplied and the interests of British trade, both home and colonial, might be studied and advanced; and finally to the lethargy of British producers and manufacturers themselves, who allow foreign competitors to drive them out of even their own home markets without making an effort to discard the old‐fashioned and worn‐out methods which have given those competitors the advantage. Of late years the warning voice has been raised from time to time, but it has been as a voice crying in the wilderness. The remarkable speech delivered at the Guildhall by H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES is fresh in the recollection of those who are not too drowsy or too indifferent to appreciate the vital nature and the magnitude of the evil. In 1891 Lord PLAYFAIR stated that if the Americans were right in principle in the management of some of their commercial concerns, “the whole policy of the United Kingdom was founded on a gigantic error, and must lead to our ruin as a commercial nation.” Sir WILLIAM PREECE is amply justified in attaching severe blame to the British manufacturer and producer. They have allowed “the Americans and the Germans to oust them out of their own markets, not by any superiority in the quality of their goods, but by lower prices, by superior knowledge of the demands of the markets, by the establishment of new markets, by better direct communication with foreign countries, by superior methods in business ways, by establishing regular intelligence departments, and, above all, by possessing and exercising superior commercial technical knowledge,” “and,” continued Sir.WILLIAM, “they must lay aside the commercial habits of their fathers.” With regard to food‐products, for instance, can it be truly said that any adequate steps are taken to secure any satisfactory and permanent improvement of the national food supply with respect to purity and good quality? Has anything been done, with governmental or legislative assistance, to make a systematic study of, and provide authoritative information upon such questions as the sources from which food stuffs are obtained, the adequacy or inadequacy of supplies, the true value of home‐produce and the advantages of utilising colonial products as far as possible? The answers to these questions can only be emphatically in the negative. There is no civilised country in the world in which the producer and vendor of adulterated, impoverished, and inferior articles of food can cany on their nefarious practices with more impunity, in certain respects, than in the United Kingdom, although, originally, we led the way in framing legislative enactments on these all‐important matters. At every port of entry today we might most appropriately set up the old waste‐land notice that “rubbish may be shot here.” As we offer all the necessary facilities, and as they are being taken advantage of more and more, wo might also freely advise that “rubbish should bo manufactured here” as well, What steps do British producers and manufacturers of articles of food take to move with the times, to set their houses in order, to protect themselves, and to enable the public to differentiate between the good and the bad? In the vast majority of instances the attitude they adopt is still one of unmasterly inactivity, except in the direction of unscientific and clumsy advertisement. On this they spend enormous sums without proportionate returns, and in following this course they constantly lay themselves open to condemnatory criticism by the publication of unauthorised and exaggerated statements which, in spit© of CARLYLE'S dictum “mostly fools,” are now merely received by the general public with a shrug of the shoulders. The time has come when, in order not only to develop their trade but in order to keep it, British manufacturers must give evidence of an independent and authoritative character to justify the faith that is presumably in them in recommending their goods to the public. Those who refuse to entertain new ideas and who are content to rest in a semi‐comatose condition on the achievements of the past,—relying merely on the possession of the hitherto reputable “name of the firm,”—by the operation of an inexorable law must inevitably drop out of the race.

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British Food Journal, vol. 4 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 20 December 2013

Abstract

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William R. Freudenburg, A Life in Social Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-734-4

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