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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Xiaoying Dong and Louise T. Su

The World Wide Web's search engines are the main tools for indexing and retrieval of Internet resources today. Comparison and evaluation of their performance is of great…

2308

Abstract

The World Wide Web's search engines are the main tools for indexing and retrieval of Internet resources today. Comparison and evaluation of their performance is of great importance for system developers and information professionals, as well as end‐users, for the improvement and development of better tools. The paper describes categories and special features of Web‐based databases and compares them with traditional databases. It then presents a review of the literature on the testing and evaluation of Web‐based search engines. Different methodologies and measures used in previous studies are described and their findings are summarised. The paper presents some evaluative comments on previous studies and suggests areas for future investigation, particularly evaluation of Web‐based search engines from the end‐user's perspective.

Details

Online and CD-Rom Review, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1353-2642

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2019

Xiaoming Zhang, Mingming Meng, Xiaoling Sun and Yu Bai

With the advent of the era of Big Data, the scale of knowledge graph (KG) in various domains is growing rapidly, which holds huge amount of knowledge surely benefiting the…

Abstract

Purpose

With the advent of the era of Big Data, the scale of knowledge graph (KG) in various domains is growing rapidly, which holds huge amount of knowledge surely benefiting the question answering (QA) research. However, the KG, which is always constituted of entities and relations, is structurally inconsistent with the natural language query. Thus, the QA system based on KG is still faced with difficulties. The purpose of this paper is to propose a method to answer the domain-specific questions based on KG, providing conveniences for the information query over domain KG.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a method FactQA to answer the factual questions about specific domain. A series of logical rules are designed to transform the factual questions into the triples, in order to solve the structural inconsistency between the user’s question and the domain knowledge. Then, the query expansion strategies and filtering strategies are proposed from two levels (i.e. words and triples in the question). For matching the question with domain knowledge, not only the similarity values between the words in the question and the resources in the domain knowledge but also the tag information of these words is considered. And the tag information is obtained by parsing the question using Stanford CoreNLP. In this paper, the KG in metallic materials domain is used to illustrate the FactQA method.

Findings

The designed logical rules have time stability for transforming the factual questions into the triples. Additionally, after filtering the synonym expansion results of the words in the question, the expansion quality of the triple representation of the question is improved. The tag information of the words in the question is considered in the process of data matching, which could help to filter out the wrong matches.

Originality/value

Although the FactQA is proposed for domain-specific QA, it can also be applied to any other domain besides metallic materials domain. For a question that cannot be answered, FactQA would generate a new related question to answer, providing as much as possible the user with the information they probably need. The FactQA could facilitate the user’s information query based on the emerging KG.

Details

Data Technologies and Applications, vol. 54 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1999

Jaroslav Mackerle

This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the…

2150

Abstract

This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations on the subject that were published between 1977‐1998. The following topics are included: ceramics – material and mechanical properties in general, ceramic coatings and joining problems, ceramic composites, ferrites, piezoceramics, ceramic tools and machining, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, applications of ceramic/composites in engineering; glass – material and mechanical properties in general, glass fiber composites, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, and applications of glasses in engineering.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2022

Fei Yan, Hong-Zhuan Chen and Zhichao Zhang

Industry practice has shown that technology licensing has an important effect on the R&D cooperation between firms. Different licensing methods will significantly impact a…

Abstract

Purpose

Industry practice has shown that technology licensing has an important effect on the R&D cooperation between firms. Different licensing methods will significantly impact a supply chain member's cooperative and price R&D decisions. However, there is scant literature investigating the decision on technology licensing and its impact on a supply chain member's price and cooperative R&D decisions. To address this gap, the authors investigate the R&D cooperation and the technology licensing in a supply chain formed of an original equipment manufacturer (OEM), a contract manufacturer (CM), and a third-party manufacturer which will compete with the OEM when the technology licensing occurs.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors investigate two licensing patterns, royalty licensing, fixed fee licensing together with the no licensing, within the R&D cooperative supply chain by developing two three-stage and a two-stage Stackelberg models.

Findings

Compare to the no licensing strategy, technology licensing always benefits to the OEM and the society especially when the technology efficiency and the brand power of the third-party manufacturer are more significant; the royalty licensing benefits to the OEM more when the technology efficiency and the brand power of the third-party manufacturer are higher; the fixed fee licensing benefits to the OEM more when the technology efficiency and the brand power of the third-party manufacturer are lower.

Practical implications

The royalty licensing is more effective for mitigating price competition intensity and helping firms to maintain higher sales margins; the fixed fee licensing induces firms' lower sales margins but increases the firms' sales quantities; in most cases, the fixed fee licensing is optimal from the perspectives of consumer and society, however, the CM's investment intention to the R&D technology with the fixed fee licensing is lower.

Originality/value

So far, different licensing models under the R&D cooperation have not been investigated, and the authors propose two three-stage Stackelberg models with considering the competition caused by technology licensing under the R&D cooperation to deal with the cooperative R&D and technology licensing issues.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2022

Chunyun Zhang, Jie Mei, Yushuai Bai, Miao Cui, Haifeng Peng and X. W. Gao

The purpose of this study is to simultaneously determine the constitutive parameters and boundary conditions by solving inverse mechanical problems of power hardening…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to simultaneously determine the constitutive parameters and boundary conditions by solving inverse mechanical problems of power hardening elastoplastic materials in three-dimensional geometries.

Design/methodology/approach

The power hardening elastoplastic problem is solved by the complex variable finite element method in software ABAQUS, based on a three-dimensional complex stress element using user-defined element subroutine. The complex-variable-differentiation method is introduced and used to accurately calculate the sensitivity coefficients in the multiple parameters identification method, and the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is applied to carry out the inversion.

Findings

Numerical results indicate that the complex variable finite element method has good performance for solving elastoplastic problems of three-dimensional geometries. The inversion method is effective and accurate for simultaneously identifying multi-parameters of power hardening elastoplastic problems in three-dimensional geometries, which could be employed for solving inverse elastoplastic problems in engineering applications.

Originality/value

The constitutive parameters and boundary conditions are simultaneously identified for power hardening elastoplastic problems in three-dimensional geometries, which is much challenging in practical applications. The numerical results show that the inversion method has high accuracy, good stability, and fast convergence speed.

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

X.R. Zhang, L.Z. Liu, J.F. Li, W.W. Cui and L. Weng

The key purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different ultrasonic irradiation times on the wettability and other properties of the resulting water-based…

Abstract

Purpose

The key purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different ultrasonic irradiation times on the wettability and other properties of the resulting water-based coating. The subject water-based coating was prepared using water-soluble polyester and amino resins by ultrasonic oscillation.

Design/methodology/approach

The coating was prepared by polymerising polyester and amino resins in water using ultrasonic oscillation. The coating was baked for 40 seconds at 350°C to coalesce and solidify the film. The contact angle, thermal stability and mechanical properties of the film, as well as the molecular weight (MW) and structure of the polyester resin, were determined.

Findings

The contact angle of the coating was found to decrease with ultrasonic irradiation; the mechanical properties and thermal stability were not altered when the irradiation time was longer than 5 hours. The MW of the polyester initially decreased then increased and stabilized with ultrasonic irradiation. The structure of polyester molecule and aggregated state of the solidified coating were not changed by ultrasonic irradiation.

Research limitations/implications

In the study reported here, the effects of different ultrasonic irradiation times were investigated. Results of this research could benefit in-depth understanding of the influence of ultrasonic treatment on polyester resins and polyester coatings and could further promote the development of water-based coatings.

Originality/value

The contact angle of the water-based coating decreased by mechanical means. The effects of ultrasound on microstructure and properties of the coating and resin were discussed in detail.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 January 2015

Tage Koed Madsen, Hans Eibe Sørensen and Rosalina Torres-Ortega

Market orientation is often mentioned as a key factor for the success of domestic and international activities, but our knowledge about differences in degrees of market…

Abstract

Market orientation is often mentioned as a key factor for the success of domestic and international activities, but our knowledge about differences in degrees of market orientation remains limited for firms that have varying degrees of international activities. In particular, the literature is very sparse with regard to studies of newly established firms. Our study empirically explores this gap examining how different types of new ventures adopt two strategic components of market orientation – customer orientation and competitor orientation. Our empirical evidence is based on responses from CEOs of 249 Danish manufacturing firms that are categorized into four groups, depending on their degree of international operations within the first three years. We demonstrate that the most internationally oriented firms seem to be the most market oriented in general. They are significantly more competitor-oriented than domestically oriented firms, but the results regarding customer orientation are more mixed. Interestingly, we find indications that the strategic emphasis on customer orientation may be higher for firms with domestic operations than for those with limited international operations. We discuss implications for research and managers.

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Sadia Cheema, Malka Liaquat, Fatima Wyne and Sadia Ishaque

This chapter attempts to explore customer loyalty and retention in the context of Pakistani restaurants. Effects of customer perceived value and service quality as…

Abstract

This chapter attempts to explore customer loyalty and retention in the context of Pakistani restaurants. Effects of customer perceived value and service quality as antecedents are tested on customer loyalty and retention along with the mediating effects of customer satisfaction and customer relationship management quality. This chapter is conducted in 15 restaurants from Multan. Results reveal how the restaurant sector lacks a monitoring mechanism that promotes an effective customer relationship. For example, what kinds of measurements the manager could use to enhance a customer's loyalty and retention.

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

M.Y. Zhang, L.Z. Liu, L. Weng, W.W. Cui and K.S. Hui

– The aim of this study was to fabricate polyimide (PI)/Al2O3 composite films via surface modification and ion exchange techniques, and examine their properties.

314

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to fabricate polyimide (PI)/Al2O3 composite films via surface modification and ion exchange techniques, and examine their properties.

Design/methodology/approach

The method involves hydrolyzing the PI film double surface layers in an aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution and incorporating aluminium ions (Al3+) into the hydrolyzed layers of the PI film via subsequent ion exchange, followed by a treatment of the Al3+-loaded PI films with an aqueous ammonia solution, which leads to the formation of Al(OH)3 in the surface-modified layers. After a final thermal annealing treatment in ambient air, the Al(OH)3 decomposes to Al2O3, and forms composite layers on both surfaces of the re-imidized PI film.

Findings

The PI/Al2O3 composite film obtained with a 6 hours of KOH treatment exhibited excellent thermal stability, good mechanical properties and better electric breakdown strength and corona-resistance properties than the pristine PI film.

Practical implications

The method for obtaining the composite films in this paper is worth consideration, but additional research will be needed. Furthermore, this method is of general importance for the fabrication of composite PI films with tailored properties.

Originality/value

This study showed that surface modification and ion-exchange techniques are powerful methodologies for the fabrication of PI/Al2O3 composite films.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 August 2014

Colin D. Butler

This chapter explores the protest self-immolations since 2009 of over 100 Tibetans in China. It investigates whether these events have ecological as well as social causes…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter explores the protest self-immolations since 2009 of over 100 Tibetans in China. It investigates whether these events have ecological as well as social causes and may thus be relevant to the emerging discipline of ‘EcoHealth’.

Method

Targeted literature review and reflective analysis, presented as a narrative.

Findings

Chinese citizens identifying as Tibetan have experienced substantial ethnically based discrimination for over 60 years, manifest as attempted cultural destruction, pervasive disrespect and linguistic suppression. Tibetans, now a minority in much of their former territory, have witnessed and at times been forced to participate in ecological destruction, much of it led by Chinese settlers, endorsed by occupying authorities. Tibetans have for decades protested against the Chinese they regard as invaders and occupiers, but Tibetan acts of protest self-immolation are a recent response. Academic analysis has been scarce, particularly by Chinese scholars. Until now, EcoHealth practitioners have also denied any relevance, as if in a waltz led by the Chinese government.

Practical and social implications

Attempts to identify rational causes for Tibetan self-immolation conflict with themes of liberation and fairness central to Communist Chinese ideology. Most Chinese analysis of Tibetan self-immolation is superficial, nationalistic and unsympathetic. Also disturbing is the reaction to these issues shown by the International Association of Ecology and Health. It is suggested that this illustrates a failure to translate rhetoric of ‘speaking truth to power’ to reality, a retreat from idealism common to many social movements.

Originality and value

Increasing human demand on a limited biosphere necessitates a deepened understanding of eco-social factors. Practitioners concerned with sustaining our civilisation are encouraged to explore the integrated dimensions revealed by this case study.

Details

Ecological Health: Society, Ecology and Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-323-0

Keywords

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