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Book part

Eugene Choo and Shannon Seitz

We develop and estimate an empirical collective model with endogenous marriage formation, participation, and family labor supply. Intra-household transfers arise…

Abstract

We develop and estimate an empirical collective model with endogenous marriage formation, participation, and family labor supply. Intra-household transfers arise endogenously as the transfers that clear the marriage market. The intra-household allocation can be recovered from observations on marriage decisions. Introducing the marriage market in the collective model allows us to independently estimate transfers from labor supplies and from marriage decisions. We estimate a semiparametric version of our model using 1980, 1990, and 2000 US Census data. Estimates of the model using marriage data are much more consistent with the theoretical predictions than estimates derived from labor supply.

Details

Structural Econometric Models
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-052-9

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Article

Maryam Almasifard

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender wage gap, productivity level of labor force and international trade for a sample of 13 developing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender wage gap, productivity level of labor force and international trade for a sample of 13 developing upper-middle income countries over the period 2001 to 2015.

Design/methodology/approach

According to different statistical tests such as F-Limer test, the proper method for estimating this model is panel regression analysis. The Hausman test was handled to realize the fixed or random effect characteristics of this data. The final result of this test shows that the data follow some kind of random behavior which makes the panel regression model, random effect a suitable method for estimating this data.

Findings

The regression results showed that women’s (and mens) employment in this sample has a positive relationship with their wages. Results showed that labor force’s productivity level affects their wage, and therefore, productivity difference between women and men is impressive on the gender wage gap. The significant finding is about international trade. While international trade has a positive effect on the wage rate of both genders, this effect is stronger for the female labor force. As a result of a stronger effect of international trade on the female labor force, a negative effect of international trade on the gender wage gap is observed.

Research limitations/implications

Productivity variables are not available for this sample countries, so the author creates a new variable which is going to be used as a proxy for productivity. The author divides value added in each section (Agriculture, Manufacture, Industry, Service) by the total number of employees in that section; then for calculating the productivity rate of women, the author multiplies the result by the percentage of the employed women in that sector; for the productivity of men in that sector, the author multiplies the result by the percentage of men employed in that sector.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the available studies by selecting a new sample of developing countries with upper-middle income level and also by introducing a new variable which is useful for measuring labor force productivity level.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article

SOCIAL responsibility is a phrase widely employed today. The mass media harps on it as much as it was prone to do about worker participation. Rarely, however, does anyone…

Abstract

SOCIAL responsibility is a phrase widely employed today. The mass media harps on it as much as it was prone to do about worker participation. Rarely, however, does anyone analyse it and explain in simple terms what it really means, whether it is desirable and how it can be achieved.

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Work Study, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

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Article

Olive Robinson and John Wallace

Equal Pay—Objectives and Achievement Equal pay for women has a history of policy declarations dating back in Great Britain to the resolution of the Trades Union Congress…

Abstract

Equal Pay—Objectives and Achievement Equal pay for women has a history of policy declarations dating back in Great Britain to the resolution of the Trades Union Congress in 1888: “That in the opinion of this Congress it is desirable, in the interests of both men and women, that in trades where women do the same work as men, they shall receive the same pay.” On an international level the International Labour Organisation included the concept of “equal remuneration for work of equal value” in its constitution adopted in 1919, reiterating the principle in Convention 100 in 1951, which was not however ratified by this country until 1971, one year after the passage of the Equal Pay Act. The United Nations Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 states that “everyone, without distinction, has the right to equal pay for equal work”, with a more precise definition in its 1967 Declation on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, “that all appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure to women,… the right to equal remuneration with men and to equality of treatment in respect of work of equal value”. In contrast, under Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome member states of the European Economic Community are required to “ensure and subsequently maintain the application of the principle that men and women should receive equal pay for equal work”.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Ayala Malach‐Pines and Dafna Schwartz

While the numbers of, and research on, women entrepreneurs have accelerated radically in recent years, the rates of women entrepreneurs remain significantly lower than men'…

Abstract

Purpose

While the numbers of, and research on, women entrepreneurs have accelerated radically in recent years, the rates of women entrepreneurs remain significantly lower than men's. Research has shown that subjective perceptual variables have a crucial influence on the entrepreneurial propensity of women and account for much of the gender differences in entrepreneurial activity. The paper aims to describe three studies that addressed gender differences in entrepreneurial perceptions, testing predictions derived from Schneider's Attraction Selection Attrition (ASA) model.

Design/methodology/approach

Each study focused on a different subject population with different entrepreneurial activity. The first was a national telephone survey that involved 514 Israeli adults. The second involved 313 Israeli management students who responded to a self‐report questionnaire. The third involved interviews with 101 Israeli small business owners.

Findings

The results of the first study showed few gender differences in entrepreneurial traits and values. The results of the second study showed large gender differences in the willingness to start a business among management students and smaller differences among students who intend to start a business. Gender differences were far smaller among actual business owners. Alone and together the three studies support Schneider's ASA model.

Practical implications

The practical implications of these findings are addressed.

Originality/value

The paper provides valuable information on gender differences in entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article

THE death of Sir John Ballinger was the cardinal library event of January. Elsewhere one of our contributors has gathered his memories of this distinguished past president…

Abstract

THE death of Sir John Ballinger was the cardinal library event of January. Elsewhere one of our contributors has gathered his memories of this distinguished past president of the Library Association. Here we pay tribute to a great librarian whose devotion to all that is best in the service was life‐long and who received honours which are not always given to librarians. Achieving a relatively important library position in early life, he not only gave his city an admirable service; he found time to work for all the general interests of the profession. The respect and gratitude, and indeed the affection, of all of us surrounded his later years and go with him to his grave. Our sympathy is respectfully expressed to Lady Ballinger and her family.

Details

New Library World, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article

OUR new features of record and reminiscence appear to have been appreciated by our readers; and, as this number shows, we continue with increased pages and are…

Abstract

OUR new features of record and reminiscence appear to have been appreciated by our readers; and, as this number shows, we continue with increased pages and are endeavouring to extend our scope to meet every kind of library interest. There is an atmosphere, of change and, as some think, of crisis, in library matters, especially in those of the public library. The winter to which our minds turn in mid‐September is likely to be interesting and may bring decisions of various kinds. We hope to reflect them, and, as is our invariable custom, invite readers to use us to express their views as well as their experiences.

Details

New Library World, vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article

Ayala Malach‐Pines and Dafna Schwartz

Few studies address the gender of small business owners (SBO) and those that do report inconsistent results. These inconsistencies are related to a controversy regarding…

Abstract

Purpose

Few studies address the gender of small business owners (SBO) and those that do report inconsistent results. These inconsistencies are related to a controversy regarding gender differences in management: Are men and women managers similar or different and why? Four theories address this question: evolutionary, psychoanalytic, social role, and social construction. The purpose of the paper is to test the contradictory predictions derived from these four theories in the case of men and women SBO in Israel.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 101 Israeli SBO responded to a specially designed questionnaire.

Findings

All four theories received some support. The findings that men SBO described themselves as more motivated by status and were more concerned with competition support evolutionary theory. The findings that the most SBO were first born and had fathers who were business owners support psychoanalytic theory. The findings that more women SBO did not serve in the army whereas more men were commanders support social role theory. However, the most overwhelming support was for social construction theory. In every aspect studied, gender similarities were far greater than the differences: in demographic characteristics, characteristics of work and of business, and motivation for starting it.

Research limitations/implications

Future studies will need to replicate these findings with larger samples, other types of businesses, and different cultures.

Practical implications

For the training and support of women and men SBO.

Originality/value

The paper is theory‐driven focuses on a widely debated topic (gender differences in management) in the context of a particular group (SBO) and a particular culture (Israel).

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article

A NEW YEAR is always a time for a glance backwards and forwards, in the library world as in other worlds. If 1937 was not particularly dramatic in events or achievements…

Abstract

A NEW YEAR is always a time for a glance backwards and forwards, in the library world as in other worlds. If 1937 was not particularly dramatic in events or achievements, it was at least a year which was not unworthy in the library movement. A list of the libraries which came into being appears every year in the Annual Report of the L.A. and we are convinced that the one for the year just ended will be quite sizeable. The opening of a branch library now‐a‐days, as an addition to a large system, or to serve a lately‐populated part of a new area, excites little comment; and that, in itself, is significant and gratifying. People are coming to regard the provision of public libraries as a normal part of urban and even village equipment.

Details

New Library World, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article

WE publish this issue on the eve of the Brighton Conference and our hope is that this number of The Library World will assist the objects of that meeting. Everything…

Abstract

WE publish this issue on the eve of the Brighton Conference and our hope is that this number of The Library World will assist the objects of that meeting. Everything connected with the Conference appears to have been well thought out. It is an excellent thing that an attempt has been made to get readers of papers to write them early in order that they might be printed beforehand. Their authors will speak to the subject of these papers and not read them. Only a highly‐trained speaker can “get over” a written paper—witness some of the fiascos we hear from the microphone, for which all papers that are broadcast have to be written. But an indifferent reader, when he is really master of his subject, can make likeable and intelligible remarks extemporarily about it. As we write somewhat before the Conference papers are out we do not know if the plan to preprint the papers has succeeded. We are sure that it ought to have done so. It is the only way in which adequate time for discussion can be secured.

Details

New Library World, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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