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Abstract

Details

Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence in Marketing and Sales
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-881-1

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2022

Tian Wang, Yangyang Liang and Zhong Zheng

The purpose of this paper is to investigate manufacturer encroachment and distributor encroachment in a three-echelon supply chain consisting of an upside manufacturer, an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate manufacturer encroachment and distributor encroachment in a three-echelon supply chain consisting of an upside manufacturer, an intermediate distributor and a downside retailer.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors use the optimization theory to mathematize the proposed question and build a model. First, the authors consider sequential quantity decisions, where the encroacher decides on the direct selling quantity after determining the retailer's order quantity. Second, the authors relax this sequential decision process assumption by reconsidering a circumstance in which quantity decisions are decided simultaneously.

Findings

In contrast to previous studies, this study shows that in three-echelon supply chains, the upside firm is more likely to encroach compared with the downside firm. The “bright side” of encroachment exists for all players only when the encroachment cost is at a moderate level. However, in manufacturer encroachment under simultaneous quantity decisions, the “bright side” skips the distributor but benefits the retailer directly as the encroachment cost increases from zero to a certain level. The main reason lies in that the distributor loses its pricing power because the end-market has been disturbed by the simultaneous quantity decisions. A comparison of the results of sequential and simultaneous quantity decisions reveals the merit of simultaneous quantity decisions. The authors find that the intermediate role (the distributor in our model) in three-echelon supply chains may benefit more from simultaneous quantity decisions. That is, the distributor may achieve a better profit even in a market with intensified competition.

Originality/value

The findings of this paper contribute to the marketing science literature on encroachment. The majority of existing literature has focused on manufacturer encroachment in two-echelon supply chains. This paper innovatively investigates and compares manufacturer encroachment and distributor encroachment in a three-echelon supply chain.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 34 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Ana‐Maria Wahl

Investigates urban bias in state policy making in Mexico. Refers to literature claiming that rural poverty in developing nations is a major problem because capitalism…

Abstract

Investigates urban bias in state policy making in Mexico. Refers to literature claiming that rural poverty in developing nations is a major problem because capitalism reflects an urban bias. Examines social security coverage for the rural poor in Mexico and notes that there are great variations depending on area, suggesting that social security coverage is politically negotiable. Outlines briefly the historical development of Mexico’s welfare state and uses a power resource model to demonstrate how groups with competing interests go about securing benefits from the state. Cites literature on dependency theory, indicating that rural groups have failed to mobilize politically and have therefore not secured the same state resources (such as social security benefits and housing) as urban groups, yet argues that this does not always apply in Mexico, partially due to party politics and bureaucratic paternalism. Explains how data was collected to examine regional variations in social security coverage among the rural poor and how the data was analysed. Reveal that workers in important international export markets (such as cotton and sugar) have greater political leverage in obtaining better social security benefits. Notes also that areas supporting the political party in power obtain better benefits. Concludes, therefore, that rural workers are not powerless in the face of urban capitalism and that urban bias and dependency theories do not reflect the situation in Mexico – rather social security benefits are politically negotiable.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Kanchan Das

The purpose of this paper is to create a resilient supply chain (SC) plan to contain disruptions and risks in the overall operations of a business.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to create a resilient supply chain (SC) plan to contain disruptions and risks in the overall operations of a business.

Design/methodology/approach

The study integrates resilience considerations in a business planning model that formulates resilience performance (RP) of SC functions in terms of flexibility, reliability, and similar system factors. It evaluates the RP of SC plans and determines their vulnerability considering required and planned resources. The model estimates the possible effects of disasters on vulnerable functions using a scenario-based analysis and plans containment options. It also includes decision options for deploying resources to achieve the expected levels of resilience by preventing potential vulnerabilities. The model takes optimum decision in a what-if approach by comparing performance of the existing business plan, with options for containing the vulnerabilities inherent in not considering potential risks when planning to fulfill market demand, and the performance of a resilient plan that includes decision options to prevent vulnerabilities where possible and mitigate them otherwise.

Findings

It is possible, for example, to evaluate RP of SC plans, identify vulnerable functions, and decide optimum option to create resilient business system.

Research limitations/implications

The present study takes a generic approach and creates bases to explore its application in any industry-based case.

Originality/value

The research introduces formulations for RPs and vulnerability indices that can be included in a planning model to create a resilient SC.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Syeda Zakia Hossain

Draws on data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey to explore whether or not socio‐demographic factors such as woman’s age, education, occupation, income and…

Abstract

Draws on data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey to explore whether or not socio‐demographic factors such as woman’s age, education, occupation, income and residence affect fertility because of different attitudes towards decision making and the use of contraception. Describes the methodology used and forms of data analysis – path modelling via LISREL. Analyses the findings – that as the woman’s age increases so does the number of children ever born, women who have not completed primary education have more children than women who have completed secondary or higher education, urban women have fewer children than rural women, and women with more education and a higher income have more autonomy in decision making, consequently are more likely to use contraception and have fewer children. Reports that when men make the decisions, families are larger and infers that there are policy implications in that finding. Concludes that the determining factors affecting fertility and use of contraception in Bangladesh are the woman’s level of education, residence in urban or rural areas, and the extent of inter‐spouse communication.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Ann Marie Wood

Explores the extent of employee surveillance in the western world and queries why the USA uses surveillance measures to a greater extent than other developed nations…

1522

Abstract

Explores the extent of employee surveillance in the western world and queries why the USA uses surveillance measures to a greater extent than other developed nations. Suggests that American managers choose surveillance methods which include the control of workers’ bodies in the production process. Lists the batteries of tests and monitoring to which US employees can now be subjected – including searching employee computer files, voice/e‐mail, monitoring telephone calls, drug tests, alcohol tests, criminal record checks, lie detector and handwriting tests. Notes also the companies which are opposed to worker and consumer privacy rights. Pinpoints the use of surveillance as a means to ensure that employees do not withold production. Reports that employees dislike monitoring and that it may adversely affect their performance and productivity. Argues that Americans like to address complex social problems with technological means, there are no data protection laws in the USA, and that these two factors, combined with the “employment‐at‐will” doctrine, have all contributed to make it possible (and easy) for employers to use technological surveillance of their workforce. Outlines some of the ways employers insist on the purification of workers’ bodies.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Robin Stryker

Introduces a special issue on globalization and the welfare state. Asserts that economic globalization constrains national economic and social policy far more now than…

5804

Abstract

Introduces a special issue on globalization and the welfare state. Asserts that economic globalization constrains national economic and social policy far more now than ever before, although the level of international trade has not increased that much compared to levels at the beginning of this century. Talks about the political consequences of economic globalization, particularly welfare state retrenchment in the advanced capitalist world. Outlines the papers included in this issue – comparing welfare system changes in Sweden, the UK and the USA; urban bias in state policy‐making in Mexico; and the developing of the Israeli welfare state. Concludes that economic globalization has a limited effect in shaping social welfare policy in advanced capitalist countries; nevertheless, recommends further research into which aspects of economic globalization shape social welfare policy.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2013

Federico Echenique, SangMok Lee and Matthew Shum

We propose a methodology for estimating preference parameters in matching models. Our estimator applies to repeated observations of matchings among a fixed group of…

Abstract

We propose a methodology for estimating preference parameters in matching models. Our estimator applies to repeated observations of matchings among a fixed group of individuals. Our estimator is based on the stability conditions in matching models; we consider both transferable (TU) and nontransferable utility (NTU) models. In both cases, the stability conditions yield moment inequalities which can be taken to the data. The preference parameters are partially identified. We consider simple illustrative examples, and also an empirical application to aggregate marriage markets.

Details

Structural Econometric Models
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-052-9

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Mathematical and Economic Theory of Road Pricing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-045671-3

Abstract

Details

Contingent Valuation: A Critical Assessment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-860-5

1 – 10 of over 253000