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Article
Publication date: 23 May 2008

W.I. Al Mannai and T.G. Lewis

The purpose of this paper is to present a competitive defender‐attacker risk model that assumes a dual exponential relationship between defender (Ci) and attacker (Ai

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a competitive defender‐attacker risk model that assumes a dual exponential relationship between defender (Ci) and attacker (Ai) resource allocation: vi(Ai,Ci)=eαici−eαiCiγiAi.

Design/methodology/approach

Network risk is defined in terms of degree sequence, g, node/link damage, d, and probability of failure, v: R=∑gividi. The paper finds the optimal allocation of resources (Ai, Ci) that minimizes R from the defender's point of view, and maximizes R from the attacker's point of view.

Findings

The effectiveness of the optimal min‐max strategy is compared with three allocation strategies: random, non‐network, and network. It is shown that total network risk is minimized by the non‐network strategy, because this strategy considers damage values and ignores network topology in the definition of risk.

Originality/value

The method is illustrated by applying it to critical infrastructure – a hypothetical water‐and‐power network.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Dawn Mannay

Purpose – This chapter explores the relational and emotional lifeworlds of qualitative interviews. The chapter documents the ways in which I have negotiated the sharing of…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter explores the relational and emotional lifeworlds of qualitative interviews. The chapter documents the ways in which I have negotiated the sharing of traumatic accounts without being able to fix or repair their causes, and how I struggled to listen to recollections without trying to appropriate, accentuate or ameliorate their affective resonances.

Methodology/Approach – The chapter focuses on one case from a four-year study with mothers and their daughters in a marginalised area of South Wales, UK. The study drew on visual and creative methods of data production, including mapping, collage, photoelicitation and timelines, which were accompanied by in-depth elicitation interviews.

Findings – The chapter illustrates the usefulness of reflecting on emotions to understand the communication of trauma, and its emotional impacts on research relationships both within and beyond the field.

Originality/Value – The chapter builds on earlier work that has attempted to consider in detail the nature of the interaction between researchers and participants. It argues that psychoanalytically informed frames of analysis can engender a more nuanced understanding of the relationality and emotionality of qualitative research; particularly when topics are hard to speak of and hard to bear.

Details

Emotion and the Researcher: Sites, Subjectivities, and Relationships
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-611-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Dawn Mannay

This chapter reflects on an undergraduate dissertation study that explored the idea of school choice with parents from different socioeconomic backgrounds who were all…

Abstract

This chapter reflects on an undergraduate dissertation study that explored the idea of school choice with parents from different socioeconomic backgrounds who were all connected through their son’s football team. The project became ‘lost’ when the author’s doctoral work took a different direction; however, this loss was not complete as there was an extended physical engagement with the research site, a social tapestry of ongoing connections, and a psychological and intellectual reflexive process that has both influenced and guided the author’s future studies and writing. The original study involved individual interviews with the boys’ parents, discussing the transition from junior school to secondary school. As well as some informal ethnographic observations of the football games and wider community activities. It employed the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to explore the extent to which parents have a ‘choice’ about their children’s education. The findings of the study supported the premise that there are pervasive forms of classed based inequalities in education and the idea of a ‘fallacy’ of school choice. The theoretical frameworks applied highlighted the ways in which ‘choice’ is constrained in relation to finance, place, class and ideas of belonging and community. The ‘lost’ project would have taken a longitudinal approach to follow the journeys of boys using multimodal forms of ethnography. The chapter argues that even though projects may be lost, they are not forgotten. It details how the author’s ideas for following up the football boys and the findings of the initial study have done, and continue to permeate the author’s thinking, research and understandings of place, class, stigma, constraint and the absence of choice for individuals and communities.

Details

The Lost Ethnographies: Methodological Insights from Projects that Never Were
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-773-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Dawn Mannay, Jordon Creaghan, Dunla Gallagher, Sherelle Mason, Melanie Morgan and Aimee Grant

Motherhood and mothering are conceived in relation to classed hierarchies through which those living in poverty become characterized by “otherhood” and “othering.” This…

Abstract

Motherhood and mothering are conceived in relation to classed hierarchies through which those living in poverty become characterized by “otherhood” and “othering.” This positioning leaves them vulnerable to overt and indirect forms of criticism, surveillance, and policing from family, friends, professionals, and strangers; against a background of demonization of particular types of mothers and mothering practices in the wider mediascape. This chapter draws on 3 studies, involving 28 participants, which explored their journeys into the space of parenthood and their everyday experiences. The participants all resided in low-income locales. Many participants had resided in homeless hostels and mother and baby units before being placed in local authority housing or low-grade rented accommodation. The studies all employed forms of visual ethnography, including photoelicitation, timelines, emotion stickers, collage, and sandboxing. Participants discussed different forms of surveillance where other people were characterized as “watching what I’m doing, watching how I’m doing it.” These forms of watching ranged from the structured policing encountered in mother-and-baby units to more informal comments from passers-by or passengers on a bus journey; and an awareness of how mothers in state housing are depicted in the media. These interactions were sometimes met with resistance. At other times, they were simply another incident that participants negotiated in a growing tapestry of disrespect and devaluation. This chapter argues that these discourses demonize and alienate mothers living on the margins, making already difficult journeys a constant struggle in the moral maze of contemporary motherhood and its accompanying conceptualizations of “otherhood.”

Details

Marginalized Mothers, Mothering from the Margins
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-400-8

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Aimee Grant

Purpose – Drawing on a study of data extracts ‘mined’ from the Internet without interaction with the author, this chapter considers the emotional implications of online…

Abstract

Purpose – Drawing on a study of data extracts ‘mined’ from the Internet without interaction with the author, this chapter considers the emotional implications of online ‘participant absent research’. The chapter argues that researchers should reflexively consider the ways in which data collection techniques framed as ‘passive’ actively impact on researchers’ emotional lifeworlds. Consequently, it is important to ensure that researchers are adequately prepared and supported.

Methodology/Approach – The data introduced in this chapter were constructed around a single case study. This example documents an incident where a woman was asked to leave a sports shop in the UK because she was breastfeeding. Not allowing breastfeeding within a business is illegal in the UK, and this case resulted in a protest. The study involved an analysis of user-generated data from an online news site and Twitter.

Findings – Drawing on field notes and conversations with colleagues, the chapter explores the value of reflexivity for successfully managing researchers’ emotional responses to disturbing data during the process of analysis.

Originality/Value – Whilst the role of emotion is often considered as part of ethnographic practice in studies utilising face-to-face encounters, it is underexplored in the online domain. This chapter presents, through a detailed example, a reflective account of the emotion work required in participant absent research, and offers strategies to reflexively manage emotions.

Details

Emotion and the Researcher: Sites, Subjectivities, and Relationships
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-611-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Amie Scarlett Hodges

Purpose – This chapter will discuss how the positional self and prior experiences can influence the emotional self within the research journey, for example, being a…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter will discuss how the positional self and prior experiences can influence the emotional self within the research journey, for example, being a sibling and losing a sibling. It explores the researcher’s emotional experience when working with children and their families, with a specific focus on the influence of the researcher presence and the sibling equilibrium.

Methodology/Approach – The chapter draws on the dramaturgical social interactions encountered in qualitative research which explored the experiences of siblings living in the context of cystic fibrosis. The study uses narrative inquiry and creative participatory methods to elicit sibling stories and provides insight into their worlds.

Findings – The chapter reflects on specific situations encountered on entering, engaging in and leaving the field, which had a significant emotional impact. Two sibling vignettes will be presented along with a discussion of how reflective metaphorical expression can be applied as a method of processing and coping with the research context.

Originality/Value – The chapter argues that the positional self and prior experiences can influence the emotional self within the research journey, and that reflective metaphorical expression can be used as a strategy to process thoughts and gain greater understanding of a situation as well as to provide an emotional release for the researcher. It also suggests that conducting research over a longer time period, as opposed to one visit, can be beneficial in terms of participant and researcher emotional transition.

Details

Emotion and the Researcher: Sites, Subjectivities, and Relationships
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-611-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Katherine Carroll

Purpose – This chapter critically engages with a positively oriented emotional reflexivity with the aim of improving inclusivity in bereavement research.

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter critically engages with a positively oriented emotional reflexivity with the aim of improving inclusivity in bereavement research.

Methodology/Approach – The heartfelt positivity methodology intentionally creates positivity through the everyday practices of academic research. In this chapter, emotional reflexivity is guided by the heartfelt positivity methodology to identify and learn from collaborators’ emotions. It focuses on collaborators whose involvement in the academic community falls beyond that of the immediate research team at different stages of bereavement research.

Findings – The emotions of collaborators involved in bereavement research have been overlooked, yet their inclusion reveals a significant potential for the sanctioning of bereaved mothers’ potential participation in bereavement-focused research or breastmilk donation programmes. Key learnings that may be applied to conducting future bereavement research are (i) the potential for collaborators to also be bereaved parents (ii) the continued need to strive for the inclusion of bereaved parents in research and (iii) to extend the methodological principle of emotional reflexivity to include research collaborators when researching emotionally sensitive topics.

Originality/Value – This chapter argues that bereaved mothers’ knowledge and practices of thriving in hard times can either be fostered or derailed at different stages of the research cycle depending on which narratives frame human suffering. For researchers and collaborators, emotional reflexivity is crucial to inclusive research practices and knowledge translation.

Details

Emotion and the Researcher: Sites, Subjectivities, and Relationships
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-611-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 May 2016

Andrew Parker

To outline the kinds of problems and dilemmas which researchers might experience in professional sports settings and to highlight the way in which gender might shape those…

Abstract

Purpose

To outline the kinds of problems and dilemmas which researchers might experience in professional sports settings and to highlight the way in which gender might shape those experiences.

Methodology/approach

An ethnography of professional football.

Findings

Few social researchers have managed to breach the institutional bounds of professional sport and fewer still have carried out ethnographic work within this context. Gender inevitably impacts the complexion of sporting domains and this manifests itself in everyday behaviours and sub-cultural practices. Qualitative research has the potential to uncover the nuances of individual and collective behaviours within such settings and to shed light upon the ways in which gender relations shape the contours of institutional life.

Originality/value

To situate current debate around methods within wider discussions of gender and social research and against the backdrop of theoretical shifts in the conceptualisation of masculinities.

Details

Gender Identity and Research Relationships
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-025-1

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Reema Tayyem, Sabika Allehdan, Hiba Bawadi, Georgianna Tuuri, Mariam Al-Mannai and Abdulrahman Obaid Musaiger

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the associations between adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ and peers’ opinions about body weight and their actual weight status.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the associations between adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ and peers’ opinions about body weight and their actual weight status.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 795 Jordanian adolescents, 15-18 years of age, were recruited in this study. Adolescents completed a questionnaire to evaluate their perceptions: about how their parents’ and peers’ viewed their weight, regarding any criticism of their parents and peers about their weight and if their parents compared their weight against their siblings.

Findings

The study found that the majority of non-overweight adolescents thought their parents and peers considered them to have a normal weight (94.9 and 94.6 per cent for boys, 76.6 and 85.5 per cent for girls, respectively). For obese girls, 83.4 per cent thought their parents and 91.7 per cent thought their peers perceived them as overweight. The risk of being obese was significantly related to the amount of parental criticism perceived by adolescent girls with OR = 3.9 (95 per cent CI: 1.6-9.4; P = 0.01), while perception of peer criticism showed an increased trend of risk for obesity in boys. Adolescents’ perceptions regarding parental comparisons between their body weights against their siblings’ body weight was found to increase the risk for obesity significantly among girls.

Originality/value

The current study highlights that most of the obese adolescents perceived that their parents and peers underestimated their actual weight status. While obese boys were more likely to report being criticized about their body shape by their peers, obese girls indicated that they received more criticism about their weight from their parents.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Ghassan H. Mardini, Yasean A. Tahat and David M. Power

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of segmental reporting disclosure and its value relevance to a sample of Qatari and Jordanian listed companies following…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of segmental reporting disclosure and its value relevance to a sample of Qatari and Jordanian listed companies following the implementation review of the International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) 8. This was the first standard to be subjected to a post-implementation review. Annual reports are initially analyzed to investigate the level of segmental information that was published by companies in these two countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Ohlson (1995) model, the study employs regression analysis to test the hypotheses relating to the value relevance of the segmental disclosures uncovered. In addition, one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests are used to investigate any variation in segmental reporting among sectors.

Findings

The findings indicate that the amount of segmental information disclosed by the sample firms differs across sectors. Moreover, the segmental information provided (including the number of segments and the amounts of disclosure) is value relevant and can explain the variations in firms’ share prices.

Practical implications

The results of the current investigation have implications for policy makers, including the International Accounting Standards Board, as well as for accounting regulators in Jordan and Qatar. They suggest that the segmental disclosures supplied under IFRS 8 are value relevant for equity prices in a developing country context. Compliance with IFRS 8 should thus be monitored to ensure that all firms provide the segmental disclosures that they are meant to supply under the terms of the standard.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the few to provide empirical evidence on the role of segmental reporting following the post-implementation review that was conducted for IFRS 8.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

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