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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Hangjun Yang, Qiong Zhang and Qiang Wang

In this chapter, we will review the history, deregulation, policy reforms, and airline consolidations and mergers of the Chinese airline industry. The measurement of…

Abstract

In this chapter, we will review the history, deregulation, policy reforms, and airline consolidations and mergers of the Chinese airline industry. The measurement of airline competition in China’s domestic market will also be discussed. Although air deregulation is still ongoing, the Chinese airline industry has become a market-driven business subject to some mild regulations. Then, we will review the impressive development of the high-speed rail (HSR) network in China and its effects on the domestic civil aviation market. In general, previous studies have found that the introduction of HSR services has a significant negative impact on airfare and air travel demand in China. The rapidly expanding network of HSR has important policy implications for Chinese airlines.

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Yuanhua Yang, Dengli Tang and Peng Zhang

Fiscal fund is the key support of carbon emissions control for local governments. This paper aims to analyze the impact of fiscal decentralization on carbon emissions by…

Abstract

Purpose

Fiscal fund is the key support of carbon emissions control for local governments. This paper aims to analyze the impact of fiscal decentralization on carbon emissions by spatial Durbin model (SDM), and verify the existence of “free-riding” phenomenon to reveal the behavior of local governments in carbon emissions control.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the provincial data of carbon emissions from 2005 to 2016 in China, this paper uses spatial exploratory data analysis technology to analyze the spatial correlation characteristics and constructs SDM to test the impact of fiscal decentralization on carbon emissions.

Findings

The results show that carbon emissions exhibits significant spatial autocorrelation in China, and the increasing of fiscal decentralization in the region will increase carbon emissions in surrounding areas and on the whole. Then, by comparing the impact of fiscal decentralization on carbon emissions and industrial solid waste, it is found that “free-riding” phenomenon of carbon emissions control exists in China.

Practical implications

Based on the spatial cluster characteristics of China’s provincial carbon emissions, carbon emissions control regions can be divided into regions and different carbon emission control policies can be formulated for different cluster regions. Carbon emissions indicators should be included in the government performance appraisal policy, and carbon emissions producer survey should be increased in environmental policies to avoid “free-riding” behaviors of local government in carbon emissions control in China.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to fill this gap and fully considers the spatial spillover characteristics of carbon emissions by introducing spatial exploratory data analysis technology, constructs SDM to test the impact of fiscal decentralization on carbon emissions in the perspective of space econometrics, and tests the existence of “free-riding” phenomenon in carbon emissions control for local governments in China.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Wenyi Xia, Kun Wang and Anming Zhang

This chapter reviews three main issues in the interactions between air transport and high-speed rail (HSR) in China, namely the interaction between low-cost carriers…

Abstract

This chapter reviews three main issues in the interactions between air transport and high-speed rail (HSR) in China, namely the interaction between low-cost carriers (LCCs) and HSR, HSR speed effect on airlines, and airline–HSR integration. Studies on these three aspects of airline–HSR interactions have yet been well reviewed, and our chapter aims to fill in this gap. In this chapter, we comprehensively survey literature on the topics, especially studies on Chinese markets that have recently witnessed major HSR developments (and have planned further large-scale HSR expansion in the coming years). Our review shows that, first, compared to full-service carriers, LCCs face fiercer competition from HSR. However, the expansion of HSR network in China can be better coordinated with LCC development. Second, HSR speed exerts two countervailing effects on airline demand and price (the “travel-time” effect and “safety” effect, respectively). Specifically, an HSR speed reduction can have a positive effect on airlines due to longer HSR travel time, but a negative effect on airlines due to improved perception on HSR safety. Third, airline–HSR integration can be implemented through cooperation between airlines and HSR operators and through co-location of airports and HSR stations and can have important implications for intermodal transport and social welfare.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

Jaroslav Mackerle

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the…

Abstract

Gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied for the linear and nonlinear, static and dynamic analyses of basic structural elements from the theoretical as well as practical points of view. The range of applications of FEMs in this area is wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore aims to give the reader an encyclopaedic view on the subject. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 2,025 references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with the analysis of beams, columns, rods, bars, cables, discs, blades, shafts, membranes, plates and shells that were published in 1992‐1995.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 14 December 2018

De-gan Zhang, Ya-meng Tang, Yu-ya Cui, Jing-xin Gao, Xiao-huan Liu and Ting Zhang

The communication link in the engineering of Internet of Vehicle (IOV) is more frequent than the communication link in the Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET). Therefore, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The communication link in the engineering of Internet of Vehicle (IOV) is more frequent than the communication link in the Mobile ad hoc Network (MANET). Therefore, the highly dynamic network routing reliability problem is a research hotspot to be solved.

Design/methodology/approach

The graph theory is used to model the MANET communication diagram on the highway and propose a new reliable routing method for internet of vehicles based on graph theory.

Findings

The expanded graph theory can help capture the evolution characteristics of the network topology and predetermine the reliable route to promote quality of service (QoS) in the routing process. The program can find the most reliable route from source to the destination from the MANET graph theory.

Originality/value

The good performance of the proposed method is verified and compared with the related algorithms of the literature.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Book part
Publication date: 10 October 2017

Sabina Alkire and Yangyang Shen

Most poverty research has explored monetary poverty. This chapter presents and analyzes the global multidimensional poverty index (MPI) estimations for China. Using China…

Abstract

Most poverty research has explored monetary poverty. This chapter presents and analyzes the global multidimensional poverty index (MPI) estimations for China. Using China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we find China’s global MPI was 0.035 in 2010 and decreased significantly to 0.017 in 2014. The dimensional composition of MPI suggests that nutrition, education, safe drinking water, and cooking fuel contribute most to overall non-monetary poverty in China. Such analysis is also applied to subgroups, including geographic areas (rural/urban, east/central/west, provinces), as well as social characteristics such as gender of the household heads, age, education level, marital status, household size, migration status, ethnicity, and religion. We find the level and composition of poverty differs significantly across certain subgroups. We also find high levels of mismatch between monetary and multidimensional poverty at the household level, which highlights the importance of using both complementary measures to track progress in eradicating poverty.

Details

Research on Economic Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-521-4

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2020

Niu-Jing Ma, Li-Xiong Gu, Long Piao and Xing-Zhi Zhang

Stiffened plates have been widely used in civil, marine, aerospace engineering. As a kind of thin-walled structure operating in complex environment, stiffened plates…

Abstract

Purpose

Stiffened plates have been widely used in civil, marine, aerospace engineering. As a kind of thin-walled structure operating in complex environment, stiffened plates mostly undergo a variety of dynamic loads, which may sometimes result in large-amplitude vibration. Additionally, initial stresses and geometric imperfections are widespread in this type of structure. Furthermore, it is universally known that initial stresses and geometric imperfections may affect mechanical behavior of structures severely, particularly in dynamic analysis. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to study the stress variation rule of a stiffened plate during large-amplitude vibration considering initial stresses and geometric imperfections.

Design/methodology/approach

The initial stresses are represented in the form of initial bending moments applying to the stiffened plate, while the initial geometric imperfections are considered by means of trigonometric series, and they are assumed existing in the plate along the z-direction exclusively. Then, the dynamic equilibrium equations of the stiffened plate are established using Lagrange’s equation as well as aforementioned conditions. The nonlinear differential equations of motion are simplified as a two-degree-of-freedom system by considering 1:2 and 1:3 internal resonances, respectively, and the multiscale method is applied to solve the equations.

Findings

The influence of initial stresses on the plate, stresses during internal resonance is remarkable, while that is moderate for initial geometric imperfections. (Upon considering the existence of initial stresses or geometric imperfections, the stresses of motivated modes are less than the primary mode for both and internal resonances). The influence of bidirectional initial stresses on the plate’s stresses during internal resonance is more remarkable than that of unidirectional initial stresses. The coupled vibration in 1%3A2 internal resonance is fiercer than that in internal resonance.

Originality/value

Stiffened plates are widely used in engineering structures. However, as a type of thin-walled structure, stiffened plates vibrate with large amplitude in most cases owning to their complicated operation circumstance. In addition, stiffened plates usually contain initial stresses and geometric imperfections, which may result in the variation of their mechanical behavior, especially dynamical behavior. Based on the above consideration, this paper studies the nonlinear dynamical behavior of stiffened plates with initial stresses and geometrical imperfections under different internal resonances, which is the originality of this work. Furthermore, the research findings can provide references for engineering design and application.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 3 March 2020

Vitus Mwinteribo Tabie, Chong Li, Wang Saifu, Jianwei Li and Xiaojing Xu

This paper aims to present a broad review of near-a titanium alloys for high-temperature applications.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a broad review of near-a titanium alloys for high-temperature applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a brief introduction of titanium (Ti) alloys, this paper considers the near-α group of Ti alloys, which are the most popular high-temperature Ti alloys developed for a high-temperature application, particularly in compressor disc and blades in aero-engines. The paper is relied on literature within the past decade to discuss phase stability and microstructural effect of alloying elements, plastic deformation and reinforcements used in the development of these alloys.

Findings

The near-a Ti alloys show high potential for high-temperature applications, and many researchers have explored the incorporation of TiC, TiB SiC, Y2O3, La2O3 and Al2O3 reinforcements for improved mechanical properties. Rolling, extrusion, forging and some severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques, as well as heat treatment methods, have also been explored extensively. There is, however, a paucity of information on SiC, Y2O3 and carbon nanotube reinforcements and their combinations for improved mechanical properties. Information on some SPD techniques such as cyclic extrusion compression, multiaxial compression/forging and repeated corrugation and straightening for this class of alloys is also limited.

Originality/value

This paper provides a topical, technical insight into developments in near-a Ti alloys using literature from within the past decade. It also outlines the future developments of this class of Ti alloys.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2019

Rui Zhang, Lei Zhao, Dan Xie, Jinlong Song, Wendong Zhang, Lihu Pan and Yanhua Zhang

This study aims to simulate and test the performance of a transmitting and receiving capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). Aimed at detecting demand of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to simulate and test the performance of a transmitting and receiving capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). Aimed at detecting demand of the CMUT, a matched integrated adjustment circuit was designed through analyzing processing methods of transducer’s weak echo signal.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the analysis of CMUT array structure and work principle, the CMUT units are designed and the dynamic performance analysis of SIMULINK is given according to the demand of underwater detecting. A transceiver isolation circuit is used to make transmission mode and receiving mode separate. A detection circuit is designed based on the transimpedance amplifier to achieve extraction of high-frequency and weak signal.

Findings

Through experimentation, the effectiveness of the CMUT performance simulation and the transceiver integrated adjustment circuit were verified. In addition, the test showed that CMUT with 400 kHz frequency has wider bandwidth and better dynamic characteristics than other similar transducers.

Originality/value

This paper provides a theoretical basis and design reference for the development and application of CMUT technology.

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Jian Guo, Junlin Chen and Yujie Xie

This paper explores the impact of both government subsidies and decision makers' loss-averse behavior on the determination of transportation build-operate-transfer (BOT…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores the impact of both government subsidies and decision makers' loss-averse behavior on the determination of transportation build-operate-transfer (BOT) concession periods based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT). The prospect value of a transportation project under traffic risk can be formulated according to the value function for gains and losses and the decision weight for gains and losses. As an extra income for investors, government subsidy is designed for highly risky aspects of BOT transportation projects: uncertain initial traffic volumes and fluctuating growth rates.

Design/methodology/approach

A decision-making model determining the concession period of a transportation BOT project is proposed by using the Monte-Carlo simulation method based on CPT, and the effects of risky behaviors of private investors on concession period decision making are analyzed. A subsidy method related to the internal rate-of-return (IRR) corresponding to a specific initial traffic volume and growth rate is proposed. The case of an actual BOT highway project is examined to illustrate how the method proposed can be used to determine the concession period of a transportation BOT project considering decision makers' loss-averse behavior and government subsidy. Contingency analysis is discussed to cope with possible misestimating of key factors such as initial traffic volume and cost coefficients. Sensitivity analysis is employed to investigate the impact of CPT parameters on the concession period decisions. An actual BOT case which failed to attract private capital is introduced to show the practical application. The results are then interpreted to conclude this paper.

Findings

Based on comparisons drawn between a concession period decision-making model considering the psychological behaviors of decision makers and a model not considering them, the authors conclude that the concession period based on CPT is distinctly different from that of the loss-neutral model. The concession period based on CPT is longer than the loss-neutral concession period. That is, loss-averse private investors tend to ask for long concession periods to make up for losses they will face in the future. Government subsidies serve as extra income for investors, allowing appointed profits to be secured sooner. For the benefit side of contingency variables, the normal state of initial traffic volume, average annual traffic growth rate and bias degree and the government subsidy need to be paid close attention during the project life span. For the cost side of contingency variables, the annual operating cost variable has a significant impact on the length of predicted concession period, while the large-scale cost variable has minor impact.

Originality/value

With an actual BOT highway project, the determination of transportation BOT concession periods based on the psychological behaviors of decision makers is analyzed in this paper. As the psychological behaviors of decision makers heavily impact the decision-making process, the authors analyze their impacts on concession period decision making. Government subsidy is specifically designed for various states of initial traffic volume and fluctuating growth rates to cope with corresponding high risks and mitigate private investors' loss-averse behaviors. Contingency analysis and sensitivity analysis are discussed as the estimated values of parameters may not be authentic in actual situations.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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