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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Raymond Li

The objective of this paper is to analyse the evolution of international steam coal trade, the nature of coal trade contracts and the pricing mechanism in the two main coal…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to analyse the evolution of international steam coal trade, the nature of coal trade contracts and the pricing mechanism in the two main coal trading regions – the Atlantic and the Asia‐Pacific, from the early 1980s to recent years. The historical developments and future directions of the market are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The past developments of the international steam coal market is first reviewed and then compared to the four stages in the development of the international crude oil market in terms of trade and pricing, as identified in Roeber.

Findings

The four stages in the development of a mature spot market are: appearance of the need for short‐term physical balancing, availability of price reporting and transparency, price feedback from short‐term prices to long‐term prices and emergence of risk management instruments. It is found that the international steam coal market has already gone through the first three stages and is progressing in stage four. A mature spot market for steam coal is in prospect.

Originality/value

This paper provides a structured review of the development of the international steam coal market. It provides industry information to policymakers, academics and modellers who need a comprehensive understanding of the international steam coal market.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2023

Janina Suppers

Young people in rural areas often face barriers when accessing participation opportunities in their municipalities. This affects their voices being heard and their ability to…

Abstract

Young people in rural areas often face barriers when accessing participation opportunities in their municipalities. This affects their voices being heard and their ability to create change. Even though almost half the world’s population lives in rural areas, rural young people’s activism is often overlooked in the literature. In addition, when young people’s activism is explored in empirical research, conceptualisations of activism and methods are often not tailored to rural areas. This chapter, thus, adds to our understanding of young people’s activism in rural municipalities by drawing on a mixed methods case study including thirteen focus groups (FGs; n = 35) and a questionnaire (n = 106) with young people aged 13–17, and semi-structured interviews (n = 11) with teachers from one secondary school in a rural municipality in Germany. Five of the FGs were conducted and analysed by Year 10 students, adding unique insights into participants’ experience of activism. In this chapter, activism is conceptualised as one of the multiple dimensions of citizenship. Activism includes demanding systemic change, individually or collectively, which may include refusing to do things, aiming to prevent laws, raising awareness, and making consumer choices. Rather than being full-time activists, the young people in this study were engaged in only a few forms of activism, often carried out ad-hoc, part-time and in connection with other citizenship activities such as volunteering. Spaces for activism included online, the local municipality, everyday spaces such as the supermarket, and school. Participants experienced multiple barriers when engaging in activism including narratives of non-activist young people, age restrictions, power imbalances and few opportunities for creating change, particularly at participants’ school and in their municipalities.

Details

Childhood, Youth and Activism: Demands for Rights and Justice from Young People and their Advocates
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-469-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1986

W. Schiffer

This paper is a critical comparison of the currently used methods to test prepregs which do not describe to a sufficient extent the flow behaviour of a prepreg resin during the…

Abstract

This paper is a critical comparison of the currently used methods to test prepregs which do not describe to a sufficient extent the flow behaviour of a prepreg resin during the pressing process. The new test method introduced herein is a characterisation of the viscosity of the resin melt. International standardisation of this test method is recommended.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

The Annual Fall Symposium took place on 11–12 November, 1985, at the Marriott‐LAX Hotel, Los Angeles, focusing on the theme: ‘PC Technology: Materials, Processes and Requirements…

Abstract

The Annual Fall Symposium took place on 11–12 November, 1985, at the Marriott‐LAX Hotel, Los Angeles, focusing on the theme: ‘PC Technology: Materials, Processes and Requirements for Entry to the '90s’.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2011

Iraj Hashi and Besnik A. Krasniqi

This paper seeks to examine the impact of firms' technological capability and other firm and environmental characteristics on the growth of small and medium‐sized enterprises…

6343

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the impact of firms' technological capability and other firm and environmental characteristics on the growth of small and medium‐sized enterprises (SMEs) in six transition countries at different stages of transition. It compares three advanced Central Eastern European countries (Poland, Hungary, and Czech Republic) with three laggard countries in South Eastern Europe (Albania, Macedonia, and Serbia and Montenegro).

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical framework is proposed based on three groups of factors influencing SME growth: innovative and entrepreneurial features of the firm, characteristics of the firm, and those related to the institutional/business environment. Subsequently this paper uses the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) conducted by the World Bank/EBRD in 2002 and 2005 to test a number of hypotheses regarding the determinants of SME growth.

Findings

The two groups of countries have similarities and differences: both display similar trends with respect to the growth process; both are affected by entrepreneurship activities positively; but the institutional barriers affecting the two groups are somewhat different. It was also found that, despite the growing importance of SMEs in all transition economies, they still face many institutional barriers – which have prevented them from making a greater contribution.

Research limitations/implications

The key limitations of the empirical investigation are the qualitative nature of survey data and the shortcomings associated with self‐declaration of entrepreneurs. It is important for future research to complement this line of research with panel data.

Originality/value

This cross‐country study extends current understanding of the determinants of SME growth in various stages of transition economies based on a unique data set. It also provides some implications for policymakers as well as entrepreneurs/managers for improving the growth of SMEs.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 April 2008

Heike Proff

Growth strategies exist, specifically for business divisions with a poor competitive position, by “orchestrating” value chains in external networks. The theory of competence…

Abstract

Growth strategies exist, specifically for business divisions with a poor competitive position, by “orchestrating” value chains in external networks. The theory of competence development provides a basis for successfully developing new value architectures, since massive changes in a business division can take place only if they are based on durable competences. Four steps to orchestrating value chains can be deduced: (1) identifying changes in the value architecture as a possible growth strategy, (2) creating the organizational prerequisites for the deconstruction of value chains, (3) selling nonspecific value-added and (4) building networks around the core business that link (nonspecific) noncore activities to the firm.

Details

Competence Building and Leveraging in Interorganizational Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-521-5

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

J. Carreman

A process for continuous pressing of copper‐clad laminates is described. The consistent quality manufacturing gives higher dimensional stability and better thickness profile of…

Abstract

A process for continuous pressing of copper‐clad laminates is described. The consistent quality manufacturing gives higher dimensional stability and better thickness profile of the FR‐4 laminate. The product also meets UL and MIL requirements.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Binashi Kumarasiri and Piumi Dissanayake

It is no surprise that garbage is not garbage for some. It is money. This is why garbage has been overestimated to a point that money allocated for waste-to-energy (WtE) projects…

1240

Abstract

Purpose

It is no surprise that garbage is not garbage for some. It is money. This is why garbage has been overestimated to a point that money allocated for waste-to-energy (WtE) projects feed individual pockets. Many countries have already adapted WtE as a successful solution for both energy and waste crisis. Although in Sri Lanka six WtE projects were promised, the government abruptly decided that it would not have any more projects other than the two plants that were under construction. The purpose of this paper is to analyse barriers to the implementation of WtE projects in Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory case study was selected as the research strategy to achieve the research aim. In total, two WtE megaprojects, which have been initiated implementation in Sri Lanka, were used as cases. A total of 12 semi-structured interviews with four personnel from each case and four government officials were used as the data collection technique. Data analysis was carried out using code-based content analysis. The barriers were extracted through analysis of case findings using an abductive analysis. The strategies to mitigate identified barriers were formulated based on attributes highlighted through case study findings and further validated through the opinions of three experts.

Findings

Barriers were analysed using the PESTEL framework to get ample insight into barriers that impact on the implementation of WtE projects in Sri Lanka. Less support from the government due to their less awareness on WtE, high investment and operational cost, lack of expert knowledge on WtE technologies in Sri Lanka, absence of a proper regulatory framework for implementation WtE technologies, lengthy process and delay in getting approvals from government process, poor attitudes of public and their protests due to the less awareness on WtE are the foremost barriers identified in this study. Further, strategies were proposed based on the empirical research findings to overcome barriers to facilitate the successful implementation of WtE projects in Sri Lanka.

Research limitations/implications

So far only two WtE megaprojects have been initiated the implementation in Sri Lanka. Therefore, the scope of the study was limited only to those projects. Moreover, the type of waste considered in this study is municipal solid waste (MSW), which has become a bigger problem in Sri Lanka.

Originality/value

The current study unveils an analysis of barriers for implementation of WtE projects in Sri Lanka, including strategies for mitigating identified barriers. The findings would enable relevant stakeholders, i.e. policymakers, industry practitioners, investors, government bodies and researchers to make informed decisions on implementation of WtE projects and thereby promote successful implementation of WtE projects in Sri Lanka.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Shitao Liu, Rong Cui, Hongwei Cao and Jinhong Qiu

This paper aims to show a resin-flowing model based on Darcy’s law to display the flowing properties of prepreg during lamination. The conformity between the model and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to show a resin-flowing model based on Darcy’s law to display the flowing properties of prepreg during lamination. The conformity between the model and experimental results demonstrates that it can provide a guideline on print circuit board (PCB) lamination.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the theoretical derivations of Darcy’s law, this paper made an analysis on the flow of prepreg in the pressing process, according to which a theoretical model, namely, resin-flowing model was further formulated.

Findings

This paper establishes a resin-flowing model, according to which two experiment-verified conclusions can be drawn: first, the resin-flowing properties of material A and B can be improved when the heating rate is between 1.5 and 2.5 min/°C; second, increased pressure gradient can add the amount of flowing resin, mainly featured by increasing pressure and reducing filled thickness of prepreg.

Originality/value

This model provides guidance on setting lamination parameters for most kinds of prepregs and decreasing starvation risk for PCB production.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2023

Robert Kurniawan, Novan Adi Adi Nugroho, Ahmad Fudholi, Agung Purwanto, Bagus Sumargo, Prana Ugiana Gio and Sri Kuswantono Wongsonadi

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of the industrial sector, renewable energy consumption and nonrenewable energy consumption in Indonesia on the ecological…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the effect of the industrial sector, renewable energy consumption and nonrenewable energy consumption in Indonesia on the ecological footprint from 1990 to 2020 in the short and long term.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses vector error correction model (VECM) analysis to examine the relationship in the short and long term. In addition, the impulse response function is used to enable future forecasts up to 2060 of the ecological footprint as a measure of environmental degradation caused by changes or shocks in industrial value-added, renewable energy consumption and nonrenewable energy consumption. Furthermore, forecast error decomposition of variance (FEVD) analysis is carried out to predict the percentage contribution of each variable’s variance to changes in a specific variable. Granger causality testing is used to enhance the analysis outcomes within the framework of VECM.

Findings

Using VECM analysis, the speed of adjustment for environmental damage is quite high in the short term, at 246%. This finding suggests that when there is a short-term imbalance in industrial value-added, renewable energy consumption and nonrenewable energy consumption, the ecological footprint experiences a very rapid adjustment, at 246%, to move towards long-term balance. Then, in the long term, the ecological footprint in Indonesia is most influenced by nonrenewable energy consumption. This is also confirmed by the Granger causality test and the results of FEVD, which show that the contribution of nonrenewable energy consumption will be 10.207% in 2060 and will be the main contributor to the ecological footprint in the coming years to achieve net-zero emissions in 2060. In the long run, renewable energy consumption has a negative effect on the ecological footprint, whereas industrial value-added and nonrenewable energy consumption have a positive effect.

Originality/value

For the first time, value added from the industrial sector is being used alongside renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption to measure Indonesia’s ecological footprint. The primary cause of Indonesia’s alarming environmental degradation is the industrial sector, which acts as the driving force behind this issue. Consequently, this contribution is expected to inform the policy implications required to achieve zero carbon emissions by 2060, aligned with the G20 countries’ Bali agreement of 2022.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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