Atmospheric dependent, gas sensitive resistors seem to be good candidates for detecting critical air pollution levels. Recently, great progress has been made in the…
Atmospheric dependent, gas sensitive resistors seem to be good candidates for detecting critical air pollution levels. Recently, great progress has been made in the development of various sensor types, but less attention seems to be paid to the integration of sensor elements with different characteristics. The aim of this international project is to develop a smart hybrid gas multi‐sensor module for environmental applications, i.e. by combining classical thick‐ and thin‐film elements with polymer‐film based sensors and also a signal processing ASIC within a single package, which should be useful for all sensor types. The module should enable multi‐sensor operation as well, when connected to an intelligent signal‐processing unit.
The aim of this work is to assess antiproliferative effects of phenolic extracts from Bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba) and Jenipapo (Genipa americana) fruits through a…
The aim of this work is to assess antiproliferative effects of phenolic extracts from Bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba) and Jenipapo (Genipa americana) fruits through a comparison of assays.
Bacaba and Jenipapo phenolic extracts in a concentration range from 0 to 1400 μg/mL were tested by four different assays (MTT, MUH, methylene blue, trypan blue) to assess the antiproliferative potential of the phenolic compounds of these fruits.
MTT test can be applied with confidence to assess antiproliferative activity to the fruits extracts here studied. The extract of Bacaba showed higher antiproliferative activity than the one of Jenipapo.
Getting to know biofunctional properties of locally consumed fruits such as Bacaba and Jenipapo could enhance commercial properties to these fruits. This study is the first to one to assess the antiproliferative activity of the Brazilian fruits Bacaba and Jenipapo.
Polymeric materials have gained a wide theoretical interest and practical application in sensor technology. They can be used for very different purposes and may offer…
Polymeric materials have gained a wide theoretical interest and practical application in sensor technology. They can be used for very different purposes and may offer unique possibilities. The paper gives a broad summary about the sensor structures and sensing polymer films used in a wide variety of sensors. Finally, the present status and perspectives as well as the advantages of specific polymer based sensors are summarised.
The opportunity for mutual benefit across Europe to develop low‐cost MCM technologies arose from recognition of the scientific skills and design and prototyping…
The opportunity for mutual benefit across Europe to develop low‐cost MCM technologies arose from recognition of the scientific skills and design and prototyping capabilities in organic and inorganic circuits in countries of Central Europe. As a result, the leading research institutions and small/medium‐size enterprises of Hungary, Romania and Slovenia together with relevant institutions of the UK and Belgium proposed and received approval for a European Union INCO‐Copernicus project “Cheap multichip models” to establish fast prototyping low cost multichip module (MCM) technology facilities. The project commenced in May 1997.
This chapter argues that the key Eurozone imbalances are not a failure of nation states. At the heart of the integration process is the convergence criteria – limits on…
This chapter argues that the key Eurozone imbalances are not a failure of nation states. At the heart of the integration process is the convergence criteria – limits on government deficit, debt, interest rate, inflation, etc. While these were intended to eliminate asymmetries across countries, the conception of convergence was too narrow since the euro designers completely ignored the elephant in the room – that countries were on different technological frontiers. I show that this difference is an important determinant of the key macroeconomic imbalances across the Eurozone. It follows that the primary convergence criterion should be limits on non-price competitive gaps across countries. The chapter overturns the simplistic view of price competitiveness and illustrate that the regulating forces of competition originate from productive structures.
This article sets out to answer two interrelated questions: is it advisable for developing countries to use public procurement efforts for development, and should more…
This article sets out to answer two interrelated questions: is it advisable for developing countries to use public procurement efforts for development, and should more developing countries join the World Trade Organization (WTO) Government Procurement Agreement (GPA)? We survey key arguments for and against joining the GPA, and argue that government procurement should not be seen only as an indirect support measure for development, but also as a direct vehicle for promoting innovation and industries and, thus, growth and development. We also show that using public procurement for development assumes high levels of policy capacity, which most developing countries lack. In addition, we show how the GPA as well as other WTO agreements make it complicated for the developing countries to benefit from public procurement for innovation. The article suggests that the developing countries could apply a mix of direct and indirect (so-called soft) public-procurement-for-innovation measures. In order to do this, developing countries need to develop the policy capacity to take advantage of the complex and multi-layered industrial policy space still available under WTO rules.
During the 1950‐1979 period, the governments of Central Americaoften pursued “cheap‐food” policies. A general‐equilibriummodel is employed to show how these policies…
During the 1950‐1979 period, the governments of Central America often pursued “cheap‐food” policies. A general‐equilibrium model is employed to show how these policies contributed to the resource‐allocation patterns observed in the region during this period. The model also shows how cheap‐food policies contributed to the observed shift in the functional distribution of income from wages to rents and profits. An empirical test verifies the contribution of bean‐pricing policy to the shift in land resources away from food crops in Costa Rica, and the causes behind the relaxation of cheap‐food policies in the 1980s are discussed.
This paper attempts to trace and describe the role played by the government sector – the state – in promoting economic growth in Western societies since the Renaissance. One important conclusion is that the antagonism between state and market, which has characterised the twentieth century, is a relatively new phenomenon. Since the Renaissance one very important task of the state has been to create well‐functioning markets by providing a legal framework, standards, credit, physical infrastructure and – if necessary – to function temporarily as an entrepreneur of last resort. Early economists were acutely aware that national markets did not occur spontaneously, and they used “modern” ideas like synergies, increasing returns, and innovation theory when arguing for the right kind of government policy. In fact, mercantilist economics saw it as a main task to extend the synergetic economic effects observed within cities to the territory of a nation‐state. The paper argues that the classical Anglo‐Saxon tradition in economics – fundamentally focused on barter and distribution, rather than on production and knowledge – systematically fails to grasp these wider issues in economic development, and it brings in and discusses the role played by the state in alternative traditions of non‐equilibrium economics.
A recurrent concern of researchers who measure the cost of protection isthat welfare estimates based on models with highly aggregated sectors ofthe economy in question…
A recurrent concern of researchers who measure the cost of protection is that welfare estimates based on models with highly aggregated sectors of the economy in question will understate the true cost of protection if the tariff system is not uniform. Uses the 1988 tariff schedule of the US and a detailed 1988 social accounting matrix of the US to construct a number of aggregation schemes to calculate the extent to which tariff means and variances change under different aggregations. Then uses a computable general equilibrium model to compare the cost of tariff protection between two of the aggregation schemes.
This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the…
This paper gives a bibliographical review of the finite element methods (FEMs) applied to the analysis of ceramics and glass materials. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations on the subject that were published between 1977‐1998. The following topics are included: ceramics – material and mechanical properties in general, ceramic coatings and joining problems, ceramic composites, ferrites, piezoceramics, ceramic tools and machining, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, applications of ceramic/composites in engineering; glass – material and mechanical properties in general, glass fiber composites, material processing simulations, fracture mechanics and damage, and applications of glasses in engineering.