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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Robert W. Moore and Irene E. Jacobsohn

Most Western nations ascribe to the belief that equal opportunity of the sexes is a worthy objective even if it has rarely been realised in practice. The overriding cause…

Abstract

Most Western nations ascribe to the belief that equal opportunity of the sexes is a worthy objective even if it has rarely been realised in practice. The overriding cause of sex discrimination is the persistence of customs that harken back to an age when work roles were justified by physical differences. This same division of labour can be found in the most economically advanced nations even though technology has supplanted all but a few vestiges of this pre‐industrial argument. The intellectual justification for opening up opportunities for women are remarkably ineffective in the face of sheer habit.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1954

W. JACOBSOHN

I much has been written about the necessary dissemination of knowledge and the part ‘abstracts’ have to play in the field of science. Yet one particular application has…

Abstract

I much has been written about the necessary dissemination of knowledge and the part ‘abstracts’ have to play in the field of science. Yet one particular application has always been treated rather casually, the abstracting of patent specifications, although much up‐to‐date information found nowhere else can be obtained from these publications.

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Aslib Proceedings, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1954

E.M.R. DITMAS

The papers in this issue of Aslib Proceedings were, for the most part, given at 1954 meetings but two 1953 papers, held over from the preceding issue, are included here…

Abstract

The papers in this issue of Aslib Proceedings were, for the most part, given at 1954 meetings but two 1953 papers, held over from the preceding issue, are included here. The first is a summary of Miss Littlejohn's talk on information services organized in connection with the Citizens' Advice Bureaux and other activities of the National Council of Social Service, which she gave to the Aslib Winter Meeting on 9th December, 1953. The second is Mr. Barker's ‘Sources of Russian economic information’, which was given at the Midlands Branch meeting at Birmingham on 4th December, 1953, and which is a companion‐piece to Dr. A. L. Mackay's paper printed in the May issue.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Lubomir Krabac, Vladimir Pejaković, Vladislav Drinek, Nicole Dörr and Ewald Badisch

The purpose of this paper is to study the friction and wear behavior of germanium (Ge) thin films deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method on a chromium…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the friction and wear behavior of germanium (Ge) thin films deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method on a chromium (Cr)-nickel (Ni) stainless steel substrate after being exposed to relatively mild sliding conditions (low loads and sliding distances).

Design/methodology/approach

Wear and friction experiments were conducted with a 100Cr6 steel ball sliding against flat Ge thin-film-coated stainless steel sheets (ball-on-flat microtribometer, no lubricant, normal loads of 50-100 mN, initial Hertzian contact pressures of 385-485 MPa, total sliding distance up to 200 mm and room temperature).

Findings

Scanning electron microscopy results revealed that prepared Ge thin films consisted of two different morphologies: curved nanowires and cone-shaped nano-/microdroplets. Regarding friction and wear characteristics of the investigated samples, the substrates coated with Ge thin films did not affect the coefficient of friction significantly by load. The wear of the base material (Cr-Ni stainless steel) was not observed under the mentioned experimental conditions (see the “Design/methodology/approach” section); however, with increased sliding distance and/or applied load, a rupture of the Ge film and an exposure of the stainless steel substrate to the 100Cr6 ball can be expected. Furthermore, the observations suggest that the smearing of Ge nano- and microstructures, plastically deformed during tribotesting, over the surface exposed to the sliding contact is the dominant tribological process.

Originality/value

For the first time, the tribological interaction between Ge thin film and steel surface was investigated under dry sliding conditions using a ball-on-flat microtribometer, and the obtained results provide a useful base for the further research on tribology of Ge-based thin films.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 69 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Lyndel Judith Bates, Ashleigh Filtness and Barry Watson

Purpose – Driver education and licensing are two mechanisms used to reduce crash rates. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of these countermeasures and…

Abstract

Purpose – Driver education and licensing are two mechanisms used to reduce crash rates. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of these countermeasures and consider how simulators can be used to augment more traditional approaches.

Approach – A literature review was undertaken evaluating key concepts in driver licensing including graduated driver licensing (GDL), the role of parents in licensing, compliance and enforcement, driver testing and how the driver licensing system impacts on levels of unlicensed driving. Literature regarding driver education for individuals who have and not yet obtained a licence was also reviewed.

Findings – GDL is a successful countermeasure for reducing the crash rates of young novice drivers as it limits their exposure to higher risk situations. The support for driver education initiatives is mixed. As there are big differences between education programs, there is a need to consider each program on its own merits. Driving simulators provide a safe environment for novices to gain experience. In particular, they may be bifacial for development of hazard perception and visual scanning skills.

Practical Implications – GDL systems should be introduced where appropriate. Existing systems should be strengthened where possible by including additional, best-practice and restrictions. When considering driver education as a countermeasure, the type of program is very important. Education programs that have been shown to increase crashes should not be introduced. Further research and development are necessary to ensure that driver education and licensing adequately equip novice drivers with the skills necessary to drive in the 21st century.

Details

Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Georg Dutschke, Lia Jacobsohn, Alvaro Dias and Jaime Combadão

The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that individuals consider necessary to be happy in their job. Based on these factors, a measure of job design…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors that individuals consider necessary to be happy in their job. Based on these factors, a measure of job design happiness (JDH) is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

Two methods were applied: a qualitative study with content analyses (n=969) to develop an exploratory questionnaire; and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis by applying structural equations models. In this second study the questionnaire was sent to a second sample (n=1,079).

Findings

Five first-order factors were identified: self-fulfillment; group working, attaining goals; leadership; and sustainability and job/family balance. These factors are explained by a second order factor: JDH.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is needed to determine how the identified “job design happiness” components may interact with one another. Testing the measure of different industries and national cultures is also suggested.

Practical implications

Managers and human resources practitioners can improve job and organizational performance by applying the scale in several moments in time measuring the job happiness “pulse,” monitoring their decisions.

Social implications

The adoption of this measure for decision making in organizational and job design can contribute to the improvement of living standards and firm sustainability.

Originality/value

Research on organizational happiness has been increasing but instruments to measure JDH, considering organizational factors, are limited.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part
Publication date: 6 May 2008

George Thomas

Popular constitutionalists seek to recover the popular sovereignty foundations of American constitutionalism, bringing the people in as active participants in the…

Abstract

Popular constitutionalists seek to recover the popular sovereignty foundations of American constitutionalism, bringing the people in as active participants in the constitutional enterprise as they create and refashion the Constitution by “majoritarian and populist mechanisms” (Amar, 1995, p. 89). The result is to recover an understanding, in FDR's words, of constitution as a “layman's document, not a lawyer's contract” (Kramer, 2004, p. 207). This understanding has deep roots in American constitutionalism, tracing its lineage back to the founding and, as popular constitutionalists insist, finds powerful expression in the likes of The Federalist and Abraham Lincoln (Ackerman, 1991; Tushnet, 1998). In exercising popular sovereignty, the people founded the Constitution, but they did not simply retreat from the trajectory of constitutional development. Rather, as Bruce Ackerman argues, since the Constitution of 1787 the people have spoken in a manner that has re-founded the Constitution giving us a “multiple origins originalism” (Kersch, 2006a, p. 801; see also Amar, 1998 and 2005). In turning to founding era thought and the notion of constitutional foundations, popular constitutionalists like Ackerman and Amar make common cause with conservatives who turn to original intent, but then they seek to synthesize this understanding with democratic expressions of popular will by emphasizing both formal and informal constitutional change, giving us layered “foundings,” and a more complex version of “living constitutionalism.” Such constitutional change, however, can only legitimately come from an authentic expression of “We the People.”

Details

Special Issue Constitutional Politics in a Conservative Era
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1486-7

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2012

Omar Masood and John Fry

Recent events demonstrate that problems in the banking system pose a significant threat to the health of the global economy. Despite several shortcomings the Basel Accord…

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Abstract

Purpose

Recent events demonstrate that problems in the banking system pose a significant threat to the health of the global economy. Despite several shortcomings the Basel Accord thus emerges as an attempt to protect banking systems. The purpose of this study is to shed light on potential barriers to implementation of the Basel Accord in emerging countries. Several issues of wider interest to risk management and financial regulation also emerge.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper maps implementation of the Basel Accord against the wider regulatory context. Against this backdrop, the Basel Accord appears well‐motivated but is limited by several practical considerations. These factors, amidst other practical implications, are identified as the paper applies rigorous statistical methods to novel primary survey data from risk managers.

Findings

The Basel Accord is generally well‐received due its dual aims of improved capital administration and scientific risk management. Operational risk is a significant barrier to implementation, with a number of further issues only partially addressed (see below). Equally supported by both public and private sector banks the reasons for delay appear due to lack of technical expertise and the level of preparation. Results highlight credit risk, practical implementation issues (IT and HR), minimal capital requirements, data security and operational risk as issues of critical importance.

Originality/value

The originality of the contribution lies in the scientific treatment of novel primary data from risk managers tasked with implementation of the Basel Accord. Findings suggest several important practical implications discussed above.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2021

Gwen M. Wittenbaum, Kay Yoon and Andrea B. Hollingshead

Groups typically are composed of members with different knowledge, information, and expertise. Group discussion provides the means by which members can communicate their…

Abstract

Groups typically are composed of members with different knowledge, information, and expertise. Group discussion provides the means by which members can communicate their unique knowledge to reach better group decisions, develop a shared system for remembering and retrieving knowledge, and establish their expertise through enacted performance. In this chapter, three streams of research are reviewed that explore knowledge communication in groups: Hidden profiles, transactive memory systems, and a performative view of expertise. Each of these three research streams complements and informs the other. Across these three research streams, 10 major research findings are identified. We offer three research directions that include integrating these research streams, examining knowledge communication in the context of emerging technology (e.g., artificial intelligence), and studying effects of knowledge diversity in conjunction with surface-level diversity (e.g., member race).

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Group and Team Communication Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-501-8

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2021

Jaleel Mohammed, Russell Kabir, Hadeel R. Bakhsh, Diana Greenfield, Volkova Alisa Georgievna, Aleksandra Bulińska, Jayanti Rai, Anne Gonzales and Shahrukh K. Hashmi

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients can suffer from long-term transplant-related complications that affect their quality of life and daily activities. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients can suffer from long-term transplant-related complications that affect their quality of life and daily activities. This study, a narrative review, aims to report the impact of HCT complications, the benefits of rehabilitation intervention, the need for long-term care and highlights the research gap in clinical trials involving rehabilitation.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive search strategy was performed on several databases to look for relevant articles published from 1998 to 2018. Articles published in English with the following terms were used: hematopoietic stem cell transplant, chronic graft-versus-host disease, rehabilitation, exercise, physical therapy, occupational therapy. A patient/population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) framework was employed to ensure that the search strategies were structured and precise. Study year, design, outcome, intervention, sample demographics, setting and study results were extracted.

Findings

Of the 1,411 records identified, 51 studies underwent title/abstract screening for appropriateness, 30 were reviewed in full, and 19 studies were included in the review. The review found that, for the majority of patients who underwent HSCT and developed treatment-related complications, rehabilitation exercises had a positive impact on their overall quality of life. However, exercise prescription in this patient group has not always reflected the scientific approach; there is a lack of high-quality clinical trials in general. The review also highlights the need to educate healthcare policymakers and insurance companies responsible for rationing services to recognise the importance of offering long-term follow-up care for this patient group, including rehabilitation services.

Practical implications

A large number of HSCT patients require long-term follow-up from a multidisciplinary team, including rehabilitation specialists. It is important for healthcare policymakers and insurance companies to recognise this need and take the necessary steps to ensure that HSCT patients receive adequate long-term care. This paper also highlights the urgent need for high-quality rehabilitation trials to demonstrate the feasibility and importance of rehabilitation teams.

Originality/value

Healthcare policymakers and insurance companies need to recognise that transplant patients need ongoing physiotherapy for early identification of any functional impairments and appropriate timely intervention.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

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