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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

Gill Scott

Examines the Out of School childcare initiative in Scotland (in 1996) by gathering data from the 1991 census and carrying out questionnaire surveys and interviews with…

Abstract

Examines the Out of School childcare initiative in Scotland (in 1996) by gathering data from the 1991 census and carrying out questionnaire surveys and interviews with both workers, responsible for developing Out of School care, and parents. Compares the findings with earlier research carried out in 1995. Assesses the impact the initiative has had on creating new jobs, improving access to employment for parents using the service, and how well the scheme answers the needs of women workers. Indicates from results obtained that parents had experienced a change in economic activity – increasing hours worked or starting a new job – and/or increased training take‐up. Records also that efficiency and enjoyment of work increased as gender inequalities began to be tackled. Notes that Out of School care schemes were more likely to occur in areas of higher socio‐economic composition, yet Out of School childcare could be part of an anti‐poverty strategy, encouraging women from deprived areas to enter the labour market. Claims that the scheme has had contradictory impacts but that it is hampered by lack of adequate and long‐term funding.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 1998

Hillel Schmid

Recounts the merger of Jerusalem’s Neighbourhood Self Management Organizations (NSMOs) and Community Service Organizations (CSOs) into the Joint Community Neighbourhood…

Abstract

Recounts the merger of Jerusalem’s Neighbourhood Self Management Organizations (NSMOs) and Community Service Organizations (CSOs) into the Joint Community Neighbourhood Management Organization (JCNM). Refers to literature on institutional theory and the process of decentralization. Focuses then on the NSMOs and CSOs, providing some background information on how and why they were originally set up and what their goals were. Compares the differences between the organizations, as well as the basic principles they have in common – hence the merge into one organization. Discusses the problems the JCNM has faced over the years, including issues such as identify, legitimacy, composition of board of directors, professional or political values, and restructuring the organization. Draws a quadrant model of patronage and centralization, suggesting that the NCNM aims to occupy a particular quadrant but is being hampered in doing so because policy makers prefer to keep things the way they are.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Jonas Heinrich Steeger and Malte Hoffmann

Research disputes whether family businesses are more or less innovative than their nonfamily counterparts. So far, no consistent results have been achieved. The recently…

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Abstract

Purpose

Research disputes whether family businesses are more or less innovative than their nonfamily counterparts. So far, no consistent results have been achieved. The recently introduced willingness and ability framework suggest that idiosyncratic behavior is only to be expected if both sufficiency conditions – willingness and ability – are fulfilled. The purpose of this paper is to test this hypothesis empirically.

Design/methodology/approach

A large cross-sectional sample of German small- and medium-sized enterprises is used. The sample offers – alongside numerous moderators commonly used in innovation research – several family firm definitions. Given the censored nature of the endogenous variable chosen, a Tobit model is used.

Findings

Drawing upon agency theory and the ability and willingness paradox in family firm innovation, it finds family firms to be less innovative only if both willingness and ability conditions are fulfilled.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, the study provides the first attempt to test the willingness and ability theorem. Therefore, the commonly used family firm-specific measures (self-assessment-, ownership-, and management criterion) are operationalized to better understand what drives innovativeness in family firms. The findings thus add to the ongoing discussion on what really drives family impact on firm-level decisions.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Syeda Zakia Hossain

Draws on data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey to explore whether or not socio‐demographic factors such as woman’s age, education, occupation, income and…

Abstract

Draws on data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey to explore whether or not socio‐demographic factors such as woman’s age, education, occupation, income and residence affect fertility because of different attitudes towards decision making and the use of contraception. Describes the methodology used and forms of data analysis – path modelling via LISREL. Analyses the findings – that as the woman’s age increases so does the number of children ever born, women who have not completed primary education have more children than women who have completed secondary or higher education, urban women have fewer children than rural women, and women with more education and a higher income have more autonomy in decision making, consequently are more likely to use contraception and have fewer children. Reports that when men make the decisions, families are larger and infers that there are policy implications in that finding. Concludes that the determining factors affecting fertility and use of contraception in Bangladesh are the woman’s level of education, residence in urban or rural areas, and the extent of inter‐spouse communication.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

George K. Chacko

Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today…

8584

Abstract

Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today. Considers the marketing strategies employed, together with the organizational structures used and looks at the universal concepts that can be applied to any product. Uses anecdotal evidence to formulate a number of theories which can be used to compare your company with the best in the world. Presents initial survival strategies and then looks at ways companies can broaden their boundaries through manipulation and choice. Covers a huge variety of case studies and examples together with a substantial question and answer section.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 11 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1979

M.J. ROSENBERG

A working art machine would embody an effective theory of art. What capacities would it need? It is suggested that authorship entails transmitting order and creative…

Abstract

A working art machine would embody an effective theory of art. What capacities would it need? It is suggested that authorship entails transmitting order and creative authorship finding new order. The works of authorship are “objective” and, where they represent experience, satisfy the least condition for classification as art.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Ana‐Maria Wahl

Investigates urban bias in state policy making in Mexico. Refers to literature claiming that rural poverty in developing nations is a major problem because capitalism…

Abstract

Investigates urban bias in state policy making in Mexico. Refers to literature claiming that rural poverty in developing nations is a major problem because capitalism reflects an urban bias. Examines social security coverage for the rural poor in Mexico and notes that there are great variations depending on area, suggesting that social security coverage is politically negotiable. Outlines briefly the historical development of Mexico’s welfare state and uses a power resource model to demonstrate how groups with competing interests go about securing benefits from the state. Cites literature on dependency theory, indicating that rural groups have failed to mobilize politically and have therefore not secured the same state resources (such as social security benefits and housing) as urban groups, yet argues that this does not always apply in Mexico, partially due to party politics and bureaucratic paternalism. Explains how data was collected to examine regional variations in social security coverage among the rural poor and how the data was analysed. Reveal that workers in important international export markets (such as cotton and sugar) have greater political leverage in obtaining better social security benefits. Notes also that areas supporting the political party in power obtain better benefits. Concludes, therefore, that rural workers are not powerless in the face of urban capitalism and that urban bias and dependency theories do not reflect the situation in Mexico – rather social security benefits are politically negotiable.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Elaine Draper

Discusses US use of drug testing in the workplace, screening employees for smoking, AIDS, genetic traits and reproductive hazards. Attributes this to the costs employers…

1125

Abstract

Discusses US use of drug testing in the workplace, screening employees for smoking, AIDS, genetic traits and reproductive hazards. Attributes this to the costs employers face in insurance, litigation and compensation. Points out that the purpose of drug testing is to circumvent management responsibility for: accidents in the workplace, stress, bad management practices, and disregarding health and safety initiatives. Acknowledges that the tests are harmful and indefensible. Reports that 81 per cent of members of the American Management Association in 1996 conducted drug testing. Claims that screening is the alternative to monitoring – that is screening out individuals who are seen as high risk in some way – yet that misses the point – the focus should be on making hazardous working conditions safe. Indicates that companies may use drug testing as a means of deterring drug users from gravitating towards their organization. Mentions that workplace‐induced stress can lead to substance abuse and that, therefore it is management driven, rather than being a problem the worker brings to the workplace. Quotes a number of company physicians who object to policing drug use. Indicates that drug testing has diverted attention away from health and safety issues and hazardous working conditions.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

F.E. Trainer

Puts forward the limit to growth perspective, which is rarely mentioned in societies devoted to the increase of material living standards. Outlines the resources each…

1011

Abstract

Puts forward the limit to growth perspective, which is rarely mentioned in societies devoted to the increase of material living standards. Outlines the resources each individual in rich countries uses and extrapolates those figures to cover the rest of the world’s population, proving that it is clearly impossible to sustain such living standards. Criticizes profit maximization, market forces and the pursuit of business opportunities as inappropriate to the needs of the world’s poor majority. Explores how society could reduce its per capita resource use and environmental impact, particularly through the development of small scale self‐sufficient economies. Points out that most of the real economy would be in non‐cash areas. Hastens to mention that a simpler, less material and closer‐to‐nature lifestyle does not exclude information technology. Indicates that access to communal property and service needs to replace income as the means to a satisfying life. Summarizes how community gardens can be set up and the roles that community workers could play in saving towns.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1998

Ann Marie Wood

Explores the extent of employee surveillance in the western world and queries why the USA uses surveillance measures to a greater extent than other developed nations…

1517

Abstract

Explores the extent of employee surveillance in the western world and queries why the USA uses surveillance measures to a greater extent than other developed nations. Suggests that American managers choose surveillance methods which include the control of workers’ bodies in the production process. Lists the batteries of tests and monitoring to which US employees can now be subjected – including searching employee computer files, voice/e‐mail, monitoring telephone calls, drug tests, alcohol tests, criminal record checks, lie detector and handwriting tests. Notes also the companies which are opposed to worker and consumer privacy rights. Pinpoints the use of surveillance as a means to ensure that employees do not withold production. Reports that employees dislike monitoring and that it may adversely affect their performance and productivity. Argues that Americans like to address complex social problems with technological means, there are no data protection laws in the USA, and that these two factors, combined with the “employment‐at‐will” doctrine, have all contributed to make it possible (and easy) for employers to use technological surveillance of their workforce. Outlines some of the ways employers insist on the purification of workers’ bodies.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 18 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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