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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2011

Tracy‐Anne De Silva

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the adoption of mixed methods in voluntary environmental reporting research.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the adoption of mixed methods in voluntary environmental reporting research.

Design/methodology/approach

The costs and benefits of mixed methods are outlined, and the use of mixed methods in prior voluntary environmental reporting research is discussed. A reflection of the author's experience and the practical issues of adopting a QUAN→qual sequential mixed methods research design to examine voluntary environmental reporting practices and processes are presented.

Findings

Adopting mixed methods research involves costs to the researcher and the research, including the extra time and energy needed to collect, analyse, interpret, integrate and write up the data, and the need to consider potential biases and trade‐offs affecting design choices. However, these costs are outweighed by the opportunity mixed methods research presents to develop greater research skills and provide a fuller and richer picture of voluntary environmental reporting.

Research limitations/implications

The specific costs and benefits of adopting mixed methods research discussed in this paper are primarily limited to research designs involving content analysis and interviews due to the use of these research methods in the focal study and in most prior mixed methods research examining voluntary environmental reporting.

Originality/value

This paper is one of few to reflect on the adoption of mixed methods research to examine voluntary environmental reporting. It highlights to other researchers the research design considerations that should be made, the costs involved (both to the research and the researcher), and the improved contribution to knowledge achievable when adopting mixed methods research over alternative approaches.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Kofi Mintah Oware and Abdul-Aziz Iddrisu

There is a current agitation by community leaders, global leaders and society on the morality aspect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of firms. The…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a current agitation by community leaders, global leaders and society on the morality aspect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of firms. The change in policy raises the question of whether moral capital is affected. Therefore, this study aims to examine whether the shift from voluntary to mandatory reporting increases the moral capital of CSR and also whether moral capital affects the firm performance of listed firms in India.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines 800 firm-year observations on the Bombay Stock Exchange (split into 320 firm-year observations for the voluntary period and 480 firm-year observations for the mandatory period). This study uses panel regression with random effect assumptions for data interpretation.

Findings

The first findings show that a shift from voluntary to mandatory policy on CSR increases the moral capital value of listed firms in India. The second and third findings show that voluntary reporting of moral capital has no significant association with market performance (stock price returns [SPR]) or firm value (Tobin’s q). The fourth findings show a negative and statistically significant association between mandatory reporting of moral capital and SPR but an insignificant association with Tobin’s q. This study conducted a robustness test, and results show that the previous year 1 and 2 moral capital for voluntary and mandatory periods has no association with SPR and Tobin’s q.

Originality/value

Although prior research has examined the effect of change in policy from voluntary to mandatory reporting on firm performance, little is known about the impact of moral capital on firm performance for the emerging economies, including India.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 October 2018

Viktoria Goebel

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the drivers for voluntary intellectual capital (IC) reporting based on agency theory. This study responds to calls for critical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the drivers for voluntary intellectual capital (IC) reporting based on agency theory. This study responds to calls for critical investigations of IC reporting utilising Goebel’s (2015a) IC measuring approach to investigate the role of IC value and mispricing for IC reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

A mandatory management report offers a unique research setting in Germany. The content analysis results of 428 German management reports are used in a regression analysis with leverage, ownership diffusion, IC value and mispricing. Additionally, a propensity score matching approach examines the relationship between IC reporting and IC value.

Findings

The regression results show that companies use voluntary IC reporting to encounter mispricing. IC reporting is negatively associated with leverage, whereas ownership diffusion and IC value show no significant results. The propensity score matching approach is also not significant.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to strengthening and testing agency theory for IC reporting. As mispricing is identified to play an important role for IC reporting, IC research should account for mispricing.

Practical implications

The findings suggest to reopen a discussion on the declared aims of the German management report and the international integrated reporting model to provide information on value creation, as IC value shows no link to IC reporting.

Originality/value

This study innovatively links IC reporting to IC value and mispricing to investigate drivers for voluntary IC reporting.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2019

Antonio J. Mateo-Márquez, José M. González-González and Constancio Zamora-Ramírez

This study aims to analyse the relationship between countries’ regulatory context and voluntary carbon disclosures. To date, little attention has been paid to how specific…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the relationship between countries’ regulatory context and voluntary carbon disclosures. To date, little attention has been paid to how specific climate change-related regulation influences companies’ climate change disclosures, especially voluntary carbon reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

The New Institutional Sociology perspective has been adopted to examine the pressure of a country’s climate change regulation on voluntary carbon reporting. This research uses Tobit regression to analyse data from 2,183 companies in 12 countries that were invited to respond to the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) questionnaire in 2015.

Findings

The results show that countries’ specific climate change-related regulation does influence both the participation of its companies in the CDP and their quality, as measured by the CDP disclosure score.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is restricted to 12 countries’ regulatory environment. Thus, caution should be exercised when generalising the results to other institutional contexts.

Practical implications

The results are of use to regulators and policymakers to better understand how specific climate change-related regulation influences voluntary carbon disclosure. Investors may also benefit from this research, as it shows which institutional contexts present greater regulatory stringency and how companies in more stringent environments take advantage of synergy to disclose high-quality carbon information.

Social implications

By linking regulatory and voluntary reporting, this study sheds light on how companies use voluntary carbon reporting to adapt to social expectations generated in their institutional context.

Originality/value

This is the first research that considers specific climate change-related regulation in the study of voluntary carbon disclosures.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2017

Marsha B. Keune, Timothy M. Keune and Linda A. Quick

Voluntary changes in accounting principle represent explicit and fundamental decisions by managers to exercise accounting discretion. This paper develops an organizing…

Abstract

Voluntary changes in accounting principle represent explicit and fundamental decisions by managers to exercise accounting discretion. This paper develops an organizing framework to review prior literature on voluntary changes, provides descriptive insights on contemporary changes, and identifies opportunities for future research on voluntary changes. The voluntary change literature is robust and has examined many questions using data prior to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX). We find that contemporary voluntary changes often vary across the pre-SOX, post-SOX, and post-SFAS No. 154 periods by the materiality of their income effect, issue type, and justifications provided by managers, suggesting that manager use of voluntary changes has evolved over time. Our future research opportunities consider potential determinants of voluntary changes including strategic incentives, environmental conditions, and manager characteristics, as well as the potential direct or moderating role of corporate governance and auditors on manager use of voluntary changes. They also consider user reactions to voluntary changes. By providing insight into both extant voluntary change research and the contemporary use of voluntary changes, our study informs standards setters who grant managers the ability to exercise this form of accounting discretion, as well as researchers who plan to study accounting choice through voluntary changes.

Details

Journal of Accounting Literature, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-4607

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2020

Michael De Martinis, Mehdi Khedmati, Farshid Navissi, Mohammed Aminu Sualihu and Zakiya Tofik-Abu

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how firm's agency costs played a role in the voluntary adoption of the eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how firm's agency costs played a role in the voluntary adoption of the eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) under the SEC's voluntary filing program (VFP) that encouraged the voluntary adoption of the XBRL.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a logistics regression and a sample of 140 firms that voluntarily participated in the VFP during its entire existence in the United States, and 140 matched-pair counterparts that did not voluntarily adopt the XBRL to investigate the role of agency costs in the voluntary adoption of XBRL-based financial reporting.

Findings

We find evidence consistent with the conjecture that a firm's low magnitude of agency costs plays a significant motivating role in the voluntary adoption of XBRL-based financial reporting. Our results continue to hold after using an alternative measure of agency costs and conducting two-stage least squares regressions. Supplementing these results, the study also shows that the level of agency costs of voluntary XBRL adopters remains statistically unchanged after the adoption while the level of agency costs associated with the firms that did not participate in SEC's VFP significantly decline after the adoption during the XBRL mandate.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that based on a firm's level of agency costs, regulators and policymakers, especially those in countries that are yet to mandate XBRL reporting, can, in advance, identify firms that are more likely to comply with their new financial reporting initiatives.

Originality/value

This paper provides first evidence on the role of agency costs in the voluntary adoption of XBRL using data from the United States.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 April 2015

John McNally

This chapter outlines incorporation of voluntary environmental accounting standards into national law as evidenced by the Scandinavian experience. In illustrating such…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter outlines incorporation of voluntary environmental accounting standards into national law as evidenced by the Scandinavian experience. In illustrating such hardening of soft law approaches it highlights difficulties national authorities face when attempting to regulate globalised commercial entities with extra-territorial activities. Adoption at national level of these standards into legally binding obligations illustrates convergence of global governance standards even where there is no central authority or designed codification.

Methodology/approach

Doctrinal legal research and literature review. To illustrate the incorporation of voluntary standards at a national level, Scandinavian examples (Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland) were chosen – frequently upheld as best practice in requiring the reporting of environmental information financial reports.

Findings

The research shows that the most proactive national authorities in this regard are endorsing certain voluntary standards and rewarding their use with reduced regulatory burden. I first outline certain voluntary environmental standards and then illustrate adoption of these standards into legally binding frameworks.

Research limitations

The main limitation was difficulty in finding English language versions of some national regulations.

Practical implications

This chapter seeks to illustrate a normativisation of soft law frameworks into legally binding national obligations. Viewed through the phenomenon of Global Administrative Law it would seem evident that national authorities are willing to adopt various international voluntary standards to regulate the increasingly globalised actions of companies.

Originality/value

Voluntary standards and the various reporting methods of non-financial information is an extremely broad regulatory sphere with decentralised regulation and parallel regulatory frameworks. This chapter, in illustrating the convergence of environmental governance standards through normativisation of previously voluntary standards, will assist the reader in attaining an overview of the extent of this regulatory convergence.

Details

Beyond the UN Global Compact: Institutions and Regulations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-558-1

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Mandatory and Discretional Non-financial Disclosure after the European Directive 2014/95/EU
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-504-0

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Stacey Cowan and David Gadenne*

Purpose – This paper extends the literature in the environmental disclosure area by examining annual report disclosure practices of Australian companies within the…

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Abstract

Purpose – This paper extends the literature in the environmental disclosure area by examining annual report disclosure practices of Australian companies within the combined voluntary and mandatory environmental disclosure system. Design/methodology/approach – Content analysis was used to investigate the environmental disclosures over three consecutive years in the annual reports of companies that would be subject to environmental regulation and/or perceived to be environmentally sensitive. Findings – The study finds that Australian listed companies have a propensity to disclose higher levels of positive environmental disclosures in the voluntary sections of the annual report than in the statutory sections of the annual report. Research limitations/implications – These results suggest that regulatory authorities may need to acknowledge the usefulness of mandatory disclosure requirements as a potential means of counter‐balancing the voluntary disclosure system. It has been argued that the annual report is not the sole disclosure medium used by companies Further research may not only investigate these issues but also add weight to arguments for more environmental accountability. Practical implications – The results suggest that companies adopt different disclosure approaches when the disclosures are potentially under surveillance or increased scrutiny via legislated environmental disclosure requirements. Originality value – This research provides evidence that companies continue to use greater levels of self‐puffery within a voluntary reporting environment than within a mandatory reporting environment, and suggests that stakeholders may be more likely to receive information that is less favourable to the corporation (and potentially more decision‐useful to stakeholders) within a legislated disclosure environment.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2019

Muttanachai Suttipun

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and pattern of the sufficiency economy philosophy (SEP) reporting of listed companies from the Stock Exchange of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent and pattern of the sufficiency economy philosophy (SEP) reporting of listed companies from the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) between 2012 and 2016, and to compare the SEP scores of reporting in the companies’ corporate annual reports during the period studied and between four groups of interest, based on ownership status, country of origin of company, type of auditor and type of industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Listed companies of the SET were used as the population, whereas a sample of 70 firms was investigated in the study. Content analysis by checklist was used to quantify the extent and pattern of SEP reporting in annual reports.

Findings

The results showed that the average score for SEP reporting was 44.28 out of a possible 64 categories of reporting included in the checklist. Moreover, there was a significant increase in the SEP reporting score during the period studied. The results also indicated that there was a significant difference in the SEP reporting scores between groups, based on country of origin, auditor type and industry type.

Originality/value

As the first longitudinal study of SEP reporting in Thailand, the study demonstrated the effective rule of SET to Thai listed companies providing higher voluntary information reporting during period being study.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

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