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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1984

Anne B. Piternick

Vocabularies such as thesauri and lists of subject headings have tended in the past to have been regarded as ‘indexing vocabularies’ rather than ‘searching vocabularies.…

Abstract

Vocabularies such as thesauri and lists of subject headings have tended in the past to have been regarded as ‘indexing vocabularies’ rather than ‘searching vocabularies.’ Online searching, which requires input of search terms before any part of the database can be scanned, and which usually permits searching on ‘free’ terms as well as controlled terms, has placed emphasis on the need for vocabularies for searching. The term ‘searching vocabularies’ has been used to describe vocabularies produced with the searcher, rather than primarily the indexer, in mind. Such vocabularies are categorized as: enhanced thesauri and lists of subject headings, term listings, synonym listings and merged vocabularies.

Details

Online Review, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-314X

Article
Publication date: 8 July 2010

Elaine Ménard

This paper seeks to examine image retrieval within two different contexts: a monolingual context where the language of the query is the same as the indexing language and a…

1187

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine image retrieval within two different contexts: a monolingual context where the language of the query is the same as the indexing language and a multilingual context where the language of the query is different from the indexing language. The study also aims to compare two different approaches for the indexing of ordinary images representing common objects: traditional image indexing with the use of a controlled vocabulary and free image indexing using uncontrolled vocabulary.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses three data collection methods. An analysis of the indexing terms was employed in order to examine the multiplicity of term types assigned to images. A simulation of the retrieval process involving a set of 30 images was performed with 60 participants. The quantification of the retrieval performance of each indexing approach was based on the usability measures, that is, effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of the user. Finally, a questionnaire was used to gather information on searcher satisfaction during and after the retrieval process.

Findings

The results of this research are twofold. The analysis of indexing terms associated with all the 3,950 images provides a comprehensive description of the characteristics of the four non‐combined indexing forms used for the study. Also, the retrieval simulation results offers information about the relative performance of the six indexing forms (combined and non‐combined) in terms of their effectiveness, efficiency (temporal and human) and the image searcher's satisfaction.

Originality/value

The findings of the study suggest that, in the near future, the information systems could benefit from allowing an increased coexistence of controlled vocabularies and uncontrolled vocabularies, resulting from collaborative image tagging, for example, and giving the users the possibility to dynamically participate in the image‐indexing process, in a more user‐centred way.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 62 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 August 2014

Myae Han, Nancy Edwards and Carol Vukelich

The purpose of this chapter is to suggest ways for early childhood teachers to teach science content knowledge, vocabulary, respect, and an appreciation for nature while…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to suggest ways for early childhood teachers to teach science content knowledge, vocabulary, respect, and an appreciation for nature while children engage in meaningful outdoor nature activities. Science concepts such as nature, life cycle, observation, and experimentation can be woven into outdoor activities as children pretend to be nature scientists. Intentional planning provides teachers with the opportunity to integrate science content knowledge and vocabulary learning during the nature study. The careful selection of content vocabulary related to the scientific process and science content knowledge helps children learn new words in meaningful and developmentally appropriate ways. This chapter provides several examples of outdoor nature activities with science content knowledge and vocabulary embedded into each activity.

Details

Learning Across the Early Childhood Curriculum
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-700-9

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 July 2014

Lucía I. Méndez

This chapter examines factors impacting vocabulary development in preschool dual language learners, providing a cultural and linguistic perspective on vocabulary

Abstract

This chapter examines factors impacting vocabulary development in preschool dual language learners, providing a cultural and linguistic perspective on vocabulary instruction in this population. Through a multidisciplinary review of the research literature, instructional strategies that can support vocabulary development in this population are identified. The chapter concludes with a detailed illustration of how these strategies can be incorporated into a culturally linguistically responsive vocabulary approach for Latino preschoolers.

Details

Early Childhood and Special Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-459-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 July 2014

To examine how vocabulary instruction can lead toward students connecting the known to the familiar with the unknown.

Abstract

Purpose

To examine how vocabulary instruction can lead toward students connecting the known to the familiar with the unknown.

Design/methodology/approach

Theoretical advances in vocabulary acquisition and utility are discussed in relation to word reading and knowledge formation. Extending theory requires pedagogical planning and reinforcement to promote skill learning first toward preparing students to have the capacity to acquire vocabulary across the content areas and in turn, understand and apply that knowledge toward problem solving.

Findings

Students must be scaffolded toward connecting what they know with that which is familiar and eventually with the unknown; only then can we extend learning beyond our guidance and supervision. Students must be taught how and when to use vocabulary acquisition strategies so they are prepared to overcome difficulties associated with word meanings in independent reading.

Practical implications

It is timely for rich, varied, and complete vocabulary instruction to serve as the basis for learning across the curriculum. Words are the predecessors of tomorrow’s learning and we must consider how to best provide instruction for students who overuse sight words, text shorthand more than they write formally, and even substitute inappropriate language based upon a lack of vocabulary knowledge and ability to articulate their feelings.

Details

Theoretical Models of Learning and Literacy Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-821-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Evan Ortlieb, Wolfram Verlaan and Earl H. Cheek

Purpose – To provide educators with an overview of strategies that can be incorporated into clinical settings that foster vocabulary and comprehension development.…

Abstract

Purpose – To provide educators with an overview of strategies that can be incorporated into clinical settings that foster vocabulary and comprehension development.

Design/methodology/approach – The chapter highlights underlying themes of reading failure, benefits of large vocabularies and comprehension skills, and components for remediation/instruction.

Findings – Content provides detailed information on designing clinics that prepare students to meet the vocabulary and comprehension demands of reading in the 21st century.

Research limitations/implications – The chapter highlights the most reliable and practical reading strategies that are fundamental to every reader's advancement.

Practical implications – This chapter serves as a resource for all clinical instructors, providing a wealth of ideas for incorporation into their clinics and classrooms.

Originality/value of paper – This compilation of vocabulary and comprehension strategies works in tandem to produce highly skilled readers who can in turn learn independently.

Details

Advanced Literacy Practices
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-503-6

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

Shin'ichiro Ishikawa

Using a newly compiled corpus module consisting of utterances from Asian learners during L2 English interviews, this study examined how Asian EFL learners' L1s (Chinese…

Abstract

Purpose

Using a newly compiled corpus module consisting of utterances from Asian learners during L2 English interviews, this study examined how Asian EFL learners' L1s (Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, Taiwanese and Thai), their L2 proficiency levels (A2, B1 low, B1 upper and B2+) and speech task types (picture descriptions, roleplays and QA-based conversations) affected four aspects of vocabulary usage (number of tokens, standardized type/token ratio, mean word length and mean sentence length).

Design/methodology/approach

Four aspects concern speech fluency, lexical richness, lexical complexity and structural complexity, respectively.

Findings

Subsequent corpus-based quantitative data analyses revealed that (1) learner/native speaker differences existed during the conversation and roleplay tasks in terms of the number of tokens, type/token ratio and sentence length; (2) an L1 group effect existed in all three task types in terms of the number of tokens and sentence length; (3) an L2 proficiency effect existed in all three task types in terms of the number of tokens, type-token ratio and sentence length; and (4) the usage of high-frequency vocabulary was influenced more strongly by the task type and it was classified into four types: Type A vocabulary for grammar control, Type B vocabulary for speech maintenance, Type C vocabulary for negotiation and persuasion and Type D vocabulary for novice learners.

Originality/value

These findings provide clues for better understanding L2 English vocabulary usage among Asian learners during speech.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2022

Barry Lee Reynolds and Chen Ding

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of word-related factors (i.e. frequency, range, dispersion and cognateness) on first-language English (L1E…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of word-related factors (i.e. frequency, range, dispersion and cognateness) on first-language English (L1E) readers' (n = 20) and second-language English (L2E) readers' (n = 20) incidental acquisition of vocabulary through the reading of an authentic novel.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants read A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess, a 58,686 token (word) English language novel containing Slovos, that is, words from Nadsat, a futuristic, foreignized teen talk invented by Burgess. Upon finishing the novel, the participants took two unexpected vocabulary tests, one for meaning recognition and the other for meaning recall.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that word-related factors significantly correlate with the word meaning recall test scores of both groups. However, the regression models of meaning recall for the two groups showed that dispersion was the most robust predictor, which implies that the participants recalled more word meanings when the novel had a more even distribution of the unknown target words. The meaning recognition test scores showed cognates were a significant predictor for the L1E readers but not for L2E readers.

Originality/value

This study marks the first attempt in the field to investigate the relative contribution of frequency, range and dispersion – a closely bound set of word-related factors – to both L1E and L2E readers' incidental acquisition of vocabulary through reading an authentic novel. Considering the important role of dispersion, the current study suggests that developers of graded readers and children's literature should more evenly distribute unknown target words in their books. Doing so will better facilitate both L1E and L2E readers' acquisition of those words. The study also addresses a fallacy of methodology regarding incidental vocabulary acquisition by examining the effect of the cognateness of the foreignized words embedded in A Clockwork Orange. The L1E readers' sensitivity to cognates implies that cognate-word awareness-raising activities are necessary to learning a foreign language, especially if that language has many cognates in common with English, such as Spanish.

Details

English Teaching: Practice & Critique, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1175-8708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2020

Hamed Barjesteh, Elham Movafaghardestani and Ahmad Modaberi

COVID-19’s attack on the system of education left the learning of many students in limbo. For minimizing this effect, the current study sought to probe how Mobile-Assisted…

Abstract

Purpose

COVID-19’s attack on the system of education left the learning of many students in limbo. For minimizing this effect, the current study sought to probe how Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) can facilitate English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ vocabulary knowledge. In so doing, a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest research design was adopted to check the effect of a newly developed application (i.e. visual vocabulary learning, hereafter VVL) in an EFL classroom.

Design/methodology/approach

To complying with the objective, a number of intermediate students (N = 40) were considered to participate in the study. They were assigned into a visual learning group (VLG) and a nonvisual learning group (NVLG) comprising 20 students in each. The VLG was directed to learn vocabulary by a VVL, and the NVG, a conventional method was employed for vocabulary instruction. An independent samples t-test was run to screen the efficacy of the intervention.

Findings

The finding revealed that participants in the VLG outperformed significantly in the posttest. The finding is beneficial for EFL teachers, syllabus designers, and material developers to take advantage of mobile applications in teaching vocabulary.

Originality/value

This study was conducted during COVID 19 between two groups in Iran.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1965

MARJORIE R. HYSLOP

The ASM Information Retrieval System is currently in process of redesign to incorporate major refinements and improvements resulting from five years of operating…

Abstract

The ASM Information Retrieval System is currently in process of redesign to incorporate major refinements and improvements resulting from five years of operating experience as well as experience and research of others in the field. Principles and methodology underlying these changes are explored for various components of this system, principally vocabulary, links and roles, and computer hardware and programming. The major change is from semantic code to thesaurus as the system vocabulary, and the relative efficiencies and inherent capabilities of each are compared and related to the general principles of vocabulary control.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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