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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Dumitru Radoiu, Calin Enachescu and Osei Adjei

Recent technological advances have created volumes of data such that, unless some effective methods are used to analyse them, they will be either wasted or under‐examined…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent technological advances have created volumes of data such that, unless some effective methods are used to analyse them, they will be either wasted or under‐examined for their useful information content. Scientific data visualization is an attempt to use graphical and numerical tools to extract information contained in data and hence to allow its analysis. This paper seeks to present a systematic approach to the development of tools for scientific data visualization.

Design/methodology/approach

It is shown that the approach to implement these tools involves four major steps: description of a reference model, validation of the data process, description of the software component and the design and implementation of the visualization tool.

Findings

This approach is substantiated by defining conditions suitable for scientific data visualization processes, in a relaxed manner. These conditions are subsequently refined more formally. Definitions and theorems of the proofs are succinctly discussed.

Originality/value

The mathematical description of the visualization process is necessary to understand and maintain some significant reduction in errors in scientific visualization processes.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 23 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 October 2021

Veronica Johansson and Jörgen Stenlund

Representations of time are commonly used to construct narratives in visualisations of data. However, since time is a value-laden concept, and no representation can…

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Abstract

Purpose

Representations of time are commonly used to construct narratives in visualisations of data. However, since time is a value-laden concept, and no representation can provide a full, objective account of “temporal reality”, they are also biased and political: reproducing and reinforcing certain views and values at the expense of alternative ones. This conceptual paper aims to explore expressions of temporal bias and politics in data visualisation, along with possibly mitigating user approaches and design strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents a theoretical framework rooted in a sociotechnical view of representations as biased and political, combined with perspectives from critical literacy, radical literacy and critical design. The framework provides a basis for discussion of various types and effects of temporal bias in visualisation. Empirical examples from previous research and public resources illustrate the arguments.

Findings

Four types of political effects of temporal bias in visualisations are presented, expressed as limitation of view, disregard of variation, oppression of social groups and misrepresentation of topic and suggest that appropriate critical and radical literacy approaches require users and designers to critique, contextualise, counter and cross beyond expressions of the same. Supporting critical design strategies involve the inclusion of multiple datasets and representations; broad access to flexible tools; and inclusive participation of marginalised groups.

Originality/value

The paper draws attention to a vital, yet little researched problem of temporal representation in visualisations of data. It offers a pioneering bridging of critical literacy, radical literacy and critical design and emphasises mutual rather than contradictory interests of the empirical sciences and humanities.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Björn Ekström

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how a methodological coupling of visualisations of trace data and interview methods can be utilised for information…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how a methodological coupling of visualisations of trace data and interview methods can be utilised for information practices studies.

Design/methodology/approach

Trace data visualisation enquiry is suggested as the coupling of visualising exported data from an information system and using these visualisations as basis for interview guides and elicitation in information practices research. The methodology is illustrated and applied through a small-scale empirical study of a citizen science project.

Findings

The study found that trace data visualisation enquiry enabled fine-grained investigations of temporal aspects of information practices and to compare and explore temporal and geographical aspects of practices. Moreover, the methodology made possible inquiries for understanding information practices through trace data that were discussed through elicitation with participants. The study also found that it can aid a researcher of gaining a simultaneous overarching and close picture of information practices, which can lead to theoretical and methodological implications for information practices research.

Originality/value

Trace data visualisation enquiry extends current methods for investigating information practices as it enables focus to be placed on the traces of practices as recorded through interactions with information systems and study participants' accounts of activities.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Sayed Mahmood Bakhshayesh, Abbas Ahmadi and Azadeh Mohebi

Many search engines in digital libraries are restricted to the terms presented in users’ queries. When users cannot represent their information needs in terms of keywords…

Abstract

Purpose

Many search engines in digital libraries are restricted to the terms presented in users’ queries. When users cannot represent their information needs in terms of keywords in a query, the search engine fails to provide appropriate results. In addition, most search engines do not have the ability to visualize search results for users to help them in their information journey. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new approach for search result visualization in digital libraries. The visualization approach enables subject-based visualization of search results and search queries.

Design/methodology/approach

To enable subject-based visualization of search results in digital libraries, new subject-based document retrieval is proposed in which each document is represented as a vector of subjects as well. Then, using a vector space model for information retrieval, along with the subject-based vector, related documents to the user’s query are retrieved, whilst each document is visualized through a ring chart, showing the inherent subjects within each document and the query.

Findings

The proposed subject-based retrieval and visualization approach is evaluated from various perspectives to amplify the impact of the visualization approach from users’ opinions. Users have evaluated the performance of the proposed subject-based retrieval and search result visualization, whilst 67% of users prefer subject-based document retrieval and 80% of them believe that the proposed visualization approach is practical.

Research limitations/implications

This research has provided a subject-based representation scheme for search result visualization in a digital library. The implication of this research can be viewed from two perspectives. First, the subject-based retrieval approach provides an opportunity for the users to understand their information needs, beyond the explicit terms in the query, leading to results, which are semantically relevant to the query. Second, the simple subject-based visualization scheme, helps users to explore the results easily, whilst allowing them to build their knowledge experience.

Originality/value

A new vectorized subject-based representation of documents and queries is proposed. This representation determines the semantic and subject-based relationship between a given query and documents within a digital scientific library. In addition, it also provides a subject-based representation of the retrieved documents through which users can track the semantic relationship between the query and retrieve documents, visually.

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2021

Mechiel van Manen, Léon olde Scholtenhuis and Hans Voordijk

This study aims to empirically validate five propositions about the benefits of three-dimensional (3D) visualizations for the management of subsurface utility projects…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically validate five propositions about the benefits of three-dimensional (3D) visualizations for the management of subsurface utility projects. Specifically, the authors validate whether benefits from 3D in the literature of building construction project management also apply to subsurface utility projects and map them using a taxonomy of project complexity levels.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case study of three utility construction projects was carried out during which the first author was involved in the daily work practices at a utility contractor. 3D visualizations of existing project models were developed, and design and construction meetings were conducted. Practitioners' interactions with and reflections on these 3D visualizations were noted. Observational data from the three project types were matched with the five propositions to determine where benefits of 3D visualizations manifested themselves.

Findings

Practitioners found that 3D visualizations had most merit in crowded urban environments when constructing rigid pipelines. All propositions were validated and evaluated as beneficial in subsurface utility projects of complexity level C3. It is shown that in urban projects with rigid pipelines (project with the highest complexity level), 3D visualization prevents misunderstanding or misinterpretations and increases efficiency of coordination. It is recommended to implement 3D visualization approaches in such complex projects

Originality/value

There is only limited evidence on the value 3D visualizations in managing utility projects. This study contributes rich empirical evidence on this value based on a six-month observation period at a subsurface contractor. Their merit was assessed by associating 3D approaches with project complexity levels, which may help utility contractors in strategically implementing 3D applications.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Book part
Publication date: 2 November 2009

Catherine T. Lawson

New computer-assisted techniques for visualizing data are evolving in a number of areas in transportation. For example, in engineering, 3D visualization and…

Abstract

New computer-assisted techniques for visualizing data are evolving in a number of areas in transportation. For example, in engineering, 3D visualization and microsimulation techniques are being applied for the identification and evaluation of geometric and operational solutions for improving visually impaired pedestrian access to roundabouts and channelized turn lanes. For planning, visualization is being used for corridor analysis. Data visualization is being used as a tool for improving decision-making within transit agencies, as well as a tool for understanding truck trip generation on highways. Many of these new techniques take advantage of archived intelligent transportation systems (ITS) data. Examples of other innovative data sources include global positioning systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), computer-aided design (CAD), and a variety of visualization tools available for use with travel survey data. As these various techniques and software applications move forward, consideration needs to be given to how the “lessons learned” from these applications can facilitate the use of data visualization techniques for travel survey data analysis and decision-making.

Details

Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84-855844-1

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Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2006

Mike Barnes, John Warner, David Hillis, Liana Suantak, Jerzy Rozenblit and Patricia McDermott

This chapter addresses adaptation to dynamic, novel and uncertain military environments. These environments require a shift from a maneuver warfare paradigm to an…

Abstract

This chapter addresses adaptation to dynamic, novel and uncertain military environments. These environments require a shift from a maneuver warfare paradigm to an asymmetric world where shifting alliances, questionable civilian loyalties, opaque cultures, and the requirement to maintain peace one day and combat the next makes for a particularly confusing situation. This new warfare paradigm requires adaptation to an uncertain, complex environment.

The initial section discusses a general cognitive model of visualization called RAVENS and its importance for adaptation developed specifically to address complex military environments. RAVENS posits that humans are inherently flexible decision makers and situation awareness depends on the ability of humans to create narrative visualizations that capture the overall context of complex military environments. Using the framework as a guideline, we will examine two important visualization research programs whose purpose is to allow military operators to rapidly adapt to volatile situations. The first program investigates cognitive effects such as the framing bias and their possible interactions with a variety of display concepts during a series of missile defense simulations. The experimenters presented risk as a spatial representation of uncertainty and target value that emphasized either expected population lost or expected population saved. The second program investigated the feasibility of using visualizations generated from Scheherazade (a coevolutionary algorithm) to aid MI analysts in predicting emergent tactics of terrorist groups during urban operations. Finally, we discuss the value of these approaches for providing coherent narrative understanding as called for in the RAVENS model.

Details

Understanding Adaptability: A Prerequisite for Effective Performance within Complex Environments
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-371-6

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Ciro Troise

The purpose of this paper is to explore the main benefits and risks of knowledge visualization in the current digital age.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the main benefits and risks of knowledge visualization in the current digital age.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a qualitative and explorative research to frame the benefits and risks of knowledge visualization. The emerging views of 57 small and medium-sized entrepreneurs (SMEs) managers are examined.

Findings

The findings reveal both benefits and risks related to knowledge visualization. The two aggregate dimensions (i.e. benefits and risks) are supported by six second-order and five second-order categories, respectively. On one side, the main benefits highlighted in the study are related to: stakeholder engagement, flexibility, knowledge transfer, signaling role, agility and interactivity; on the other side, the risks identified are related to: complexity, absorptive capacity, divergences, capabilities and ineffectiveness.

Originality/value

The research highlights novel insights in the emerging field of knowledge visualization and extends current literature. It provides useful implication from both a theoretical and practical point of view.

Details

Management Decision, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Justyna Bandola-Gill, Sotiria Grek and Matteo Ronzani

The visualization of ranking information in global public policy is moving away from traditional “league table” formats and toward dashboards and interactive data…

Abstract

The visualization of ranking information in global public policy is moving away from traditional “league table” formats and toward dashboards and interactive data displays. This paper explores the rhetoric underpinning the visualization of ranking information in such interactive formats, the purpose of which is to encourage country participation in reporting on the Sustainable Development Goals. The paper unpacks the strategies that the visualization experts adopt in the measurement of global poverty and wellbeing, focusing on a variety of interactive ranking visualizations produced by the OECD, the World Bank, the Gates Foundation and the ‘Our World in Data’ group at the University of Oxford. Building on visual and discourse analysis, the study details how the politically and ethically sensitive nature of global public policy, coupled with the pressures for “decolonizing” development, influence how rankings are visualized. The study makes two contributions to the literature on rankings. First, it details the move away from league table formats toward multivocal interactive layouts that seek to mitigate the competitive and potentially dysfunctional pressures of the display of “winners and losers.” Second, it theorizes ranking visualizations in global public policy as “alignment devices” that entice country buy-in and seek to align actors around common global agendas.

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2019

David E. Caughlin and Talya N. Bauer

Data visualizations in some form or another have served as decision-support tools for many centuries. In conjunction with advancements in information technology, data…

Abstract

Data visualizations in some form or another have served as decision-support tools for many centuries. In conjunction with advancements in information technology, data visualizations have become more accessible and more efficient to generate. In fact, virtually all enterprise resource planning and human resource (HR) information system vendors offer off-the-shelf data visualizations as part of decision-support dashboards as well as stand-alone images and displays for reporting. Plus, advances in programing languages and software such as Tableau, Microsoft Power BI, R, and Python have expanded the possibilities of fully customized graphics. Despite the proliferation of data visualization, relatively little is known about how to design data visualizations for displaying different types of HR data to different user groups, for different purposes, and with the overarching goal of improving the ways in which users comprehend and interpret data visualizations for decision-making purposes. To understand the state of science and practice as they relate to HR data visualizations and data visualizations in general, we review the literature on data visualizations across disciplines and offer an organizing framework that emphasizes the roles data visualization characteristics (e.g., display type, features), user characteristics (e.g., experience, individual differences), tasks, and objectives (e.g., compare values) play in user comprehension, interpretation, and decision-making. Finally, we close by proposing future directions for science and practice.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-852-0

Keywords

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