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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Paul Alonso Gaona-García, David Martin-Moncunill and Carlos Enrique Montenegro-Marin

This paper aims to present an overview of the challenges encountered in integrating visual search interfaces into digital libraries and repositories. These challenges come…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present an overview of the challenges encountered in integrating visual search interfaces into digital libraries and repositories. These challenges come in various forms, including information visualisation, the use of knowledge organisation systems and metadata quality. The main purpose of this study is the identification of criteria for the evaluation and integration of visual search interfaces, proposing guidelines and recommendations to improve information retrieval tasks with emphasis on the education-al context.

Design/methodology/approach

The information included in this study was collected based on a systematic literature review approach. The main information sources were explored in several digital libraries, including Science Direct, Scopus, ACM and IEEE, and include journal articles, conference proceedings, books, European project reports and deliverables and PhD theses published in an electronic format. A total of 142 studies comprised the review.

Findings

There are several issues that authors did not fully discuss in this literature review study; more specific, aspects associated with access of digital resources in digital libraries and repositories based on human computer interaction, i.e. usability and learnability of user interfaces; design of a suitable navigation method of search based on simple knowledge organisation schemes; and the use of usefulness of visual search interfaces to locate relevant resources.

Research limitations/implications

The main steps for carrying out a systematic review are drawn from health care; this methodology is not commonly used in fields such as digital libraries and repositories. The authors aimed to apply the fundamentals of the systematic literature review methodology considering the context of this study. Additionally, there are several aspects of accessibility that were not considered in the study, such as accessibility to content for disabled people as defined by ISO/IEC 40500:2012.

Originality/value

No other systematic literature reviews have been conducted in this field. The research presents an in-depth analysis of the criteria associated with searching and navigation methods based on the systematic literature review approach. The analysis is relevant for researchers in the field of digital library and repository creation in that it may direct them to considerations in designing and implementing visual search interfaces based on the use of information visualisation.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Po-Yao Chao and Chia-Ching Lin

The purpose of this paper is to explore how young children interact with a visualized search interface to search for storybooks by assembling the provided visual searching

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how young children interact with a visualized search interface to search for storybooks by assembling the provided visual searching items and to explore the difference in visual search behaviours and strategies exhibited by pre-schoolers and second-graders.

Design/methodology/approach

The visualized search interface was used to help young children search for storybooks by dragging-and-dropping story characters, scene objects and colour icons to perform search queries. Twenty pre-schoolers and 20 second-graders were asked to finish a search task through the visualized search interface. Their activities and successes in performing visual searches were logged for later analysis. Furthermore, in-depth interviews were also conducted to research their cognitive strategies exhibited while formulating visual search queries.

Findings

Young children with different grades adopted different cognitive strategies to perform visual searching. In contrast to the pre-schoolers who performed visual searching by personal preference, the second-graders could exercise visual searching accompanied with relatively high-order thinking. Young children may also place different foci on the storybook structure to deal with conditional storybook queries. The pre-schoolers tended to address the characters in the story, whereas the second-graders paid much attention to the aspects of scene and colour.

Originality/value

This paper describes a new visual search approach allowing young children to search for storybooks by describing an intended storybook in terms of its characters, scenes or the background colours, which provides valuable indicators to inform researchers of how pre-schoolers and second-graders formulate concepts to search for storybooks.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Shahram Sedghi, Zeinab Shormeij and Iman Tahamtan

Information seeking is an interactive behaviour of the end users with information systems, which occurs in a real environment known as context. Context affects…

Abstract

Purpose

Information seeking is an interactive behaviour of the end users with information systems, which occurs in a real environment known as context. Context affects information-seeking behaviour in many different ways. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that potentially constitute the context of visual information seeking.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a Straussian version of grounded theory, a qualitative approach, to conduct the study. Using a purposive sampling method, 28 subjects participated in the study. The data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding in MAXQDA software.

Findings

The contextual factors influencing visual information seeking were classified into seven categories, including: “user characteristics”, “general search features”, “visual search features”, “display of results”, “accessibility of results”, “task type” and “environmental factors”.

Practical/implications

This study contributes to a better understanding of how people conduct searches in and interact with visual search interfaces. Results have important implications for the designers of information retrieval systems.

Originality/value

This paper is among the pioneer studies investigating contextual factors influencing information seeking in visual information retrieval systems.

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Orland Hoeber and Taraneh Khazaei

Conducting academic searches within online digital libraries can be a difficult task due to the complexity of the searcher’s information need. The interfaces for such…

Abstract

Purpose

Conducting academic searches within online digital libraries can be a difficult task due to the complexity of the searcher’s information need. The interfaces for such digital libraries commonly use simple search features that provide limited support for the fundamental strategies that academic searchers employ. The authors have developed a novel visualisation interface called Bow Tie Academic Search to address some of these shortcomings, and present in this paper the findings from a user evaluation. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A controlled laboratory study was conducted to compare a traditional search interface to Bow Tie Academic Search. In total, 24 graduate students were recruited to perform academic searches using the two candidate interfaces, guided by specific sub-tasks that focus on citation and keyword analysis strategies.

Findings

Although the use of the core visualisation and exploration features did not reveal differences in retrieval effectiveness or efficiency, the query refinement features were found to be effective. Strongly positive impressions of usefulness and ease of use of all aspects of the system were reported, along with a preference for using Bow Tie Academic Search for academic search tasks.

Originality/value

This study provides insight into the potential value for providing visual and interactive interfaces for supporting academic search tasks and strategies. While the quantitative improvements over the traditional search interface were minimal, the qualitative measures illustrate the value of Bow Tie Academic Search.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Po-Yao Chao, Chia-Ching Lin and Ming-Shiang Wu

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to develop a visualized search system utilizing graphical images to represent the story elements and concepts to help…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to develop a visualized search system utilizing graphical images to represent the story elements and concepts to help elementary students describe and seek their desired storybooks; and second, to explore the effect of the proposed visualized search system on elementary students’ tactics, success, and motivation for seeking storybooks.

Design/methodology/approach

A quasi-experimental approach was conducted with a sample of 61 elementary students in this study. The students’ tactics, motivation and the success of their storybook searching were addressed as dependent variables for further comparisons of the visualized searching system and a conventional keyword searching system.

Findings

The results revealed that the students in the experimental group exhibited more frequent tactics and greater motivation for storybook searching than those in the control group. Further χ2 analysis indicated a significant relationship between the searching interface and the success of the students’ storybook searching.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new visual search approach which allows young children to search for storybooks by describing an intended storybook in terms of its characters, objects, or the background colors of the cover page. The findings provide some evidence of the effectiveness of the visualized searching interface in terms of promoting young children’s learning through storybook searching and reading activities.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Orland Hoeber

HotMap web search was designed to support exploratory search tasks by adding lightweight visual and interactive features to the commonly used list‐based representation of…

Abstract

Purpose

HotMap web search was designed to support exploratory search tasks by adding lightweight visual and interactive features to the commonly used list‐based representation of web search results. Although laboratory user studies are the most common method for empirically validating the utility of information visualization and information retrieval systems such as this, it is difficult to determine if such studies accurately reflect the tasks of real users. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal user evaluation was conducted in two phases over a ten‐week period to determine how this novel web search interface was being used and accepted in real‐world settings.

Findings

Although the interactive features were not used as extensively as expected, there is evidence that the participants did find them useful. Participants were able to refine their queries easily, although most did so manually. Those that used the interactive exploration features were able to effectively discover potentially relevant documents buried deep in the search results list. Subjective reactions regarding the usefulness and ease‐of‐use of the system were positive, and more than half of the participants continued to use the system even after the study ended.

Originality/value

As a result of conducting this longitudinal study, the author has gained a deeper understanding of how a particular visual and interactive web search interface is being used in the real world, as well as issues associated with resistance to change. These findings may provide guidance for the design, development, and study of next generation interfaces for online information retrieval.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2013

Matt Conner and Melissa Browne

The purpose of this paper is to investigate three tools based on principles of information visualization and measure their impact on undergraduates' abilities to generate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate three tools based on principles of information visualization and measure their impact on undergraduates' abilities to generate keywords for database research.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 50 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to a condition (Control, Keyword Matrix, Wonder Wheel, Visual Search) and instructed to find relevant article citations on unfamiliar topics in EBSCO's Academic Search Complete. All students completed a pre‐test to provide baseline data. Control subjects performed one additional search. Students in the experimental conditions were introduced to the relevant information visualization strategy, employed it to identify keywords for two post‐test searches, and provided a written assessment of its impact. Audio and screen captures from search sessions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed.

Findings

Brainstorming Behavior: Wonder Wheel subjects spent significantly more time brainstorming search terms than those relying on the Keyword Matrix. Search Behavior: Visual Search subjects utilized significantly more search concepts and attempted more searches. Evaluation: Students expressed satisfaction with all three tools tested; however, a subset of Visual Search subjects verbalized frustration as they searched. The Visual Search produced desirable student search behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

The study sample was limited (50 undergraduates from a single institution) and student searches were not motivated by authentic information needs.

Originality/value

This study offers insight into how information visualization tools can be leveraged to improve undergraduate search behavior. The findings have practical implications for teaching librarians and course instructors.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2020

Xiaoyue Ma and Hao Ma

Graphic-based tag clouds aim to visually represent tag content and tag structure, and then to better represent tagged information for later search. However, few studies…

Abstract

Purpose

Graphic-based tag clouds aim to visually represent tag content and tag structure, and then to better represent tagged information for later search. However, few studies have clarified the features among varied visualization approaches involved in graphic-based tag clouds and compared them for the purpose of information search.

Design/methodology/approach

After reviewing four kinds of graphic-based tag clouds, an experimental demonstration was conducted in our study to verify how user performs in information search for a general seeking task by using them. Precision ratio, recall ratio, clicks on search and time for search were four variables tested in the experiment. Also, two supplementary tests were respectively carried out to manifest how graphic-based tag clouds contributed to the identification of target tags and tag clusters.

Findings

The experimental results showed that compared to tag content visual tag structure was more important to find related tags from tag clouds for information search. In addition, tag clouds that visually represented the semantic relationships within tags could make user more confident about their search result and carry out a shorter learning process during searching, which signified a tag-based information search path when visual elements were applied.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first to illustrate systematically the graphic-based tag clouds and their impacts on information search. The research findings could suggest on how to build up more effective and interactive tag clouds and make proposition for the design of search user interface by using graphic-based tag clouds.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 44 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

David Martín-Moncunill, Miguel Angel Sicilia-Urban, Elena García-Barriocanal and Christian M. Stracke

The common understanding of generalization/specialization relations assumes the relation to be equally strong between a classifier and any of its related classifiers and…

Abstract

Purpose

The common understanding of generalization/specialization relations assumes the relation to be equally strong between a classifier and any of its related classifiers and also at every level of the hierarchy. Assigning a grade of relative distance to represent the level of similarity between the related pairs of classifiers could correct this situation, which has been considered as an oversimplification of the psychological account of the real-world relations. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The evaluation followed an end-user perspective. In order to obtain a consistent data set of specialization distances, a group of 21 persons was asked to assign values to a set of relations from a selection of terms from the AGROVOC thesaurus. Then two sets of representations of the relations between the terms were built, one according to the calculated concept of specialization weights and the other one following the original order of the thesaurus. In total, 40 persons were asked to choose between the two sets following an A/B test-like experiment. Finally, short interviews were carried out after the test to inquiry about their decisions.

Findings

The results show that the use of this information could be a valuable tool for search and information retrieval purposes and for the visual representation of knowledge organization systems (KOS). Furthermore, the methodology followed in the study turned out to be useful for detecting inconsistencies in the thesaurus and could thus be used for quality control and optimization of the hierarchical relations.

Originality/value

The use of this relative distance information, namely, “concept specialization distance,” has been proposed mainly at a theoretical level. In the current experiment, the authors evaluate the potential use of this information from an end-user perspective, not only for text-based interfaces but also its application for the visual representation of KOS. Finally, the methodology followed for the elaboration of the concept specialization distance data set showed potential for detecting possible inconsistencies in KOS.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Paulina V. Harper, Kyrille Goldbeck, Margaret Hogarth, David Greenebaum, David Magolis and Millie Jackson

To report on the 1st Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference held in March 2006 in Atlanta, Georgia.Design/methodology/approach – Provides a review of some of the…

Abstract

Purpose

To report on the 1st Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference held in March 2006 in Atlanta, Georgia.Design/methodology/approach – Provides a review of some of the events of the conference.

Findings

The ER&L conference is the first step to building an shared understanding about the unique medium of electronic resources and management and developing a supportive community for dissemination of basic practices and latest developments in the field.

Originality/value

A conference report of interest to information management professionals, especially those involved with electronic resources.

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

Keywords

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