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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2022

Emel Adamış and Fatih Pınarbaşı

This study aims to explore the visual social media (SM) (Instagram) communication and the visual characteristics of smart tourism destination (STD) communication from…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the visual social media (SM) (Instagram) communication and the visual characteristics of smart tourism destination (STD) communication from destination marketing/management organizations (DMOs) and user-generated content (UGC) perspectives, which refer to projected image and perceived image, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Three DMO official accounts of STDs (Helsinki, Gothenburg and Lyon) and corresponding official hashtags were selected for the sample and total 6,000 post data (1,000 × 6) were retrieved from Instagram. Visual communication content was examined with a netnographic design over a proposed four-level visual content framework using corresponding methodological approaches (thematic analysis, visual analysis, object detection and text mining) for each level.

Findings

Among the eight emerging themes dominating the images, communication of smart elements conveys far less than expected textual and visual signals from DMOs despite their smart status, and in turn, from UGC as well. UGC revealed three extra image themes regardless of smartness perception. DMOs tend to project and give voice to their standard metropolitan areas and neighborhoods while UGCs focus on food-related and emotional elements. The findings show a partial overlap between DMOs and UGCs, revealing discrepancies in objects contained in visuals, hashtags and emojis. Additionally, as a rare attempt, the proposed framework for visual content analysis showed the importance of integrated methods to investigate visual content effectively.

Research limitations/implications

The number of attributes in visual analysis and focusing on the observed elements in text content (text, hashtags and emojis) are the limitations of the study in terms of methodology.

Originality/value

Apart from the multiple integrated methods used over a netnographic design, this study differs from existing SM and smart destinations intersection literature by attempting to fill a gap in focusing on and exploring visual SM communication, which is scarce in tourism context, for the contents generated by DMOs and users.

研究目的

本研究旨在探讨从目的地营销管理组织(DMO)和用户生成的内容(UGC)获取的视觉社交网站传播(instagram)以及智慧旅游目的地的视觉特征。这两个角度在本文中分别命名为投射形象和感知形象。

研究设计/方法/途径

本文收集了三个智慧旅游目的地(赫尔辛基、哥德堡、里昂)的DMO官方账号及其对应的官方标签数据, 其中从Instagram获取了一共6000个帖子(1000 x 6)。视觉传播内容是通过网络民族志设计进行分析的, 该设计采用四层视觉内容框架, 每一层使用相应的方法, 包括主题分析、视觉分析、目标检测、文本挖掘。

研究发现

在8个新兴的主导形象中, 智慧元素, 尽管是智能的, 但其传达的信息远不如预期的来自DMO的文本和视觉信号, 同样, 也不如来自UGC的信息。无论智慧感知程度如何, UGC显示了3个额外的形象。DMO倾向于展现和表达目的地标准的大都会地区及其临近社区, 而UGC专注于与食物相关的和情感的元素。我们的研究显示了DMO和UGC内容的部分重叠, 但揭示了两者在图像、标签和表情符号中包含对象的差异。此外, 作为一个少有的尝试, 我们提出的视觉内容分析框架展示了集成方法对有效研究视觉内容的重要性。

研究局限性、启示

从方法上来说, 视觉分析中属性的数量和在文本语境中对观察元素的关注是本研究的局限性

研究原创性/价值

除了在网络民族志设计中使用多个集成方法,本文和以往社交媒体和智慧目的地交互文献的区别还体现在关注和探索DMO和UGC生成内容的视觉社交媒体沟通, 这类研究旅游研究情境下是少见的。

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 12 January 2022

Kyongseok Kim and Hyang-Sook Kim

The purpose of this study is to test the visual superiority effect in a verisimilar scenario that an industry association seeks to manipulate consumers using a visual

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to test the visual superiority effect in a verisimilar scenario that an industry association seeks to manipulate consumers using a visual element in its ad while providing an ostensibly balanced claim about the potential health effects of stevia.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments were conducted. In Study 1, an online experiment was conducted with a sample of 112 adult consumers using a two-group (headline frame type: gain vs loss), post-test only design with additional planned analysis of an individual difference (i.e. regulatory focus). In Study 2, another online experiment was implemented with a sample of 175 adults using a 2 (headline frame type: gain vs loss) × 2 (image valence: positive vs negative) between-subjects design with additional planned analysis of regulatory focus. The hypotheses were tested by running the PROCESS macro on SPSS.

Findings

The results showed that when exposed to the advertising message designed to elicit uncertainty, participants relied more on the visual than the textual content (i.e. framed headline and body text) in forming attitude toward the behavior (i.e. consuming stevia). Analysis of cognitive responses also revealed that those who received the stimulus ad with an image added (Study 2) generated significantly fewer thoughts related to the textual content of the ad than those who received the ad with no image (Study 1).

Originality/value

This study represents one of the earliest experimental inquiries into the visual superiority effect in an advertising context. While earlier studies have tended to rely on dual-processing models to test the effects of advertising stimuli featuring both textual and visual elements, the findings of this study (e.g. visual content overwhelmed its textual counterpart in producing persuasive effects) somewhat contradict the premise of dual-processing models.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Zhangxiang Zhu, Xiaoqian Zhang, Jing Wang and Sixuan Chen

The study aims to explore the effects of photograph quality on visual appeal, perceived usefulness and viewers' travel intentions from rational and irrational perspectives…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to explore the effects of photograph quality on visual appeal, perceived usefulness and viewers' travel intentions from rational and irrational perspectives while simultaneously providing some references for the management and marketing of tourism destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study comprises four experiments combined with structural equation modeling to explore the influence mechanism of photograph quality on travel intentions.

Findings

(1) Higher-quality photographs offer greater visual appeal and perceived usefulness to viewers, and these relationships are moderated by the photograph source. Specifically, high-quality photographs generated by other tourists have more visual appeal and perceived usefulness to viewers. However, there are no significant differences in the impact of low-quality photographs generated by other tourists and destination marketing organizations (DMOs) on visual appeal and perceived usefulness. (2) Visual appeal and perceived usefulness significantly affect viewers' travel intentions, and visual appeal positively affects perceived usefulness. (3) Travel experience positively moderates the effects of visual appeal and perceived usefulness on viewers' travel intentions.

Originality/value

The study explores the effects of the visual appeal (irrational factor) and perceived usefulness (rational factor) associated with photograph quality on viewers' travel intentions. Photograph source and travel experiences have moderating effects on this influence mechanism.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2021

Xingyu Wen, Jing Zhang, Mincheol Whang and Kaixuan Liu

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relationship between bra's visual impression and bra parts, and then to explore the application of visual impression in bra design.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the relationship between bra's visual impression and bra parts, and then to explore the application of visual impression in bra design.

Design/methodology/approach

Firstly, 82 female undergraduates are asked to answered this questionnaire online, which is about the importance of parts in bra design. In the part of data analysis, the method of principal part analysis (PCA) are used to get the relationship between bra's parts, and reduce dimension of factors that influence bra design. After that, those group of features are further discussed from the perspective of visual design. Finally, design an application based on conclusion.

Findings

To get the influence features of bra appearance and improve the visual design effect, this paper matches the bra parts with visual features (color, texture, shape and space) and presents four main features of bra design: “color,” “visual texture,” “design shape” and “spatial expression” together with corresponding bra parts and technique of expression. Moreover, user interface in bra cloud customization is designed.

Practical implications

The conclusion, which shows the corresponding relationship between bra visual effect and its basic parts, has an important role in bra visual design. First, it can be useful for design idea with different technique of expression, which may supply a theoretical basis for design. Secondly, the combination of bra parts and visual features can be used to evaluate the appearance.

Originality/value

Discussing the bra visual impression based on bra's basic parts and visual features provides a theoretical method for bra design and its appearance evaluation.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2015

Jane Davison, Christine McLean and Samantha Warren

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the development of visual qualitative research in organizations and management over the past ten years, the experience of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the development of visual qualitative research in organizations and management over the past ten years, the experience of editing a special issue of Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management entitled “Exploring the visual in organizations and management”, and the potential contributions this journal could make to the advancement of this significant area of research.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper provides an overview and critical reflections on visual qualitative research in the study of organizations and management.

Findings

The authors note that organization studies have been slow to develop visual research compared to other disciplines, especially the humanities and branches of the social sciences. However, development has been rapid over the past decade, and the authors comment on the diverse visual empirical material and the range of conceptual approaches.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is a condensed reflection. It predicts a “mainstreaming” of visual research in future years and an increased integration of the visual into the study of management processes and organizations.

Practical implications

This piece provides useful directions and references for researchers new to the field and different ways of thinking the visual and visual methodologies.

Originality/value

The paper provides a rapid overview of the state of visual research in organizations and management studies.

Details

Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5648

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2021

Amit Kaushik, Mohammed Arif, Obas John Ebohon, Hord Arsalan, Muhammad Qasim Rana and Lovelin Obi

The Purpose of this paper is to identify statistical relationships between visual environment and occupant productivity. Visual environment is one of the most important…

Abstract

Purpose

The Purpose of this paper is to identify statistical relationships between visual environment and occupant productivity. Visual environment is one of the most important indoor environmental quality (IEQ) parameters, and it directly impacts occupant productivity in offices. The literature outlines the significance of the impact. Still, there is a lack of investigation, statistical analysis and inter-relationships between the independent variables (IEQ factors), especially in the hot and arid climate.

Design/methodology/approach

This study presents a research study investigating the effects and shows statistical relationships between IEQ on occupant comfort and productivity. The study was conducted in the Middle East, and data was collected for 12 months. It used the response surface analysis to perform analysis.

Findings

This study outlined seven unique relationships highlighting the recommended range, inter-dependencies. Results include that illumination has maximum effect on visual comfort and temperature, daylight having direct influence and relative humidity, wall type next to the seat and kind of workspace also impact visual comfort and productivity. These findings would help to improve occupant comfort and productivity in office buildings. It is recommended to include results and recommendations on design guidelines for office buildings.

Originality/value

This study presents the unique effects of non-visual IEQ parameters on visual comfort and productivity. This investigation also provides a unique method to develop the statistical relationship between various indoor environmental factors and productivity in different contexts and buildings.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Faezeh Mohammadi Tahroodi and Norsidah Ujang

Functioning as space connectors, path structures in urban parks may rarely present social interaction opportunities, although centralized activity spaces are available…

Abstract

Purpose

Functioning as space connectors, path structures in urban parks may rarely present social interaction opportunities, although centralized activity spaces are available. This paper investigated the interrelationships between the visual and physical accessibility attributes of path structure and their impacts on passive social interaction intensity across urban parks in Kuala Lumpur.

Design/methodology/approach

The concept of social interaction has been studied elsewhere in social cohesion, social affiliation and sense of communication. Still, it has not been studied in the context of urban park design. This study employed mixed methods using an adaptive and unique combination of qualitative and quantitative data collections to analyze urban parks with a bit of visual vegetation barrier. The experiential landscape method was applied to determine visual accessibility by interpreting experiential landscape maps. The space syntax method based on quantitative analysis is considered to measure physical accessibilities and vigorous activities along the designated paths by conducting integration analysis and gate observation. The data were crossed-analyzed using a Geographic Information System (GIS) classification technique, correlation analysis and Microsoft combo-charts to generate the relationship between patterns of activities and their accessibilities.

Findings

The results suggested that designated paths with higher accessibility attributes, impressively more elevated than other tracks, could influence the intensity of passive social interactions. The findings supported the understanding that activity nodes and active areas adjoining designated routes could make accessibility attribute areas more critical. These findings verify that visually enriching the spaces along the path structure toward activities is a pivotal contributor to urban planners and designers to enhance the paths’ local integration (LI) and visual accessibility to predict more passive eye contact among park visitors.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed interrelationship among variables in this study has limitations because of not considering other qualitative methods and techniques like cognitive maps and interview simultaneously. These techniques could discover why some paths generate more passive eye contact among park users (Mohammadi Tahroodi, 2018).

Practical implications

Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2020 emphasizes Kuala Lumpur’s unique image as a tropical garden city via preserving and developing the iconic historical urban parks in the city center (CHKL, 2004, pp. 3–3). The latest Draft Kuala Lumpur Structure Plan 2040 has outlined the strategy to achieve a conducive, good-quality neighborhood that encourages social interaction. The findings could assist urban planners and designers better public parks by considering accessibility and permeability aspects of design. This research endorses the appropriateness of interrelationship between accessibility attributes of path structure and social interaction in urban design research, which local urban designers have not fully considered until now. Evaluating the visual convenience of designated paths and assessing LI of the axial lines constructing each designated route of urban parks during the primary stage could enable urban designers to estimate to what extent the paths are accessible and respond to passive social interaction. Then they could enrich with salient landmarks, views and activity nodes to make them attractive. The considerable number of designated paths connections, specifically while they shape the sides of activity nodes, could increase the connectivity and integration of spaces within the parks. These patterns of positioning the activity nodes make the designated routes more legible and provide ease of movement. As a result, it will give urban park users more information about the activities. Allowing people to use the paths will increase people’s presence and, subsequently, passive social interaction. One way is to locate accessible lands that provide social activities at direct visual access paths within urban parks for legibility.

Social implications

The socially responsive urban design enhances the quality of life and provides life satisfaction, happiness and society’s overall health. Being in urban social parks in any passive and active situations has psychological benefits. It facilitates relief and rests from a stressful modern lifestyle that significantly impacts their mental health and well-being. The framework applied in this research integrates the social, spatial and physical aspects of parks design. With this regard, principles and indicators facilitate physically and socially attractive urban parks for Kuala Lumpur city center and applicable to similar contexts elsewhere.

Originality/value

The concept of social interaction has been studied elsewhere in social cohesion, social affiliation and sense of communication. Still, it has not been studied in the context of urban park design. This study employed mixed methods using an adaptive and unique combination of qualitative and quantitative data collections to analyze urban parks with a bit of visual vegetation barrier.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2021

Joshua Butcher and Fabien Pecot

This paper aims to investigate how the abstract marketing concept of brand heritage is operationalized through visual elements on social media.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how the abstract marketing concept of brand heritage is operationalized through visual elements on social media.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-methods approach combines interviews with marketing experts, a focus group with specialized academics, an open coding of Instagram images and the systematic coding of 800 images of eight champagne brands (company-generated content).

Findings

The study identifies 20 brand heritage codes (e.g. groupings of brand heritage visual cues with homogenous meanings). These codes are combined in three different factors (brand symbols, product legacy and consumption rituals) that discriminate between brands.

Research limitations/implications

The paper offers a description of what brand heritage looks like in practice. This visual operationalization of brand heritage is based on a single category, a limitation that further research can address. The results also contribute to research on visual brand identity and provide practical insights for the management of brand heritage at the product brand level.

Originality/value

This paper bridges the gap between the strategic management of brand heritage as a resource and the way it is concretely made available to the consumers.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2021

Zahra Alvandi Poor, Mahdieh Mirzabeigi and Majid Nabavi

The purpose of this study aims to identify the impact of verbal-visual cognitive styles on the level of satisfaction and behavior in the textual and content search of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study aims to identify the impact of verbal-visual cognitive styles on the level of satisfaction and behavior in the textual and content search of Google Images.

Design/methodology/approach

“Riding” cognitive style test and satisfaction questionnaire were used as data collection tools. Also, to collect data related to the image search behavior, the subjects’ transaction files were recorded using Camtasia software and then the files observed and reviewed. The research sample was 90 postgraduate students of Shiraz University.

Findings

The results showed that cognitive styles in interaction with the text-based and content-based search system of “Google Images” affected user’s satisfaction. Text-based image retrieval, in which vocabulary-based information needs were expressed, was more compatible with the verbal cognitive style and resulted in greater satisfaction. In contrast, in content-based image retrieval, where it was possible to express information needs in the form of images, users were more satisfied with the visual cognitive style. Verbal users performed more positively in text-based search and visual users in content-based search.

Originality/value

Considering the research gap, which has identified the performance of visual text-based and content-based systems in terms of satisfaction and cognitive style search behavior, the present study could be considered a small effort to promote science.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 74 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Fei Qiao and William Glenn Griffin

This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a brand imitation strategy for the package design of male-targeted, female-targeted and gender-neutral products.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a brand imitation strategy for the package design of male-targeted, female-targeted and gender-neutral products.

Design/methodology/approach

Three (2 × 2 × 2) between-subjects factorial experiments were conducted with three independent variables, namely, visual shape, color and logo, each classified as relevant/divergent. The dependent variables were participants’ attitudes toward the brand, attitudes toward the product and purchase intention.

Findings

There were no significant main effects or interactions for the male-targeted product. The results for the female-targeted product revealed no significant main effect of visual shape, a significant main effect of color and significant two-way interactions between visual shape and color and between visual shape and logo. Significant main effects were found for visual shape and color for the gender-neutral product.

Practical implications

A color scheme similar to that of a leading brand in the same product category more powerfully influenced participants’ attitudes and purchase intention, while a more holistically similar design had greater impact than a less holistic design. Some “divergence” or distinctive design elements of the female-targeted product positively influenced participants’ attitudes and behavior. These findings suggest that a brand imitation strategy offers a means for competing in the marketplace, but should be used with caution.

Originality/value

A conceptual continuum of brand imitation is proposed, incorporating visual semiotics, creativity theory and gender differences in cognitive styles to provide a more systematic method for delineating brand imitation levels.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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