This paper aims to analyse the quality of experience in the Italian art museum context and to understand the mediating role of satisfaction between museum experiences and…
This paper aims to analyse the quality of experience in the Italian art museum context and to understand the mediating role of satisfaction between museum experiences and visitors' word-of-mouth (WOM) behavioural intentions.
This exploratory study adopted a quantitative methodology. Visitors to Italian art museums were interviewed, and the results were examined using exploratory factor analysis and regression analysis.
The analysis shows that the following museum experience dimensions were present in the Italian art museum context: aesthetics, escapism and “edumotion”. Further, these dimensions positively affected visitors' overall satisfaction which mediates on WOM behavioural intentions.
The small sample limits the generalisability of findings, and further research on the topic is recommended.
Museums should allocate resources to improve visitor experience, visitor satisfaction and museum attractions. Specifically, museum managers should invest in the three dimensions that emerged from this study.
This study enriches the empirical evidence on experiential marketing in the museum context by focussing on the mediating role of overall satisfaction in the relationship between museum experience and WOM behaviours. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study investigating this phenomenon in Italian museums.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderation effects of the Big Five personality traits on the relationships between holistic experience constructs (i.e…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderation effects of the Big Five personality traits on the relationships between holistic experience constructs (i.e. servicescape and other visitors’ behaviours), emotional responses and revisit intention in the context of winery visitation experiences in Greece.
The study adopts a holistic approach to visitor experience and suggests that visitors base their experience perception on the servicescape’s attributes and other visitors’ suitable behaviours. Path analysis was adopted to measure the impact of these constructs on visitors’ emotions and the role these emotions play in predicting visitors’ revisit intentions. The moderation effect of the Big Five personality traits in such relationships was examined using the SPSS PROCESS. A self-administered, highly structured questionnaire was distributed to winery visitors in Greece; a total of 615 responses were used in data analysis.
The results indicate that all the examined relationships become stronger as a result of visitors having high or average scores for openness, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, or low scores for neuroticism.
The findings enhance the existing literature pertaining to experiential marketing, wine tourism marketing and the role of personality in tourism by providing new insights.
The overall findings may benefit wineries in their efforts to carry out the following: increase visitors’ revisit intentions; design and manage the winery environment and the winery experience effectively; and design marketing strategies.
The paper’s originality lies in providing information to clarify the role of visitors’ personalities as a contributing factor to their emotional stimulation and their revisit intentions in terms of both constructs of experience (i.e. servicescape and other visitors’ behaviours). Furthermore, this study attempts to respond to recent calls to conduct multidimensional research on the servicescape construct, focusing on both the substantive staging of the servicescape and the communicative staging of the servicescape. Finally, the present study provides new and practical insights regarding the winery experience in the Greek context – an area where very limited research has been conducted so far.
本研究采用了一种游客体验的整体性方法, 并建议游客将他们的体验感知建立在服务景观的属性和其他游客的适当行为上。采用路径分析法来衡量这些建构对游客情绪的影响, 以及这些情绪在预测游客重访意图中所起的作用。运用SPSS软件, 分析了五大人格特质在关系中的调节作用。给希腊的酒庄游客发放了高度结构化的自填问卷, 最终回收615份问卷用于数据分析。
结果表明, 由于游客在开放性、外向性、亲和性和尽责性方面有较高或平均的得分, 或在神经质方面得分较低, 所有被调查的关系变得更强了。
通过提供信息, 明确了游客的个性在两种体验构建（即服务场景和其他来访者行为）中作为情感刺激和重游意愿的促成因素的作用。此外, 本研究试图响应最近对服务场景构建进行多维研究的呼吁, 既关注服务场景的实质阶段(SSoS), 也关注服务场景的交际阶段(CSoS)。最后, 本研究提供了关于在希腊背景下的酒庄体验的新的、实用的见解——目前为止, 相关领域的研究都还非常有限。
关键词 葡萄酒旅游, 酒庄体验, 游客情感, 游客行为意向, 五大人格特质
Cómo afectan los rasgos de la personalidad a la experiencia del visitante, la estimulación emocional y el comportamiento? El caso del turismo enológico
El objetivo de este estudio es investigar el efecto moderador de los Cinco Grandes rasgos de la personalidad sobre las relaciones entre los constructos de la experiencia holística (como, por ejemplo, servicescape, otros comportamientos de los visitantes) las respuestas emocionales, y la intención de repetir en el contexto de las experiencias de la visita de bodegas en Grecia.
El estudio adopta un enfoque holístico de la experiencia del visitante y sugiere que los visitantes basan su percepción de la experiencia en los atributos del servicescape y en otros comportamientos adecuados de los visitantes. Se utilizó el análisis de pautas (Path Analysis) para medir el impacto de estos constructos en las emociones de los visitantes y el papel que estas emociones juegan en la predicción de las intenciones de repetir de los visitantes. El efecto moderador de los Cinco Grandes rasgos de personalidad en tales relaciones fue examinado usando SPSS PROCESS. Se distribuyó un cuestionario autoadministrado y altamente estructurado a los visitantes de bodegas en Grecia; se utilizaron 615 respuestas para el análisis de los datos.
Los resultados indican que todas las relaciones examinadas se vuelven más fuertes en el caso de los visitantes que tienen puntuaciones altas o medias de apertura, extraversión, amabilidad y conciencia, o bajas puntuaciones de neurotismo.
Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones
Los resultados mejoran la literatura existente relativa al marketing experiencial, el marketing del turismo enológico y el papel de la personalidad en el turismo, proporcionando nuevas perspectivas.
Los resultados globales pueden beneficiar a las bodegas en sus esfuerzos por llevar a cabo lo siguiente: a. aumentar la intención de los visitantes de repetir, b. diseñar y gestionar el entorno de la bodega y la experiencia enológica de manera efectiva, y c. diseñar estrategias de marketing.
La originalidad del trabajo radica en proporcionar información para aclarar el papel de la personalidad de los visitantes como un factor que contribuye a su estimulación emocional y sus intenciones de repetir en términos de ambos constructos de la experiencia (p. ej., servicescape y otros comportamientos de los visitantes). Además, este estudio intenta responder a los recientes requerimientos de realizar investigaciones multidimensionales sobre el constructo servicescape, centrándose tanto en la puesta en escena sustantiva del servicescape como en la puesta en escena comunicativa de la misma. Por último, el presente estudio aporta nuevas ideas prácticas sobre la experiencia enológica en el contexto griego, un ámbito que, hasta ahora, cuenta con un número limitado de investigaciones.
Enoturismo, Experiencia enográfica, Emociones del visitante, Intenciones conductuales del visitante, Cinco grandes rasgos de personalidad
tipo de papel
trabajo de investigación
This chapter presents a research paper with empirical investigation on tourism experiences specific to heritage attractions. It analyses the five principles of experience…
This chapter presents a research paper with empirical investigation on tourism experiences specific to heritage attractions. It analyses the five principles of experience economy within the context of heritage attractions. The study aims to find out if heritage attractions are using the principles of experience economy to provide a fulfilling experience for visitors. The principles of the experience economy are having consistent theme, using positive cues, eliminating negative cues, offering memorabilia, and engaging the five senses.
The survey method was used to collect data from three separate heritage attractions in Jamaica. Frequency distribution was used to determine the observations in the sample.
Results of the study reveal that majority of visitors either agree or strongly agree that many of the elements comprising the principles of experience economy are in place. One similar drawback among the attractions is that they all use visual and aural messages which can distract or contradict the theme and consequently visitors’ experience.
A limitation of the study is that it did not take into consideration the relationship between visitors’ experience and their expectations as well as visitor satisfaction.
This study will inform management of heritage attractions of the importance of having implementing the principles of experience economy so as to provide a fulfilling experience for visitors.
This paper aims to explore the impact of the experience of a winery visit to the visitor’s emotions and the effect of these emotions on visitor’s intention to revisit and…
This paper aims to explore the impact of the experience of a winery visit to the visitor’s emotions and the effect of these emotions on visitor’s intention to revisit and recommend a winery as consequences of visitor satisfaction.
The study adopted a multi approach of customer experience, suggesting that visitors base their experience perception on the servicescape attributes, other visitors’ suitable behaviours and their own yearn for cognitive learning and fun. Path analysis is adopted to measure the impact of these constructs on visitor’s emotions and the role of these emotions in predicting visitor’s satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Data are collected through a self-administered highly structured questionnaire, self-completed by respondents at each winery. A total of 615 usable responses are obtained from eight wineries.
The results indicate that emotions are arisen – in a context of wine tourism – as a result of visitor’s evaluation of winery environment (especially Atmospherics, Signage and Facilities), other visitors’ appropriate behaviour and visitor’s desire to learn something new and to have fun during the winery experience. Also, it is revealed that visitor’s emotions positively impact on his/her satisfaction, which in turn seems to be a significant predictor of his/her intention to revisit the winery and give positive word-of-mouth.
The findings broaden the knowledge on visitor’s winery experience and its impact on visitor’s satisfaction and future behavioural intentions. However, because the study focuses only on winery visitors in Greece, the research results may lack generalizability. The application of the study to other wineries would allow for wider generalisations to be made from the results obtained.
The overall findings may have significant implications for wine tourism industries. Also, it might be beneficial for wineries in their effort to provide a more valuable experience to wine tourists and in increasing wine tourists’ loyalty.
The paper’s originality lies in providing information to clarify the relationships between the constructs of experience, visitor’s emotions, satisfaction and future behavioural intentions in a winery setting. Also, this study provides new and practical insights of winery experience in the Greek context, an area where very limited research has been conducted. Finally, this is one of the few studies that focus on more than two servicescape elements and their impact on visitor’s emotions.
The purpose of this paper is to propose a new management approach to analyse the processes of museums in the experience logic and, on the basis of such a model, to study…
The purpose of this paper is to propose a new management approach to analyse the processes of museums in the experience logic and, on the basis of such a model, to study the management processes of the National Gallery of the Marches in Urbino, one of the most important museums in Italy.
This study adopted a qualitative methodology and a descriptive-exploratory approach. The proposed model, which aimed to create and manage experiences and transformations in museums, was tested in the National Gallery of the Marches by adopting the case study method.
The empirical research underlined the partial application of the proposed model in the museum under examination and the potential for the museum to improve the offering value to its visitors.
Although a single case was investigated, the present work offers a preliminary theoretical contribution, which is useful for perfecting the conceptual framework and applying it to a wider number of cases.
The management of the National Gallery of the Marches should first plan a greater number of more detailed experiences and transformations around the theme of the Renaissance, and promote the active role of visitors. Second, it should improve the communication of the offer, especially through social networks. Third, personnel (especially front office) should be motivated and trained to create value for visitors.
The paper aims at developing a new management approach for the museums to create value for the visitors and museums by bringing the insight of the experience logic into the field of cultural heritage management.
The purpose of this paper is to argue that social interaction fundamentally underpins how people examine, experience and make sense of museum exhibits. It seeks to reveal…
The purpose of this paper is to argue that social interaction fundamentally underpins how people examine, experience and make sense of museum exhibits. It seeks to reveal how people collaboratively view and make sense of artwork and other kinds of exhibit, and in particular how the ways of looking at and responding to exhibits arise in social interaction.
The analysis inspects in detail video‐recordings of visitors' conduct and interaction at exhibits. It draws on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis to reveal the social and sequential organisation of people's verbal, visual and bodily action and interaction.
The study finds that people explore museums and examine exhibits with companions while other visitors act and interact in the same locale. Which exhibits visitors look at and how they see and experience them is influenced by and arises in social interaction with others, be they companions or strangers. People display and share their experience of exhibits with others through verbal and bodily action and interaction.
The findings bear on current debates in marketing research. They suggest that there is a lack of understanding of people's experience of exhibits in museums. They show how video‐based studies can address this gap in marketing research. Further studies are currently being conducted to shed light on the quality of people's experience at the exhibit‐face and how it may be enhanced by the deployment of interpretation resources, such as labels, touch‐screen and handheld systems.
The findings may have some implications for the work of curators, designers and exhibition evaluators. They suggest that social interaction needs to be taken into consideration when designing and deploying exhibits and interpretation resources, such as labels, touch‐screen information kiosks, hand‐held computers, etc.
The paper uses visual/video‐recordings as principal data and illustrates its findings by virtue of visual material. It introduces video‐based field studies as a method to examine cultural and visual consumption in museums. It employs an analytic and methodological framework from ethnomethodology and conversation analysis that previously have found little application in marketing and consumer research.
The purpose of this paper is to present grounded theory as an alternative approach for conceptualizing and modelling the consumer experience. The basic theoretical tenets…
The purpose of this paper is to present grounded theory as an alternative approach for conceptualizing and modelling the consumer experience. The basic theoretical tenets of the grounded theory approach are contrasted with more traditional assumptions and methods used in consumer research.
The approach is based on qualitative methods and a series of systematic ethnographic procedures, which along with the simultaneous processes of data collection and analysis, lead to the development of an inductive derived grounded theory of the visitor experience. In order to develop a model of the interactive experience of visitors to heritage sites, case studies are conducted at three World Heritage Sites in Thailand.
The findings indicate that the grounded theory approach has the potential to reveal a rich and deep understanding of visitor experiences, including the ways that visitors interact with the site, their interpretation of the site, and the meaning of the site for them.
It is suggested that the grounded theory approach can be a valuable tool in exploring the insights and meanings of visitors' experience and could be applied to future research in consumer behaviour. There are practical implications of this kind of research for the management of heritage sites in terms of visitor expectations, interactions and interpretations.
This study has developed a model of the experience and interaction of visitors to Thai World Heritage Sites which could be applied to other heritage sites. It illustrates the theoretical and practical issues of grounded theory approach to exploration and inductive development “interactive experience” of visitors at heritage sites. This is a qualitative research approach that could be adopted for a range of experience based industries such tourism, leisure and hospitality.
So far, most studies in cultural tourism have looked at visitors in relation to the experience itself. This study aims to bring a broader view on what constitutes the…
So far, most studies in cultural tourism have looked at visitors in relation to the experience itself. This study aims to bring a broader view on what constitutes the daily environment of younger visitors and how museums could use this knowledge to develop a service delivery that is more adapted to their needs without sacrificing the museums’ integrity and authenticity. As such, this research brings a unique and deeper analysis of young visitor behavior, in relation to arts and cultural practices that could be expanded to other areas of tourism experiences.
The present study examines the main art and cultural tourism activities among adolescents. Using 32 in-depth interviews with adolescents between 13 and 18 years of age, this research takes a closer look at their experience and perceptions of art museums and exhibitions.
The findings show that adolescents’ perception of arts and exhibitions do not correspond to museum art criteria held by cultural tourism professionals. Based on the key theoretical themes emerging from the empirical investigation, a conceptual framework of adolescents’ attitudes toward arts and exhibitions is now presented to provide insights into the dimensions of adolescents’ art consumption in today’s western consumer society. Figure 1 provides a graphic model that visualizes adolescents’ art consumption experiences and summarizes the main findings and marketing implications in the arts field.
Based on these findings, new ways of engaging with adolescents in the field of arts are suggested to create new business opportunities for the museum. The findings lean toward the necessity to develop a more youth-centric approach, which differentiates between how adults define art and what adolescents believe art is supposed to be. Thus, the findings demonstrate that adolescents’ art consumption experiences are deeply anchored within the context of their social environment and the value judgments of their peers. The adolescent-centric logic within the arts experiential context is taken into account to underline the gap existing in many current arts marketing strategies that are targeting young visitors – and especially adolescents.
This paper aims to explore a complex combination of four realms of the experience economy in formulating memories and satisfaction among festival visitors by using…
This paper aims to explore a complex combination of four realms of the experience economy in formulating memories and satisfaction among festival visitors by using augmented reality (AR), thus engaging visitors in the physical science experience. This study also identifies necessary conditions to achieve desired responses from visitors.
Asymmetrical modelling with fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) was used to investigate causal recipes of two configurations of the experience economy and evaluation of experience leading to both high and low scores from visitor engagement. Necessary condition analysis was applied to examine necessary predictors in visitor engagement. The proposed configuration model was tested by using data obtained from visitors to science festivals in the UK.
Five causal recipes explained the complex conditions in which visitors were more likely engaged in AR. Aesthetics, education, entertainment and satisfaction were necessary for high engagement among festival visitors.
The results from fsQCA and analyses of necessary conditions help festival organizers improve visitor satisfaction and engagement in a memorable AR experience.
This empirical study deepens current festival understanding of how visitors experience AR by exploring combinations of complex configurations of the experience economy and evaluations of visitor experience based on memories and satisfaction. Unlike symmetrical approaches, asymmetrical modelling by using fsQCA can explore recipes for both high and low scores of visitor satisfaction and engagement. This is the first empirical study investigating necessary predictors of festival visitor behaviour.
Visitor attractions constitute the essence of the tourism phenomenon. However, management techniques that are expressly designed for tourism and develop different…
Visitor attractions constitute the essence of the tourism phenomenon. However, management techniques that are expressly designed for tourism and develop different uses/activities and subsequently influence visitor experiences are under-researched. Hence, the purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework that provides a bridge between on-site management, visitor attraction development and visitor experience by introducing a novel concept: “usability of visitor attractions.” This new concept captures how managers can develop uses for visitors to experience the attraction. Thus, this study explores this concept and serves as the foundation for further research on this topic.
The systematization of the state of the art is based on an exhaustive desk research review of both academic and grey literature to endorse the “usability of visitor attractions” concept.
The literature review reveals that visitor attraction management affects visitor experience. To succeed, managers should consider the ease of use and the design of activities. Therefore, an innovative conceptual model is built to explore how on-site management techniques based on this new concept impact on visitor’s experience.
Research on visitor experience in attractions has neglected the impact of on-site management tools hitherto. Therefore, the originality of the study lies on providing a robust framework that enlightens how visitor attraction management affects visitor experience by developing the usability. The study proposes a novel concept and an original model that will be of a critical interest to tourism academia and will serve as practical guidance for attraction managers.
旅游景点构成了旅游现象的本质。然而, 专门为其开发不同用途/活动并随后影响游客体验的管理技术仍处于起步阶段。因此, 本文的目的是通过引入一个新的概念：旅游景点的可用性来建立一个概念框架, 搭建现场管理、旅游景点开发和游客体验之间的关系桥梁。这一新概念描述了管理者如何开发游客体验景点的可用性。因此, 本文探讨了这一概念并以为未来旅游学术界对本主题感兴趣的相关研究奠定基础。
研究前沿的分类是基于详尽学朮和灰色文献的书面材料审查来背书 “旅游景点的可用性” 这一概念。
文献综述表明, 旅游景点管理影响游客体验。为达成这一目的, 管理者应该考虑景点使用的便利性和活动的设计。因此, 我们建立了一个创新的概念模型来探讨基于这一新概念的现场管理技术对游客体验的影响。
Los atractivos turísticos constituyen la esencia del fenómeno turístico. No obstante, las técnicas de gestión y planificación diseñadas expresamente para desarrollar diferentes usos/actividades en los atractivos, que posteriormente influyen en la experiencia de los visitantes, han sido escasamente investigadas. Por ello, el propósito de esta investigación radica en elaborar un marco conceptual que integre la gestión del atractivo, el progreso del mismo y la experiencia del visitante mediante la introducción de un concepto novedoso: “la usabilidad de los atractivos turísticos”. Este nuevo concepto enfatiza la manera en que los gestores pueden implementar diferentes usos en los atractivos, proporcionando a los visitantes diversas experiencias. Por tanto, esta investigación explora el concepto y sirve como fundamento para futuras investigaciones.
La metodología se basa en una exhaustiva revisión de la producción científica y de informes de organismos públicos para respaldar el concepto de “usabilidad de los atractivos turísticos”.
La literatura examinada revela que la gestión de los atractivos afecta en la experiencia de los visitantes. Así pues, los gestores deben considerar en concreto la facilidad de uso y el diseño de actividades. De este modo, un modelo conceptual innovador ha sido construido para explorar cómo las técnicas de gestión basadas en este nuevo concepto tienen un impacto en la experiencia del visitante.
La investigación sobre la experiencia del visitante en los atractivos ha descuidado el impacto de las herramientas de gestión y planificación hasta ahora. Consecuentemente, la originalidad de esta investigación radica en proporcionar un marco robusto que señala cómo la gestión de los atractivos afecta en la experiencia del visitante mediante el desarrollo de la usabilidad. El estudio propone un concepto novedoso y un modelo original que se considera de gran interés para el ámbito científico, y al mismo tiempo, puede servir de guía práctica para los gestores de los atractivos turísticos.
- Visitor experience
- On-site management
- Usability of visitor attractions
- Visitor attraction management
- Visitor engagement
- Gestión de los atractivos turísticos
- Usabilidad de los atractivos
- Gestión turística
- Experiencia del visitante
- Interacción del visitante