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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2018

Dwi Suhartanto, Anthony Brien, Norzuwana Sumarjan and Nono Wibisono

This study aims to examine a creative attraction loyalty model which includes experience quality, satisfaction and motivation and to assess the model’s applicability in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine a creative attraction loyalty model which includes experience quality, satisfaction and motivation and to assess the model’s applicability in terms of customer attraction, namely, tourists and residents.

Design/methodology/approach

The data collection was conducted at four culture-based attractions in Bandung, Indonesia. Self-administrated questionnaires were distributed to visitors after they experienced the attraction. In total, 415 useful questionnaires were collected. The hypotheses developed were examined using partial least square structural equation modelling.

Findings

This study reveals a significant effect of experience quality on both satisfaction and attraction loyalty. Moreover, the effect of motivations on satisfaction and loyalty is partially supported, as only the pull motivation factor has a significant effect on satisfaction. Finally, this study reveals that the proposed attraction loyalty model is insignificant in terms of difference between tourists and residents.

Originality/value

Past studies have examined many of the drivers of loyalty both independently and separately. This study examines simultaneously three important loyalty drivers: experience quality, satisfaction and motivation in the context of a creative tourism attraction. To create visitor loyalty, this study suggests that attraction managers need to deliver high experience quality and develop customer pulling strategies through promotion efforts.

Details

International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-669X

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Sandra Navarro-Ruiz and Bob McKercher

Visitor attractions constitute the essence of the tourism phenomenon. However, management techniques that are expressly designed for tourism and develop different…

Abstract

Purpose

Visitor attractions constitute the essence of the tourism phenomenon. However, management techniques that are expressly designed for tourism and develop different uses/activities and subsequently influence visitor experiences are under-researched. Hence, the purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework that provides a bridge between on-site management, visitor attraction development and visitor experience by introducing a novel concept: “usability of visitor attractions.” This new concept captures how managers can develop uses for visitors to experience the attraction. Thus, this study explores this concept and serves as the foundation for further research on this topic.

Design/methodology/approach

The systematization of the state of the art is based on an exhaustive desk research review of both academic and grey literature to endorse the “usability of visitor attractions” concept.

Findings

The literature review reveals that visitor attraction management affects visitor experience. To succeed, managers should consider the ease of use and the design of activities. Therefore, an innovative conceptual model is built to explore how on-site management techniques based on this new concept impact on visitor’s experience.

Originality/value

Research on visitor experience in attractions has neglected the impact of on-site management tools hitherto. Therefore, the originality of the study lies on providing a robust framework that enlightens how visitor attraction management affects visitor experience by developing the usability. The study proposes a novel concept and an original model that will be of a critical interest to tourism academia and will serve as practical guidance for attraction managers.

目的

旅游景点构成了旅游现象的本质。然而, 专门为其开发不同用途/活动并随后影响游客体验的管理技术仍处于起步阶段。因此, 本文的目的是通过引入一个新的概念:旅游景点的可用性来建立一个概念框架, 搭建现场管理、旅游景点开发和游客体验之间的关系桥梁。这一新概念描述了管理者如何开发游客体验景点的可用性。因此, 本文探讨了这一概念并以为未来旅游学术界对本主题感兴趣的相关研究奠定基础。

设计/方法/途径

研究前沿的分类是基于详尽学朮和灰色文献的书面材料审查来背书 “旅游景点的可用性” 这一概念。

结果

文献综述表明, 旅游景点管理影响游客体验。为达成这一目的, 管理者应该考虑景点使用的便利性和活动的设计。因此, 我们建立了一个创新的概念模型来探讨基于这一新概念的现场管理技术对游客体验的影响。

创新/价值

本文的创新之处在于提供了一个稳健的框架, 揭示旅游景点可用性通过景点管理进而影响游客体验。本文建议一个新的概念和原本的模型将为旅游景点管理者提供实际指导。

Propósito

Los atractivos turísticos constituyen la esencia del fenómeno turístico. No obstante, las técnicas de gestión y planificación diseñadas expresamente para desarrollar diferentes usos/actividades en los atractivos, que posteriormente influyen en la experiencia de los visitantes, han sido escasamente investigadas. Por ello, el propósito de esta investigación radica en elaborar un marco conceptual que integre la gestión del atractivo, el progreso del mismo y la experiencia del visitante mediante la introducción de un concepto novedoso: “la usabilidad de los atractivos turísticos”. Este nuevo concepto enfatiza la manera en que los gestores pueden implementar diferentes usos en los atractivos, proporcionando a los visitantes diversas experiencias. Por tanto, esta investigación explora el concepto y sirve como fundamento para futuras investigaciones.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

La metodología se basa en una exhaustiva revisión de la producción científica y de informes de organismos públicos para respaldar el concepto de “usabilidad de los atractivos turísticos”.

Resultados

La literatura examinada revela que la gestión de los atractivos afecta en la experiencia de los visitantes. Así pues, los gestores deben considerar en concreto la facilidad de uso y el diseño de actividades. De este modo, un modelo conceptual innovador ha sido construido para explorar cómo las técnicas de gestión basadas en este nuevo concepto tienen un impacto en la experiencia del visitante.

Originalidad

La investigación sobre la experiencia del visitante en los atractivos ha descuidado el impacto de las herramientas de gestión y planificación hasta ahora. Consecuentemente, la originalidad de esta investigación radica en proporcionar un marco robusto que señala cómo la gestión de los atractivos afecta en la experiencia del visitante mediante el desarrollo de la usabilidad. El estudio propone un concepto novedoso y un modelo original que se considera de gran interés para el ámbito científico, y al mismo tiempo, puede servir de guía práctica para los gestores de los atractivos turísticos.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Gaunette Sinclair-Maragh

This chapter presents a research paper with empirical investigation on tourism experiences specific to heritage attractions. It analyses the five principles of experience…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter presents a research paper with empirical investigation on tourism experiences specific to heritage attractions. It analyses the five principles of experience economy within the context of heritage attractions. The study aims to find out if heritage attractions are using the principles of experience economy to provide a fulfilling experience for visitors. The principles of the experience economy are having consistent theme, using positive cues, eliminating negative cues, offering memorabilia, and engaging the five senses.

Methodology/approach

The survey method was used to collect data from three separate heritage attractions in Jamaica. Frequency distribution was used to determine the observations in the sample.

Findings

Results of the study reveal that majority of visitors either agree or strongly agree that many of the elements comprising the principles of experience economy are in place. One similar drawback among the attractions is that they all use visual and aural messages which can distract or contradict the theme and consequently visitors’ experience.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the study is that it did not take into consideration the relationship between visitors’ experience and their expectations as well as visitor satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study will inform management of heritage attractions of the importance of having implementing the principles of experience economy so as to provide a fulfilling experience for visitors.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2019

Pavlos Paraskevaidis and Adi Weidenfeld

Drawing upon Baudrillard’s concept of sign-value, this study aims to investigate consumer behavior and sign perception in visitor attractions.

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon Baudrillard’s concept of sign-value, this study aims to investigate consumer behavior and sign perception in visitor attractions.

Design/methodology/approach

By adopting netnography, 133 customer-to-customer reviews sourced from TripAdvisor were analyzed regarding visitors’ online post-visit impressions.

Findings

The findings reveal that netnography contributes to a deeper understanding of sign consumption and sign promotion and examines how visitors attribute symbolic meanings to their experience in Titanic Belfast.

Practical implications

The findings show that the co-creation and reevaluation of the visitor experience through consumers’ online reviews should be taken into account by both managers and marketers. Furthermore, advertising should avoid creating excessive expectations to visitors to decrease the possibility of negative disconfirmation, which can be easily and instantly spread online. Another implication concerns the winning awards of visitor attractions, hotels and restaurants of a destination which may be used as a basis of co-branding marketing campaigns to enhance destination brand image.

Social implications

This study continues the debate on the commodification of the visitor experience and the commercialization of visitor attractions.

Originality/value

This paper provides better understanding of sign-value, sign consumption and sign promotion in the visitor attraction sector.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Sandra Watson, Martin McCracken and Moira Hughes

This paper presents the findings from a study into managerial competence in the Scottish visitor attraction sector. It provides an insight into the range, diversity and…

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2996

Abstract

This paper presents the findings from a study into managerial competence in the Scottish visitor attraction sector. It provides an insight into the range, diversity and perceived importance of current and future competences highlighting differences based on gender, age, size, level of training and location. Although the main findings reveal a focus on operation and self‐management competences, with less emphasis given to strategic competences, significant differences were exposed between those managers who operated in medium‐ and larger‐sized establishments than those in smaller sites, those who had received training for their current position as well as those who had no training and those under the age of 50. The paper concludes by discussing implications of the findings for strategic human‐resource‐development providers in Scottish tourism.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Duncan Light and Preslava Ivanova

This paper aims to investigate the visitor experience at a “lightest” dark tourism attraction, focusing on issues of thanatopsis and mortality mediation.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the visitor experience at a “lightest” dark tourism attraction, focusing on issues of thanatopsis and mortality mediation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 24 visitors to a “Dungeon”-style attraction in the UK (a site of “lightest” dark tourism). The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis; four themes were identified.

Findings

Reflection on, and contemplation of, issues of life and death was a common (but not universal) component of the visitor experience. Four forms of such reflection were apparent: considering absent/present death; thanatopsis (reflection on the self’s inevitable mortality); reflecting on the nature of death and dying in the past; and enjoyment of the opportunity to engage with death without fear in the safe setting of a visitor attraction. Some visitors also reflected on issues of individual and collective morality, in both past and present.

Research limitations/implications

“Lightest” dark tourism is not necessarily about shallow experiences. Instead, many visitors are active agents, engaged in acts of making meaning about issues of death and life. This calls for a more sophisticated conceptualisation of such visitors.

Originality/value

The mortality mediation model is widely accepted as a way of explaining the experience of visiting places of death but has rarely been subject to empirical scrutiny. This is one of few studies to explore in detail issues of mortality mediation and thanatopsis in the context of “lightest” dark tourism.

设计/方法/途径

数据是通过对 24 名英国“地牢”式景点(“最轻微”黑色旅游景点)游客的半结构化访谈收集的。访谈采用主题分析法进行分析并确定了 4 个主题。

目的

本文是对“最轻微”黑暗旅游景点的游客体验的实证调查,重点关注死亡冥想和死亡临界问题。

调查结果

对生死问题的反思和思考是游客体验的一个常见(但不普遍适用)组成部分。这种反思的四种形式是显而易见的:缺席/现有的死亡认知; 死亡冥想(对自我不可避免的死亡的反思);反思死亡的本质和过去的死亡;并享受在安全的旅游景点环境中毫无畏惧地与死亡打交道的机会。一些参观者还反思了过去和现在的个人和集体道德问题。

研究限制/影响

“最轻微”的黑暗旅游不一定是肤浅的体验。相反,许多访客是积极的中间人,从事为生死问题赋予意义的行为。这需要对此类访问者进行更复杂的概念化理解。

原创性/价值

死亡临界/调节模型作为一种解释访问死亡地的体验的方式被广泛接受,但很少通过经验研究来验证。这是在“最轻微”黑暗旅游背景下详细探讨死亡临界和死亡问题的少数研究之一。

Diseño / metodología / enfoque

Los datos se recopilaron a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas con 24 visitantes a un calabozo, un estilo de atracción turística en el Reino Unido (se diseña como un lugar de turismo oscuro "más ligero"). Las entrevistas se analizaron mediante análisis temático; Se identificaron 4 temas.

Propósito

Este artículo es una investigación empírica de la experiencia del visitante en una atracción turística oscura "más ligera", que se centra en cuestiones de tanatopsis y mediación de la mortalidad.

Resultados

La reflexión y la contemplación de cuestiones de la vida, así como la muerte, plantean un componente común (pero no universal) en la experiencia del visitante. Se identificaron, aparentemente, cuatro formas de reflexión: considerar la muerte presente/ausente; tanatopsis (reflexión sobre la inevitable mortalidad del yo); reflexionar sobre la naturaleza de la muerte y morir en el pasado y disfrute de la oportunidad de relacionarse con la muerte sin miedo a un entorno seguro, dentro de una atracción turística. Algunos visitantes también reflexionaron sobre cuestiones de moralidad individual y colectiva, tanto del pasado como del presente.

Limitaciones / implicaciones de la investigación

El turismo oscuro "más ligero", no se trata necesariamente de experiencias superficiales. En cambio, muchos visitantes son agentes activos, involucrados en actos de dar sentido a los problemas de la muerte y la vida. Esto requiere una conceptualización más sofisticada de dichos visitantes.

Originalidad / valor

El modelo de mediación de la mortalidad es ampliamente aceptado, como una forma de explicar la experiencia de visitar lugares de muerte, pero rara vez ha sido objeto de un análisis empírico. Este es uno de los pocos estudios que explora en detalle cuestiones de mediación de la mortalidad y tanatopsis en el contexto del turismo oscuro "más ligero".

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Ady Milman, Anita Zehrer and Asli D.A. Tasci

Previous mountain tourism research addressed economic, environmental, social and political impacts. Because limited studies evaluated visitors’ perception of their…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous mountain tourism research addressed economic, environmental, social and political impacts. Because limited studies evaluated visitors’ perception of their experience, this study aims to examine the tangible and intangible visitor experience in a Tyrolean alpine tourist attraction.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted Klaus and Maklan’s (2012) customer experience model, suggesting that customers base their experience perception on the quality of product experience, outcome focus, moments of truth and peace-of-mind. Their model was used to validate the impact on overall customer experience quality at the mountain attraction through conducting a structured survey with 207 face-to-face interviews on-site.

Findings

The results of the confirmatory factor analysis did not confirm the four-dimensional structure, probably due to the differences between mountain tourism experience and the mortgage lending experience in the original study. Instead, principal component analysis suggested a different dimensional structure of components that were arbitrarily named as functional, social, comparative and normative aspects of the visitors’ experience.

Research limitations/implications

The results are based on a sample in a given period of time, using convenience sampling. While the sample size satisfied the data analysis requirements, confirmatory factor analysis would benefit from a larger sample size.

Practical implications

Consumer experience dimensions while visiting a mountain attraction may not be concrete or objective, and consequently may yield different types of attributes that influence behavior.

Social implications

The social exchange theory could explain relationships between visitors and service providers and their consequences. Attraction managers should increase benefits for visitors and service providers to enhance their relationships, and thus experience.

Originality/value

The study explored the applicability of an existing experiential consumption model in a mountain attraction context. The findings introduce a revised model that may be applicable in other tourist attractions.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 72 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Muhammet Kesgin, Rajendran S. Murthy and Linden W. Pohland

Emphasizing the role of residents as destination advocates, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of residents’ familiarity with, and, favorability of…

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1089

Abstract

Purpose

Emphasizing the role of residents as destination advocates, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of residents’ familiarity with, and, favorability of attractions on destination image.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed methods research strategy was employed using 15 individual in-depth interviews and a survey questionnaire with a sample of n=364. The study utilizes an attraction familiarity index to classify respondents into four groups based on high, average, and low familiarity and examines the characteristics of each in the relationship between informational familiarity, experiential familiarity, and favorability and destination image.

Findings

The study reveals resident perceptions of attractions within the tourism product assembly framework and illustrates the positive relationship between the residents’ level of familiarity with, and favorability of visitor attractions and destination image. Further, the findings also demonstrate the significant role of demographic characteristics such as gender and length of residency in the area. The study findings suggest that temporary residents can function as destination advocates.

Research limitations/implications

Employees and students from a prominent northeastern university were sampled, representing local residents and temporary residents respectively. While appropriate and fairly representative of the target market for the research questions in this investigation, more work is required to replicate this study utilizing representative samples across different locations.

Practical implications

Evidence from the study indicates the importance of marketing to residents as they serve as destination advocates. In particular, the residents’ familiarity with and favorability of attractions is critical to positive destination image. The research offers insights into the identification of potential segments of residents that require special attention.

Originality/value

Limited existing research investigates the role of residents as destination advocates, especially in the context of destinations that lack a primary tourism attraction but have a well-balanced mix of attractions.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Rachel Dodds and Lee Jolliffe

This chapter investigates the current trend toward both creative and experiential tourism in cities in terms of the development and marketing of local attractions.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter investigates the current trend toward both creative and experiential tourism in cities in terms of the development and marketing of local attractions.

Methodology/approach

Creative tourism in cities is profiled through a literature review and further investigated by means of a case study at a local attraction in Toronto, Canada. The choice of a site was one of a creative city and the re-purposing of a formerly industrial site for visitation.

Findings

The study of Evergreens Brickworks demonstrated the use of marketing techniques to identify markets and match visitors with experiences. The visitor segmentation method determined that pre-scheduled and bookable activities offered for locals need to be offered on a different basis for tourists, who may be one time visitors to the site. The product-market match process suggested areas in which products could be modified or indeed created.

Practical implications

This practical study offers lessons for other local visitor attractions and their managers desiring to identify market segments and match them with appropriate activities creating experiential tourism at the site level within the creative city context.

Originality/value

While many studies of the creative tourism concept and cities have been undertaken within the context of destinations this research offers a site-specific perspective as well as marketing perspective that will be of practical value to attraction managers.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Lesley‐Ann Wilson and Emily Boyle

Because public service visitor attractions are increasingly under pressure to provide best value for money by generating revenue as well as offering a service their shops…

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3001

Abstract

Because public service visitor attractions are increasingly under pressure to provide best value for money by generating revenue as well as offering a service their shops are becoming more important in their operations. This article therefore looks at the performance of the shop of one new purpose built public service visitor attraction W5 in Belfast, Northern Ireland in order to identify the impact of a number of key factors, both controllable and uncontrollable, on it. The factors concerned were the nature of the target customers, the attraction's location and other locational issues and the public image of the shop. Having considered the impact of these factors on the performance of the shop the article examines the actions and decisions of the visitor attraction's management in its efforts to optimise the shop's performance.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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