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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2019

Rishi Raj Sharma and Balpreet Kaur

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing the opening and forwarding of commercial e-mails received directly from companies to further promote products…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing the opening and forwarding of commercial e-mails received directly from companies to further promote products via sharing by consumers to create viral infection.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is descriptive in nature and carried out in the country, India. A structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypothesized relationships among the constructs pertaining to opening and forwarding of commercial e-mails.

Findings

The results indicate that mail opening intentions of the recipients are influenced by the perceived value of e-mail content and their positive relation with the sender, increasing the probability of further forwarding. However, relationships among consumers have a significant effect on intentions to forward the commercial e-mails. E-mails that arouse positive emotions in the minds of the receivers are forwarded. The study significantly contributes to literature with the findings that not only positive emotions additionally content leads to high arousal through positive emotions leading to viral infection.

Practical implications

The study has implications for marketers who are in the business of promoting their products through e-mails, need to redesign the message content to engender positivity and generate viral infection, which is the ultimate goal of viral marketing.

Originality/value

This study explains factors behind the creation of “viral infection” specifically with regard to commercial e-mails targeted to individuals with high networking potential.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Muhammad Farhan Jahangir Chughtai, Saira Tanweer, Samreen Ahsan, Tariq Mehmood, Atif Liaqat, Adnan Khaliq, Tahir Zahoor, Muhammad Nadeem, Nazia Khalid, Saadia Zainab and Syed Junaid-ur-Rahman

Corona viruses have spiked structure and enveloped glycoproteins in their structure, along with specific proteins in membranes. The mode of action of COVID-19 consists of…

Abstract

Purpose

Corona viruses have spiked structure and enveloped glycoproteins in their structure, along with specific proteins in membranes. The mode of action of COVID-19 consists of three phases, i.e. viral replication, immune hyperactivity and pulmonary destruction. However, angiotensin-converting enzyme is an essential receptor that causes COVID-19. After infecting any individual, COVID-19 develops in specific pattern with the following stages: replication stage and adaptive immunity stage. After adaptive immunity stage, the clinical symptoms of patient include cough, fever, runny nose, shortness of breath and many more. To cope with this COVID-19, food and nutrition played an important role. The purpose of this review article is to emphasize the significance of food and immunity to reduce COVID-19 attack among susceptibles.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present era, corona virus, a member of crown-shaped type, created a pandemic situation around the globe owing to its capability to move from human to animals and vice versa. This virus can transfer its 35% infection to the individuals. Contemporarily, this outbreak was observed in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and affected a huge number of communities by spreading like common flu. However, after investigation, it was revealed that COVID-19 is different from common flu regarding respiratory illness created by this novel coronavirus along with its taxonomy.

Findings

Over and above to all the aforementioned food safety concerns, it is suggested to use sufficient supply of green leafy vegetables along with fiber-rich foods such as legumes, beans, whole grains and vegetables. It is further good for health to get all these varieties whole and organic. The individuals should use probiotics (lactobacillus) on daily basis as a source of diary probiotic that can further bind to the virus directly and then can inhibit the viral attachment with body cells; also the probiotics are claimed to enhance the immune system of the body.

Research limitations/implications

In the case of fruits and vegetables purchased, it must be thoroughly washed with water and then disinfected; after pat drying, these fruits and vegetables can be moved to the refrigerator and stored along with other foods. During the outbreak of COVID-19, the partially cooked or ready-to-eat foods should be avoided, especially eggs, meat, meat products, milk and milk-related products. On the other side, nuts should not be consumed; if required, then it must be properly roasted at home before consumption.

Practical implications

The baked product right after coming out of oven is completely safe; however, these are contaminated during handling such as crumb in case of bread and with knives; so in the breakout of any viral attack, the individuals should avoid slicing of the bread. Moreover, it is recommended to place the baked products in personal bags instead of bulk quantity. Before the consumption, the baked products should be toasted, microwaved or heated with the help of pan (traditional) to reduce the amount of viral load.

Social implications

Dietary supplements are taken by most of the people on daily basis or sporadically especially when they are suffering from inflammation or cold. They have options while selecting these types of supplements such as probiotics, Echinacea, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins D and E, calcium glucosamine, garlic and iron. These supplements are beneficial for the group of population who do not eat diversity of food as sufficient amount of essential nutrients is provided through this pathway.

Originality/value

This work is original in its novelty.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1994

J.C.M. Sharp and W.J. Reilly

The frequency of reporting of foodborne infections of animal origin, inparticular salmonella, campylobacter and Escherichia coli (VTEC) hasincreased in recent years due to…

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Abstract

The frequency of reporting of foodborne infections of animal origin, in particular salmonella, campylobacter and Escherichia coli (VTEC) has increased in recent years due to changes in food production and processing methods in parallel with changes in eating habits and other social factors such as mass catering and the use of convenience foods. In contrast infections, primarily of human origin, in particular typhoid, paratyphoid and bacillary dysentery, are nowadays much less frequently associated with foodborne spread. Meanwhile, other “emerging” micro‐organisms of bacterial, viral and protozoal origin have increasingly frequently been reported with evidence of food or waterborne spread. Foodborne disease has also taken on an international dimension, highlighted by outbreaks associated with imported foods (e.g. cheese, chocolate, pate, etc.) and tourist groups. Presents a review of recent trends in foodborne infections.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 96 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

David Jukes

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Abstract

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 101 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Rocio Martin-Santos, Elfi Egmond, Myriam Cavero, Zoe Mariño, Susana Subira, Ricard Navines, Xavier Forns and Manuel Valdes

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, antiviral therapy, depression, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection, antiviral therapy, depression, and gender.

Design/methodology/approach

CHC and its treatment options were reviewed examining their relationship with depression and gender.

Findings

CHC is a high prevalent chronic infection worldwide, being similar in men and women. However, the infection shows many gender differences in terms of innate response, genetic variability (i.e. IL-28B), route of transmission (i.e. intravenous drug use), disease progression (i.e. fibrosis), lifetime period (i.e. pregnancy), and risk factors (i.e. HIV). Both the hepatitis C infection and antiviral treatment (especially when using the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon α), are highly associated with depression, where female gender constitutes a risk factor. It seems that the new direct-acting antiviral combinations produce fewer neuropsychiatric side effects. In fact, the presence of depression at baseline is no longer a limitation for the initiation of antiviral treatment. Antidepressant drugs have been recommended as current depression and prophylactic treatment in risk subgroups. However, caution should be exercised due to the risk of drug-drug interactions with some antiviral drugs. Women should be counselled prenatal, during and after pregnancy, taking into account the clinical situation, and the available evidence of the risks and benefits of antiviral and antidepressant treatments. Multidisciplinary approach shows cost-efficacy results.

Originality/value

The paper clarifies the complex management of CHC therapy and the importance of individualizing treatment. The results also underline the need for an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2012

Lauren D. Arnold and Vetta L. Sanders Thompson

Purpose – To provide an overview of racial/ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer on domestic and international…

Abstract

Purpose – To provide an overview of racial/ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer on domestic and international levels.

Design/methodology/approach – The literature, cervical cancer prevention guidelines, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention resources were culled to aggregate information on epidemiology, racial/ethnic disparities, and knowledge and attitudes related to HPV, HPV vaccination, and cervical cancer. Original data supplement information about HPV and HPV vaccination knowledge and attitudes.

Findings – Cervical cancer is among the leading causes of female death worldwide, with substantial racial/ethnic and geographic disparities. In the United States, African American and Hispanic women suffer disproportionate cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Globally, the greatest burden of cervical cancer (and HPV infection) is shouldered by developing regions. Prevention efforts, such as HPV vaccination and adaption of screening programs to resource-poor areas, have the potential to reduce such disparities, but cultural context is critical to successful development and implementation of such interventions.

Research limitations/implications – As this is not a systematic review, but rather a viewpoint on issues related to disparities in cervical cancer, the literature review is not exhaustive.

Practical implications – This chapter provides a context for examining cervical cancer disparities domestically and globally and serves as a starting point for formulating future research.

Originality – This perspective on HPV and cervical cancer presents disparities both within the United States and worldwide. The chapter supplements the literature with new data that provide additional insight into knowledge and attitudes about these health issues.

Details

Health Disparities Among Under-served Populations: Implications for Research, Policy and Praxis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-103-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

Paul A. Collier and Barry J. Spaul

Internal auditors have an important role in communicating thethreat posed by the spread of computer viruses and advising onappropriate control strategies. Computer virus…

Abstract

Internal auditors have an important role in communicating the threat posed by the spread of computer viruses and advising on appropriate control strategies. Computer virus is defined, distinguishing between “true” viruses and other rogue software like logic bombs, Trojan horses and worms. Some reported incidents are discussed; the application of risk management as an effective approach is considered. Control techniques are listed under the categories: organisational, software and hardware. How epidemiological analogy can be applied in high risk situations is explored through a system infection control programme under the direction of a system infection control committee.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Stephanie E. Perrett, Noel Craine and Marion Lyons

This paper aims to describe the strategies being put in place to develop blood borne virus (BBV) services across prisons in Wales, UK, in response to the recommendations…

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194

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the strategies being put in place to develop blood borne virus (BBV) services across prisons in Wales, UK, in response to the recommendations for prisons within the Welsh Government's Blood Borne Viral Hepatitis Action Plan for Wales.

Design/methodology/approach

A task and finish group was established to ensure multidisciplinary engagement between healthcare and custody staff. A service improvement package was developed focusing on awareness raising and/or development of clinical services for prisoners, prison officers and prison healthcare staff.

Findings

Prison healthcare staff have undergone training in BBVs and are being supported to deliver clinical services to prisoners. Training has been delivered in pre/post test discussion and dried blood spot testing; care pathways have been established between prison and community specialists for treatment referrals. An e‐learning module is being rolled out to raise awareness amongst custody staff and encourage occupational hepatitis B vaccination. Literature on “liver health” has been produced to be given to every prisoner across Wales.

Social implications

It is envisaged that BBV services will become a routine part of prison care in Wales. Data on activity are being collected for evaluation and it is hoped that tackling BBVs in prisons will help reduce rates of infection both within prisons and in the wider community.

Originality/value

This paper describes new initiatives that have been established to tackle BBVs across Welsh prisons and will be relevant to any prison healthcare staff looking to develop similar services.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 26 June 2020

Various factors influence how immunity to a virus emerges, but the duration of immune memory will be critical in developing the most appropriate vaccine regimes as well as…

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DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB253535

ISSN: 2633-304X

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Geographic
Topical
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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

This paper aims to describe the likely positive effects of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation on the lung and the negative effects of it on the adipose tissue of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the likely positive effects of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation on the lung and the negative effects of it on the adipose tissue of COVID-19 patients.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper focuses on investigating the effects of alpha-linolenic (ALA) on the respiratory system and adipose tissue of COVID-19 patients.

Findings

ALA can help human respiratory system by improving lung damage. On the other hand, when it comes to adipose tissue, it can induce the overexpression of glucose transporter-4 gene and impair COVID-19 prognosis.

Originality/value

Despite the inconclusive pieces of evidence, improving the quality of patients’ diet may help mitigating their risk of developing severe COVID-19 infection. Further research studies are necessary to help finding a safe ALA recommendation focused on preventing and improving lung damage, as well as on stopping adipose cells from working as COVID-19 reservoirs.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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