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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2019

Rishi Raj Sharma and Balpreet Kaur

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing the opening and forwarding of commercial e-mails received directly from companies to further promote products…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors influencing the opening and forwarding of commercial e-mails received directly from companies to further promote products via sharing by consumers to create viral infection.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is descriptive in nature and carried out in the country, India. A structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypothesized relationships among the constructs pertaining to opening and forwarding of commercial e-mails.

Findings

The results indicate that mail opening intentions of the recipients are influenced by the perceived value of e-mail content and their positive relation with the sender, increasing the probability of further forwarding. However, relationships among consumers have a significant effect on intentions to forward the commercial e-mails. E-mails that arouse positive emotions in the minds of the receivers are forwarded. The study significantly contributes to literature with the findings that not only positive emotions additionally content leads to high arousal through positive emotions leading to viral infection.

Practical implications

The study has implications for marketers who are in the business of promoting their products through e-mails, need to redesign the message content to engender positivity and generate viral infection, which is the ultimate goal of viral marketing.

Originality/value

This study explains factors behind the creation of “viral infection” specifically with regard to commercial e-mails targeted to individuals with high networking potential.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2013

María-José Miquel-Romero and Consolacion Adame-Sánchez

The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedents that may determine the opening of e-mails from companies that endeavour to promote their products, and what may…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedents that may determine the opening of e-mails from companies that endeavour to promote their products, and what may motivate individuals to forward such messages to others.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents exploratory research to approach the nature of the viral process and descriptive research for testing the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The opening of an e-mail is determined by the value that an individual may perceive that the message might contain. Forwarding of the message is determined by its opening, and by the individual's perception about the value of the message it may provide to others, besides the need for communication with others held by the individual. Also, the higher the value perceived by the recipient with respect to the message, the better the associations given to the source of the message. When it is considered that the message may be relevant to others and when an individual has a need for interpersonal communication, better environmental conditions will be perceived to forward the message.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides a starting point for further research in the field of viral marketing where companies should play a more active role.

Practical implications

Guidelines in the development of a viral marketing campaign through e-mail are proposed.

Originality/value

Most of the studies focused on viral marketing consider the reception of a message only from another person, not from a company. This study focuses on the opening of a message from a company and its forwarding to a colleague.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 51 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Hung-Chang Chiu, Anurag Pant, Yi-Ching Hsieh, Monle Lee, Yi-Ting Hsioa and Jinshyang Roan

This paper aims to investigate the determinants of successful online viral marketing. More companies in recent years have reduced their advertising expenditures on…

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1818

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the determinants of successful online viral marketing. More companies in recent years have reduced their advertising expenditures on traditional media. Instead, they focus more on word-of-mouth marketing to reach their potential customers.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2 (high/low utilitarian message context) × 2 (high/low hedonic message context) × 2 (message source: strong/weak tie strength) × 2 (channel: e-mail/blog) between-subjects experiment was conducted. A total of 363 completed questionnaires were collected in Taiwan.

Findings

The findings are fourfold. First, the greater the tie strength between the sender and the receiver, the more actively they share information. Second, an audience is more willing to share a message with others when the message contains higher degrees of utilitarian or hedonic values. Third, those who are highly involved with the products are more willing to share information than those who are less involved. Fourth, those who access the information via blogs are more willing to share information with others.

Research limitations/implications

The first limitation pertains to the issue of external validity. Also, to maximize internal validity, hypothetical scenarios and experimental designs were used rather than actual e-mail/blog experiences as stimuli. The results of this study provide some key strategic implications for companies that are seeking to enhance a successful viral marketing campaign.

Practical implications

This study suggests there is no “one size fits all” answer. A successful viral marketing campaign is specific to individual characteristics and the approaches used.

Originality/value

The present study combines related research – including communication theory, consumer value and involvement theory – to investigate the determinants of individuals’ intentions to share marketing information.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Rick Ferguson

The purpose of this paper is to study examples of emerging marketing trends like word‐of‐mouth and viral marketing, and attempt to determine their measurability in terms…

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50902

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study examples of emerging marketing trends like word‐of‐mouth and viral marketing, and attempt to determine their measurability in terms of return on investment (ROI).

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines real life campaigns from well‐known companies and attempt to measure consumer response beyond merely viewing or participating in the campaign. How much of an actionable response can be evoked and measured from viral and word‐of‐mouth campaigns? Testimonials and commentary from marketers practicing these methods and the pundits that attempt to gauge the effectiveness.

Findings

The paper finds that word‐of‐mouth or viral marketing efforts are not always a sure bet. But a well‐placed, calculated and provocative campaign can spark a firestorm of buzz that sometimes can be effective for years in non‐terminal new mediums like the internet. While the jury is still out on finding hard quantitative ROI measurements for these campaigns, they can produce hefty returns for brand awareness.

Research limitations/implications

Tracking ROI for viral marketing and word‐of‐mouth marketing campaigns remains an inexact and difficult science.

Practical implications

The paper suggest following the included Viral Commandments when creating a word‐of‐mouth campaign to ensure marketing resources are put to highest and best use. It also suggests focusing on identification of the consumer as a vital step to build advocacy. Viral marketing should not anchor marketing strategy, but when used effectively can be an important ace‐up‐the‐sleeve.

Originality/value

The paper explores some recognizable viral marketing campaigns and studies the effects they had on product sales, consumer advocacy and brand awareness. It teaches important factors to consider when developing word‐of‐mouth marketing: who is doing it well, who is not, what lasting effects can a campaign deliver, and are there any effective ways to measure return on investment?

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Sandeep Krishnamurthy and Nitish Singh

International e‐marketing is emerging as an important area for marketers, as global online markets expand. This special issue is an attempt to encourage, showcase, and…

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12917

Abstract

Purpose

International e‐marketing is emerging as an important area for marketers, as global online markets expand. This special issue is an attempt to encourage, showcase, and guide research in the area of international e‐marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

In the editorial, Introduces the international e‐marketing framework (IEMF) as a guiding template for future research in international e‐marketing.

Findings

The IEMF should help shape scholarly inquiry in the domain of international e‐marketing, classify current intellectual contributions in this area and delineate the gaps in the literature.

Originality/value

The editorial presents the IEMF and classifies various papers in this issue using this framework. Finally, concludes with several compelling research questions to motivate future research in this area.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 6 January 2012

Hongwei “Chris” Yang, Hui Liu and Liuning Zhou

The purpose of this paper is to integrate the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Palka et al.'s model to predict young Chinese…

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4399

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to integrate the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Palka et al.'s model to predict young Chinese consumers' mobile viral attitudes, intents and behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

A paper survey was administered to 835 college students in Beijing, Shanghai, Kunming, and Liuzhou in summer and fall, 2010. The data were subject to statistic analyses including Pearson correlation, structural equation modeling, and backward regression with SPSS and AMOS.

Findings

The SEM model testing results confirmed the chain of young Chinese consumers' viral attitudes to intents to actual behavior. Subjective norm, perceived cost and pleasure were significant predictors of their viral attitudes. Their viral attitudes, perceived utility and subjective norm predicted their intent to pass along entertaining electronic messages. Their intent to forward useful electronic messages was determined by their viral attitudes, perceived utility and market mavenism. Their viral attitudes, intents and market mavenism predicted their mobile viral behavior.

Practical implications

It pays to foster Chinese consumers' favorable attitudes toward mobile viral marketing. It is advisable to know both target consumers and their associates very well. It is recommended to convince Chinese consumers that their friends and relatives can benefit greatly from viral content forwarding. Mobile messages with entertaining, useful, relevant and self‐involved values can go viral more easily.

Originality/value

The paper is probably the first study the integration of the TPB, TAM and Palka et al.'s model to predict Chinese consumers' mobile viral attitudes, intents and behavior.

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

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306

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

The e-mail can sometimes appear to be the curse of the modern office worker. How many people must spend Monday mornings opening and reading the vast accumulation of e-mails and thinking that this humdrum task appears to be a job in itself?

Practical implications

The paper provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world's leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Strategic Direction, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0258-0543

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Geoff Simmons, Brychan Thomas and Yann Truong

Given the emergent nature of i‐branding as an academic field of study and a lack of applied research output, the aim of this paper is to explain how businesses manage…

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14061

Abstract

Purpose

Given the emergent nature of i‐branding as an academic field of study and a lack of applied research output, the aim of this paper is to explain how businesses manage i‐branding to create brand equity.

Design/methodology/approach

Within a case‐study approach, seven cases were developed from an initial sample of 20 food businesses. Additionally, utilising secondary data, the analysis of findings introduces relevant case examples from other industrial sectors.

Findings

Specific internet tools and their application are discussed within opportunities to create brand equity for products classified by experience, credence and search characteristics. An understanding of target customers will be critical in underpinning the selection and deployment of relevant i‐branding tools. Tools facilitating interactivity – machine and personal – are particularly significant.

Research limitations/implications

Future research positioned within classification of goods constructs could provide further contributions that recognise potential moderating effects of product/service characteristics on the development of brand equity online. Future studies could also employ the i‐branding conceptual framework to test its validity and develop it further as a means of explaining how i‐branding can be managed to create brand equity.

Originality/value

While previous research has focused on specific aspects of i‐branding, this paper utilises a conceptual framework to explain how diverse i‐branding tools combine to create brand equity. The literature review integrates fragmented literature around a conceptual framework to produce a more coherent understanding of extant thinking. The location of this study within a classification of goods context proved critical to explaining how i‐branding can be managed.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 44 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Joanne Procter and Martyn Richards

Defines the pester power phenomenon as the repeated delivery of unwanted requests, arguing however that this is not the main driving influence in purchasing behaviour…

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5487

Abstract

Defines the pester power phenomenon as the repeated delivery of unwanted requests, arguing however that this is not the main driving influence in purchasing behaviour. Shows instead that a large number of highly successful products, notably Harry Potter, became popular not through marketing but via word‐of‐mouth, and the staying power (or stickiness) of a product like Pokemon illustrates the importance of social learning. Recounts the experiment of Stanley Milgram’s chain letter, and the Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon game, which shows the amount of connectedness in society. Relates this to diffusion research is central to word‐of‐mouth marketing, and also mentions viral marketing and coolhunting, both of which involve word‐of‐mouth.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Jennifer Rowley

Customer knowledge is an important asset for all businesses. The rhetoric of e‐business emphasises the opportunities for knowing customers in the digital economy. This…

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5954

Abstract

Customer knowledge is an important asset for all businesses. The rhetoric of e‐business emphasises the opportunities for knowing customers in the digital economy. This article sets the context with a brief summary of the key characteristics of the knowledge management paradigm. This is used as a platform for the formulation of the questions that form the core of this article: What customer knowledge do businesses require? What customer data can be collected? What are the challenges for translating data into information and knowledge? Can knowledge cultures be created in online customer communities? Whose knowledge is it anyway? How can knowledge assets be identified and managed in virtual organisations? How can customer knowledge from e‐business be integrated with customer knowledge from other channels? Who needs customer knowledge anyway?

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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