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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2015

Henriikka Weir and Catherine Kaukinen

The present study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Ad Health) to evaluate the effects of exposure to violent victimization in childhood…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Ad Health) to evaluate the effects of exposure to violent victimization in childhood on adolescent delinquency and subsequent adult criminality.

Methodology/approach

Using Longitudinal Latent Class Analysis (LLCA), the present study investigates whether there are distinct and diverse longitudinal delinquency trajectories among those exposed to violence in childhood.

Findings

Findings from the current study indicate that there are three distinct trajectories of delinquency and offending from age 14 to 27 for both males and females exposed to violence in childhood. Further, it appears that violent victimization in childhood bridges the gender gap in delinquency between males and females. Thus, childhood violent victimization, and the fact that females are victimized by parents/caregivers and romantic partners at higher rates than males, might be partially responsible in explaining the narrowing of the gender gap between male and female offending in the recent decades. At the same time, childhood violent victimization also seems to impact males and females in somewhat different ways. Practically, all female victims stop offending by their late 20s, whereas a fairly large proportion of males exposed to violent victimization in childhood steadily continue offending.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study was able to identify the diverse impacts of violence exposure on engagement in subsequent delinquency, it did not examine the unique contributions of each type of violence on adolescent outcomes or the chronicity of exposure to each of these types of violent victimization. We were also not able to measure all types of violence experiences in childhood, such as exposure to parents’ or caregivers’ intimate partner violence.

Social implications

While early prevention would be the most desirable option for both genders for the most optimal outcome, the retrospective intervention and treatment programs should be gender-specific. For males, they should heavily focus on providing alternative ways to cope with anger, impulse control and frustration, as well as teach empathy, cognitive problem solving skills, verbal communication skills, and tangible life and job skills. For females, most successful intervention and treatment programs may focus on helping the girls through a transition from adolescence to adulthood while providing mental health, medical, and family support services.

Originality/value

The paper uses a unique methodological approach to identify distinct and diverse longitudinal delinquency trajectories. The findings demonstrate how more resilient individuals (in terms of externalizing behaviors) can bring down the mean scores of delinquency even though many other individuals can be severely affected by violence exposure in childhood.

Details

Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-262-7

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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2014

Julie V. Xavier

To review the literature on delinquency and victimization among Caribbean youth, utilizing an ecological perspective.

Abstract

Purpose

To review the literature on delinquency and victimization among Caribbean youth, utilizing an ecological perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The review was initiated by a search of peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1993 and 2013, which investigated any or all aspects of juvenile delinquency and/or youth victimization in the Caribbean. Studies were critically reviewed to determine whether they addressed relationships between victimization and delinquency, and the role of the social environment on youth.

Findings

The search yielded 23 relevant studies: 64 percent of the studies were conducted exclusively in Jamaica, and more than 75 percent were school based. Half of the articles addressed the links between victimization and delinquency among Caribbean youth but the majority was primarily descriptive.

Research limitations/implications

Only peer-reviewed journals were included, so unpublished country and organizational reports were not covered in the review.

Practical implications

More current and longitudinal studies are needed, which examine the connections between delinquency and victimization, and the experiences in the smaller or less developed Caribbean countries.

Social implications

The review provides directions for the enhancement of positive youth development policy and practice.

Originality/value

This paper fills the gap in the understanding of the research on delinquency and victimization among Caribbean youth. The ecological framework also adds value to the understanding of the topic by highlighting the importance of various social contexts, such as the family, school, and neighborhood, on youth development in the Caribbean.

Details

Soul of Society: A Focus on the Lives of Children & Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-060-5

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2020

Jody Clay-Warner and Timothy G. Edgemon

Understanding the plight of victims has long been a focus of feminists in the field of criminology. Feminists have made a number of contributions to the study of victims…

Abstract

Understanding the plight of victims has long been a focus of feminists in the field of criminology. Feminists have made a number of contributions to the study of victims, and here we highlight the contributions that coalesce around three central themes: (1) the gendered nature of criminal victimisation, (2) the relationship between women’s victimisation and offending and (3) violent victimisation of women (and threat of victimisation) as a means of informal social control. In this chapter, the authors trace the development of these themes, highlighting both early feminist work and modern instantiations, paying particular attention to how theoretical developments in the field of feminist victimology have contributed to the understanding of these themes. The authors conclude by discussing the contested nature of ‘feminist victimology’, examining whether such a thing can exist given the androcentric foundations on which the broader field of victimology is based.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Feminism, Criminology and Social Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-956-4

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Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2018

Jennifer Adams and Emily Hannum

Physical victimization at school is little studied in impoverished developing country contexts. Moreover, the role of school and classroom contexts as risk factors remains…

Abstract

Physical victimization at school is little studied in impoverished developing country contexts. Moreover, the role of school and classroom contexts as risk factors remains poorly understood.

The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of physical victimization in rural Chinese middle schools as well as the individual, teacher/classroom, and school-level risk factors associated with experiencing physical victimization.

We use two waves of longitudinal, representative survey data to perform a multilevel logistic regression analysis (MLRA) of physical victimization among middle school students from 100 villages in one of China’s poorest provinces. We focus on a subset of questionnaire items that were gathered from students when the sampled children were 13–16 years old. We also utilize student data from the first wave of the survey to control for prior internalizing problems and academic achievement. Finally, we link matched data collected from principal and teacher questionnaires to examine the risk factors for physical victimization associated with students’ microclimates and the wider school environment.

A substantial proportion of middle school students (40%) reported having been beaten by classmates. Elevated risk was found among males; students with prior poor performance in language; students with past internalizing problems; students of female teachers and teachers evaluated as low performing; students in disruptive classrooms; and students in classrooms undergoing mandated reforms.

These findings suggest that efforts to reduce school violence should not only focus on the deficits of individual students, but rather should target practices to alter the within school risk factors associated with microclimates.

Details

Research in the Sociology of Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-077-6

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Caitlyn N. Meade, Wesley G. Jennings, Angela R. Gover and Tara N. Richards

A robust literature exists documenting the association between child maltreatment and later life adverse outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

A robust literature exists documenting the association between child maltreatment and later life adverse outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between sexual abuse victimization and later life intimate partner violence (IPV) outcomes among male and female college students, which has been less frequently evaluated despite this wealth of evidence.

Design/methodology/approach

Relying on data from 4,162 male and female college students, the current study provides a multivariate analysis of the linkage between sexual abuse victimization and intimate partner victimization, perpetration, and being an IPV victim-offender.

Findings

Results reveal a statistically significant association between sexual abuse victimization and being an IPV victim, offender, or victim-offender in young adulthood. In addition, these findings are still observed once a host of risk and the demographic factors are incorporated into the model for females, but not for males.

Originality/value

This study highlights the importance of sexual violence and IPV prevention and intervention strategies for college-aged youth.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2019

James M. Honeycutt, Jonathon K. Frost and Colton E. Krawietz

The signal detection theory has evolutionary foundations such that our ancestors who were able to detect signals of aggression survived, while those who could not were…

Abstract

Purpose

The signal detection theory has evolutionary foundations such that our ancestors who were able to detect signals of aggression survived, while those who could not were extinguished. The paper examines the detection of conflict escalation signals in a domestic argument in a married couple as a consequence of history with prior victimization and perpetration of violence. The purpose of this paper is threefold: escalation detection differences between a trained special victim’s detective and untrained individuals; escalation detection for individuals with domestic violence victimization; and physiological arousal during escalation detection.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjects with various histories of victimization and perpetration using the Straus conflict tactics scale watched a video of an argument that escalated in conflict while their heart rate and electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured. Participants were asked to pause the tape and write any verbal and non-verbal signal of escalating conflict. The signal coding used deductive, a prioi coding based on Gottman’s (1994, 2011) corrosive behaviors indicative of conflict. A repeated measures general linear model in sex and conflict initiation using two measures of physiological arousal revealed significant effects on EDA while watching escalating conflict as a function of victimization history.

Findings

A series of hypotheses and research questions tested untrained people’s signal detection abilities with a trained, special victim’s unit police investigator as a consequence of male and female-initiated conflict. Untrained viewers reported fewer aggression signals than the police investigator. A repeated measures general linear model using two measures of physiological arousal revealed significant effects on EDA while watching escalating conflict as a function of victimization history. Results are discussed in terms of the signal detection and excitation-transfer theories toward explaining responses to escalating conflict.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study was asking participants to document all abuse while not differentiating between different forms (i.e. emotional, verbal, physical). A future study could investigate how well participants can detect different forms of abuse. This area of research could be beneficial especially in the form of past history. For example, if an individual has been a recipient of emotional abuse, do they detect significantly more signals of emotional abuse than they would for physical abuse?

Practical implications

The findings of our study have could practical publications for advising people who cope with conflict as they vary in their use of negotiation and physical force. The fact that physiological arousal was heightened after exposure to the conflict escalation video as a function of victimization due to physical force has ramifications for watching media with violent content. Therapists could ask survivors if they feel based on their experience, that they could help others to recognize aggressive signals or if they are immune to these signals, given the debate over victim desensitization vs heightened sensitivity.

Social implications

The authors feel it is imperative to note that our current study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of domestic violence in order to ultimately benefit victims in the recovery process and to (ideally) prevent recurrence of domestic violence in the future. This research is not intended to implicate victims in anyway as being responsible for the consequences of domestic violence due to an inability to detect signals of aggression. Indeed, future research should examine how to skillfully advise domestic violence victims while protecting their already vulnerable self-images.

Originality/value

Every day, people are exposed to violence through social media, news, movies and television. Hence, we may become either sensitized to violence or desensitized. These are competing hypotheses that we tested in conjunction with physiological arousal. It is important to analyze reactions to viewing violence due to the sheer amount that is readily disseminated.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Tamar Fischer, Lisa Van Reemst and Jessica De Jong

The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent job, organizational, and personal characteristics independently contribute to the prediction of workplace…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent job, organizational, and personal characteristics independently contribute to the prediction of workplace victimization of local government employees in the Netherlands. The existence of interactions between personal and context (job and organizational) characteristics is also explored.

Design/methodology/approach

Structured survey data measured the frequency of victimization involving three types of incidents: verbal aggression; threats; and physical violence. Associations with job and personal factors and interaction effects were studied using bivariate and multivariate analyses.

Findings

Contact frequency, perceived work stress, and type of job held by local government employees are the strongest correlates of workplace aggression. Self-efficacy in employees’ conflict management skills shows an unexpected positive association with the level of experienced aggression, especially in organizations that have low levels of prevention measures.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, no definite causal conclusions can be drawn. Common-method bias in the measurements may have led to systematic bias.

Originality/value

This study presents an integrated model of correlates of public-initiated workplace aggression toward a population that is understudied: namely, local government employees. It also provides first insights into how job, organizational, and personal correlates of workplace victimization interact in this population.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2015

Giovanna Gianesini and Antonella Brighi

In this study, we aimed at examining the unique and interactive effects of peer violence in cyberspace on adolescents’ emotion regulation and socioemotional adjustment, as…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, we aimed at examining the unique and interactive effects of peer violence in cyberspace on adolescents’ emotion regulation and socioemotional adjustment, as well as the mediational role of resilience in the link between adolescent’s pathogenic relational experiences and behavioral outcomes. Specifically, we intended to explore emotion differentiation and regulation in reaction to bullying perpetration and victimization and in terms of positive (proud, confident, good) and negative (ashamed, excited, guilty), Passive (sad, embarrassed, humiliated) and Reactive (angry, scared) emotions and how it impacted and predicted positive and negative outcomes.

Methodology/approach

A stratified convenient sample of 494 Italian students aged 13–19 years (M = 15.27, SD = 1.23) was selected to represent all different school types in Italy and the students were administered a self-report questionnaire on school bullying involvement. General Linear Models, ANOVA, and T-tests were employed to explore gender differences, the relationships between variables, and their contribution to the predictive model. A two-step Cluster analysis was used to profile adolescents based on patterns of resilience, health outcomes, and cyberbullying involvement.

Findings

Results showed significant gender differences, with females using internet and Facebook more than males and being more resilient, positive, and prosocial, but also responding to victimization with higher levels of alienation, anger, humiliation, and psychosomatic and emotional symptoms. Males perpetrated peer violence more than females, were less likely to be victimized, and were generally less emotionally impacted by it. Victimization rates (63.7%, n = 296) were higher than perpetration rates (51.7%, n = 233) and bully-victimization was prevalent (47.1%). Victims prevalently experienced passive emotions (sadness, humiliation, embarrassment) while perpetrators experienced negative ones (guilt and shame). Cluster analysis evidenced different pathways and trajectories of resilience and cyberbullying involvement: Resilient victims (RV), Healthy uninvolved (HU), Healthy Bullies (HB), Alienated Bully-Victims (ABV), and Resilient Bully-Victims (RBV). RV, HU, and HB resulted all well-adjusted, despite the different involvement in cyberbullying, and also RBV and despite the double involvement in cyberbullying, ABV were the only maladjusted and at-risk group in our sample characterized by very low Positivity, very low Resilience, and extremely high Alienation.

Research implications

This study proposes a comprehensive, developmental, ecological, relational, and self-regulatory resilience approach to cyberbullying, which represents an innovative and advanced contribution to the literature with significant implication for research and practice. Fully understanding and measuring the emotional impact of cyber peer violence and resilience following cyberbullying victimization and perpetration can help in developing targeted interventions for both victims and bullies. This study highlighted the need for a self-regulatory model of resilience for modulating emotions, arousal, and behaviors across contexts, relationships, and difficulties. It also evidenced that moderate levels of resilience and positivity are sufficient to buffer youth from involvement in cyberbullying and to predict healthy adjustment and less pathological outcomes.

Originality/value

By profiling adolescents based on resilience levels, health outcomes, and cyberbullying involvement, we evidenced five distinct trajectories of risk evaluation for cyberbullying beyond participating roles. Our results confirmed the fundamental importance of assessing resilience and emotion regulatory resources together with peer violence involvement in identifying and targeting adolescents at risk.

Details

Technology and Youth: Growing Up in a Digital World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-265-8

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Stephani Granato, Shannon Boone, Shane Kuhlman and Phillip N. Smith

The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that fearlessness about death, one aspect of the capability for suicide, may explain men’s greater risk for death by suicide…

Abstract

Purpose

The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that fearlessness about death, one aspect of the capability for suicide, may explain men’s greater risk for death by suicide. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether violence perpetration and victimization would mediate the relation of gender with fearlessness about death in suicidal psychiatric inpatients.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study used a cross-sectional survey design in a sample of 196 psychiatric inpatients admitted for suicide risk.

Findings

Men endorsed greater fearlessness about death compared to women. The relation of gender with fearlessness about death was partially mediated by violence perpetration, but not victimization. Violence perpetration may play a more central role in the development of fearlessness about death, the capability for suicide, and the transition from suicide ideation to action compared to violence victimization.

Research limitations/implications

The current study was cross-sectional and not able to definitively answer questions about the development of the capability for suicide. Future research must examine how fearlessness about death evolves over time.

Practical implications

Suicide risk assessment should include history of violence perpetration, as this may better identify those who may be at greater risk for suicide due to greater fearlessness about death.

Originality/value

The current study adds to the growing literature that aims to understand variables that explain the transition from suicide ideation to action.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2020

Beatriz Víllora, Santiago Yubero and Raul Navarro

Previous research has documented a negative association between subjective well-being and different forms of victimization. The present study aims to examine differences…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research has documented a negative association between subjective well-being and different forms of victimization. The present study aims to examine differences in well-being among university student victims of cyber dating abuse and bullying after controlling for acceptance of dating violence.

Design/methodology

This a cross-sectional study involving 1,657 Spanish university students (62.1% females, 37.1% males) using a quantitative approach.

Findings

The multiple regression analysis results showed that the university students who reported low bullying victimization and low acceptance of dating violence also reported higher emotional, social and psychological well-being, although the association between bullying and well-being was weak. No relationship was found between cyber dating abuse victimization and the well-being dimensions examined (emotional, social and psychological). Indeed, the participants not involved in any form of abuse and the cyber dating abuse victims presented the highest level of emotional, social and psychological well-being compared to the bullying victims and the combined victims.

Practical implications

Prevention and intervention programs need to specifically address bullying and cyber dating abusive in university, with a special focus on normative beliefs about both types of victimization and offering different sources of support to overcome negative consequences on mental health.

Originality/value

This paper analyzes the subjective well-being correlates simultaneously in victims of cyber dating abuse and bullying among university students without assuming that every form of victimization has the same mental health outcomes.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

Keywords

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