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Victim, Perpetrator, or What Else?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-335-8

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Maria Roth, Imola Antal, Ágnes Dávid-Kacsó and Éva László

Since the reforms started in the Romanian child protection, and in spite of adopting children’s rights, and investing in the professionalization of the child protection…

Abstract

Since the reforms started in the Romanian child protection, and in spite of adopting children’s rights, and investing in the professionalization of the child protection staff, research has indicated that children continue to suffer violence in care settings.

This chapter contributes to the literature that documents children’s rights violations in Romanian residential care, before and after the political shift in 1989, including the period after the accession to the EU, by presenting and discussing interview data of 48 adults who spent parts of their childhoods in child protection settings.

The conceptual framework of this analysis is based on the human rights perspective and the transitional justice. The main body of the article presents the testimonials of adults who grew up in institutional care in Romania, as collected in the framework of the SASCA project, funded by the European Union. 1

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Human Rights for Children and Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-047-0

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Article

Arta Dodaj

Witnessing domestic violence is a common experience among children, but has only recently been recognized as a specific form of abuse. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Witnessing domestic violence is a common experience among children, but has only recently been recognized as a specific form of abuse. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the researchers who have examined the experience of children witnessing domestic violence.

Design/methodology/approach

Research papers related to witnessing domestic violence and published in leading academic journals in the UK and abroad from January 1980 to September 2018 were identified and reviewed.

Findings

Although there were some inconsistent findings, it was found that most of the available research suggests that witnessing domestic violence is prevalent among children and recognized today as a form of abuse. Results from analyzed studies identified high rates of psychological problems among children exposed to witnessing domestic violence. Furthermore, there is evidence that a variety of child and parent characteristics are important to more fully understand what influences have on exposure children’s witnessing domestic violence. In the end, this data emphasize that to be successful, access is essential to the places where the risks for the occurrence of this form of abuse is most evident, in the family, working with the child and the parents/caregivers.

Originality/value

This is an original paper which draws on different research about children witnessing domestic violence.

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Journal of Children's Services, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Article

Akshaya Vijayalakshmi, Russell Laczniak and Deanne Brocato

This study aims to uncover in-depth examples of how emergent media affects parents’ views and socialization efforts. The study examines these views and efforts in the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to uncover in-depth examples of how emergent media affects parents’ views and socialization efforts. The study examines these views and efforts in the context of violent commercials.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected data for this paper using two studies. In Study 1, they collected data from the internet. Comments related to “violent ads” or “violent commercials” were collated and analyzed. For Study 2, they conducted in-depth interviews with mothers on their views on parental mediation and impact of media on their children.

Findings

The internet data helped develop a parental definition of violent ads and identify that parents lie on a continuum regarding their concerns about violent commercials. Further in-depth questioning of parents on the above finding led to the identification of four clusters of parents. “Media managers” attempt to control and restrict their child’s media environment while educating their child about the effects of violent commercials. “Enablers” spend abundant time co-viewing primetime TV while engaging their child in conversations on violence, but not on violent ads. To maintain harmony in the household, “Harmonizers” merely restrict viewing of violent commercials without educating their child about its effects. Finally, “Agent evaluators” are likely to co-view violent commercials, without discussing them with their child.

Research limitations/implications

First, several of the parental segments (media managers, enablers and harmonizers) tend to note some concerns with violence in advertising. Importantly, this concern for violence appears to be limited to gore and use of physical weapon. Second, while parents do not have homogenous views on violent ads, those who are concerned also have differing roots of concern. This influences their mediation efforts. Third, socialization is bi-directional at times.

Practical implications

Many parents do not approve are the use of physical violence, use of weapons and depiction of blood/gore even in ads for movies or videogames. Advertisers might be wise to avoid such content in ads directed to children. Second, if media and marketing managers could plan to sponsor TV shows (vs placing violent ads) that offer ad-free program time, parents might respond positively. Third, as socialization is bi-directional, advertisers could consider using ad scenarios where parents and children engage with the pros and cons of a certain product or content, thus enabling parent-child conversations to make an informed decision.

Social implications

Many parents notice violence in ads; policymakers could consider developing ratings for ads that consider the amount and type of violence while rating an ad. Second, a focus on increasing parental awareness on the harms of constantly exposing children to violent commercials might change the views of some parents who currently believe that a few or no violent commercials are being aired during children’s programs. Finally, parents envisage a greater role for media in their lives, and policymakers will have to suggest ways to effectively integrate media content in one’s lives rather than just suggest bans or restrictions.

Originality/value

The contributions of this paper include viewers’ (vs researchers’) definition of violent commercials, showcasing that parents are likely to manage media using new media options such as Netflix, and some parents are likely to co-create rules with their children.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

Randal G. Ross, Julia Maximon, Jonathan Kusumi and Susan Lurie

Violence is elevated in older adolescents and adults with schizophrenia; however, little is known about younger children. This report focuses on rates of violence in

Abstract

Violence is elevated in older adolescents and adults with schizophrenia; however, little is known about younger children. This report focuses on rates of violence in younger children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. A retrospective review of structured diagnostic interviews from a case series of 81 children, ages 4-15 years of age, with childhood onset of schizophrenic-spectrum illness is reported. Seventy-two percent of children had a history of violent behavior, including 25 children (31%) with a history of severe violence. Of those with a history of violence, 60% had a least one episode of violence that did not appear to be in response to an external stimulus (internally driven violence). There was no significant impact of age or gender. For many children, these internally driven violent episodes were rare and unpredictable, but severe. Similar to what is found in adolescents and adults, violence is common in children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. General violence prevention strategies combined with early identification and treatment of childhood psychotic illnesses may decrease the morbidity associated with childhood psychotic violence.

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Mental Illness, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article

John Hamel, Sarah Desmarais, Tonia Nicholls, Kathleen Malley‐Morrison and Jon Aaronson

If child custody decisions are based on erroneous beliefs, family courts may not be acting in the best interests of children. This study examined family court…

Abstract

If child custody decisions are based on erroneous beliefs, family courts may not be acting in the best interests of children. This study examined family court professionals' beliefs about family violence. Respondents (N = 410) of diverse professions, including child custody mediators, evaluators, and therapists, family law attorneys and judges, victim advocates and university students, completed a 10‐item multiple‐choice quiz. Results revealed low rates of correct responding, with respondents correctly answering approximately three out of 10 items on average, based on current research in the field. Overall, response rates were highly consistent with the discredited patriarchal paradigm. Shelter workers and victim advocates had the lowest average score, and men were found to have slightly higher scores than women. More troubling, students' scores were not significantly lower than those of family court professionals. Implications are discussed with respect to decision‐making in the context of child custody disputes.

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Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Joanne Savage and Amanda Murray

In the present paper we explore the long-term influence of childhood neglect on violent behavior in the transition to adulthood. In particular, we test whether neglect is…

Abstract

Purpose

In the present paper we explore the long-term influence of childhood neglect on violent behavior in the transition to adulthood. In particular, we test whether neglect is spuriously related to violence due to their common association with academic achievement, physical abuse, and general offending. We then ask whether neglect has an indirect effect on violence through its impact on parental attachment, alcohol use, emotional negativity, academic achievement, or staying in school.

Methodology/approach

We use two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and employ both regression models and INDIRECT, a syntax file that allows for the testing of indirect effects using SPSS (Preacher & Hayes, 2008).

Findings

We find that the long-term association between childhood neglect and violence in the transition to adulthood is robust in models controlling for GPA, physical abuse, and other forms of offending. Neglect did not have an indirect effect on violence through attachment, negative emotionality, or academic achievement but did have indirect effects on violence through its association with staying in school and with alcohol use.

Research implications

This set of analyses was exploratory in nature. Further research on neglect should be undertaken, using finely tuned measures and research questions. In addition, our findings imply that the association between neglect and later violent behavior may be intertwined with certain dynamics of physical abuse and alcohol use, which should be further studied.

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Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-262-7

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Article

Louise Dixon, Kevin Browne, Catherine Hamilton‐Giachritsis and Eugene Ostapuik

The feasibility and prevalence of reciprocal, hierarchical and paternal patterns of family aggression hypothesised by Dixon and Browne (2003) were explored within a sample…

Abstract

The feasibility and prevalence of reciprocal, hierarchical and paternal patterns of family aggression hypothesised by Dixon and Browne (2003) were explored within a sample of maltreating families. The psychological reports of 67 families referred to services for alleged child maltreatment that evidenced concurrent physical intimate partner violence and child maltreatment were investigated. Of these, 29 (43.3%) cases were characterised by hierarchical patterns, 28 (41.8%) by reciprocal patterns and 10 (14.9%) by paternal patterns. Significant differences in the form of child maltreatment perpetrated by mothers and fathers and parent dyads living in different patterns were found. In hierarchical sub‐patterns, fathers were significantly more likely to have been convicted for a violent and/or sexual offence than mothers and were significantly less likely to be biologically related to the child. The findings demonstrate the existence of the different patterns in a sample of families involved in the child care protection process in England and Wales, supporting the utility of a holistic approach to understanding aggression in the family.

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Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Elena Kim

This chapter explores the institutional processes addressing child marriage in contemporary Kyrgyzstan with the focus on the operation of state-sponsored institutions of…

Abstract

This chapter explores the institutional processes addressing child marriage in contemporary Kyrgyzstan with the focus on the operation of state-sponsored institutions of secondary education and their management strategies deployed when a child marriage comes under their purview. Drawing on 32 child marriage cases, the study documents contradictions between the recently emerging nationally recognized commitment to combatting violence against school children in Kyrgyzstan and the actual work done to protect schoolgirls from child marriage. Administrative practices used by educational managers construct married schoolgirls as “unfit for schooling” and act in accordance with these constructions. Using D. E. Smith’s feminist-inspired alternative sociology approach, institutional ethnography, as a conceptual framework, I argue that what happens is much more complex and nuanced than what is typically seen as a “mere” lack of acceptance, concealment, or acquiescence. My study describes, maps, and analyzes this institutional system to “reach beyond the locally observable and discoverable into the translocal social relations and organizations that permeate and control the local” (Smith, 2005, p. 65). Inquiring from the married girls’ standpoint, I discover that their exclusion is articulated by the state system of schools’ appraisal and monitoring, organized both politically and administratively as an extension of government and its efforts to reform the national comprehensive education system and ensure national security and peace. I discover that, in this system, the concept of “child bride” is treated with striking ambivalence in the institutional and public discourses, and the notion of “violence” is applied to child marriage in an inconsistent manner.

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Article

Somayeh Naderi and Samira Naderi

The reduction of the violence and child abuse requires the cooperation of national and international health-related organizations. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The reduction of the violence and child abuse requires the cooperation of national and international health-related organizations. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of NGOs in health and peace development through administrating supportive programs for child abuse and violence victims.

Design/methodology/approach

The present research was a mixed method research, and the type of research was a descriptive-analytic study. To collect data, library and field methods were used. The research sample included 137 staff members of the NGOs supporting children in Tehran. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software.

Findings

According to authorities and members of the NGOs supporting children, networking and affective factors played a significant role in the development of health and peace (P<0.01). This was feasible by controlling the factors affecting violence and child abuse.

Practical implications

Given the fact that NGOs are contributing to the development and establishment of peace through effective participation and networking, trying to support the victims of child abuse and violence, the need for more attention from governments is recommended in order to support these organizations, especially legislative and financial support is needed to expand the activities of such organizations.

Originality/value

This paper is original in its method, topic and findings. The first is mixed method research, which has studied the role of networking of NGOs for peace development through implementing support programs for victims of child abuse and violence.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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