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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Vincent Kotwicki and Meshan Al‐Otaibi

The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on how drinking water consumption could be potentially reduced by the introduction of dual water distribution…

1096

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on how drinking water consumption could be potentially reduced by the introduction of dual water distribution networks. Since water of this quality is required only for drinking, cooking, bathing, and washing, delivering such water for uses that require non‐drinking water quality represents a tremendous waste of water and energy, and contributes to environmental pollution.

Design/methodology/approach

An overview of dual distribution networks in several countries is presented. Kuwait, in which 86 percent of the freshwater network has a parallel brackish water network, is the leader in this field, with brackish water used for a range of outdoor activities. The residential sector is the major consumer of freshwater in Kuwait and the control of demand in this sector will be a key factor in curbing the overall demand, which without any demand management measures is expected to quadruple by 2025. Computer modeling based on existing water use statistics and the proposed phasing‐in of a dual distribution network for indoor use in households has been undertaken to determine how the large quantities of reclaimed can be used to reduce drinking water consumption.

Findings

The paper presents a modeling exercise that demonstrates that by using reverse osmosis (RO) treated wastewater for toilet flushing and watering the gardens, water consumption demand can be stabilized at present levels over a 20‐year period.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that with foresight and long‐term planning it is feasible to implement a dual water supply network in a major city, on a scale which may lead to saving up to 25 percent of drinking quality water on top of other traditional water conservation measures.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Vincent Kotwicki and Zaher Al Sulaimani

The purpose of this paper is to look into climate and climate change in a wider setting ranging from geological time through historical to instrumental records.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look into climate and climate change in a wider setting ranging from geological time through historical to instrumental records.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors give an overview of the past, present, and future climates and the status of water resources of the Arabian Peninsula, and describe climatic forcings that shape the current climate, and the variables that are most prone to the change of existing atmospheric conditions.

Findings

Present weather patterns of the Peninsula are governed by Hadley circulation, and modulated by El Niño – southeastern oscillation, PDO, NAO, and IOO. The process of aridification is proceeding.

Originality/value

The global assessment of the imminent climate change is streamlined into predictions that are relevant for the Arabian Peninsula. Conclusions are drawn on the need for extended research effort based in countries of the Arabian Peninsula for the optimal preparation of management actions to tackle both climate change and resulting water resources issues in the region.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2011

Samuel L. Browning, Vincent B. Van Hasselt, Abigail S. Tucker and Gregory M. Vecchi

The current paper seeks to outline the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) and review extant research regarding its efficacy in reducing criminalization of people with mental…

658

Abstract

Purpose

The current paper seeks to outline the Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) and review extant research regarding its efficacy in reducing criminalization of people with mental illness, as well as improving interactions between this population and law enforcement officers.

Design/methodology/approach

The CIT model and theoretical underpinnings are discussed and an evaluative review of the current literature is presented.

Findings

Research on the CIT model has generally shown improved officer and community safety; better mental healthcare for those in need; and decreased criminalization of those with mental illness. Methodologies have included the use of records reviews and officer surveys, primarily.

Practical implications

Implications in the practice of law enforcement and psychology include decreasing criminalization of those with mental illness; reducing the frequency of police use of force; minimizing injury to consumers and law enforcement officers; and connecting people with mental illness to needed psychological/psychiatric resources.

Social implications

Success of CIT has wider social implications, such as decreasing stigma regarding mental illness and fear of involving police in mental health related crises.

Originality/value

The authors provide a summary of the CIT model in the context of law enforcement's response to people with mental illness; highlight important research to date; discuss implications of the programme; and suggest directions for future research in the area of CIT.

Details

The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

Keywords

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