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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2018

Nikhil Kalkote, Ashwani Assam and Vinayak Eswaran

The purpose of this paper is to solve unsteady compressible Navier–Stokes equations without the commonly used dual-time loop. The authors would like to use an adaptive…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to solve unsteady compressible Navier–Stokes equations without the commonly used dual-time loop. The authors would like to use an adaptive time-stepping (ATS)-based local error control instead of CFL-based time-stepping technique. Also, an all-speed flow algorithm is implemented with simple low dissipation AUSM convective scheme, which can be computed without preconditioning which in general destroys the time accuracy.

Design/methodology/approach

In transient flow computations, the time-step is generally determined from the CFL condition. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the usefulness of ATS based on local time-stepping previously used extensively in ordinary differential equations (ODE) integration. This method is implemented in an implicit framework to ensure the numerical domain of dependence always contains the physical domain of dependence.

Findings

In this paper, the authors limit their focus to capture the unsteady physics for three cases: Sod’s shock-tube problem, Stokes’ second problem and a circular cylinder. The use of ATS with local truncation error control enables the solver to use the maximum allowable time-step, for the prescribed tolerance of error. The algorithm is also capable of converging very rapidly to the steady state (if there is any) after the initial transient phase. The authors present here only the first-order time-stepping scheme. An algorithmic comparison is made between the proposed adaptive time-stepping method and the commonly used dual time-stepping approach that indicates the former will be more efficient.

Originality/value

The original method of ATS based on local error control is used extensively in ODE integration, whereas, this method is not so popular in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) community. In this paper, the authors investigate its use in the unsteady CFD computations. The authors hope that it would provide CFD researchers with an algorithm based on an adaptive time-stepping approach for unsteady calculations.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2020

Nikhil Kalkote, Ashwani Assam and Vinayak Eswaran

The purpose of this study is to present and demonstrate a numerical method for solving chemically reacting flows. These are important for energy conversion devices, which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present and demonstrate a numerical method for solving chemically reacting flows. These are important for energy conversion devices, which rely on chemical reactions as their operational mechanism, with heat generated from the combustion of the fuel, often gases, being converted to work.

Design/methodology/approach

The numerical study of such flows requires the set of Navier-Stokes equations to be extended to include multiple species and the chemical reactions between them. The numerical method implemented in this study also accounts for changes in the material properties because of temperature variations and the process to handle steep spatial fronts and stiff source terms without incurring any numerical instabilities. An all-speed numerical framework is used through simple low-dissipation advection upwind splitting (SLAU) convective scheme, and it has been extended in a multi-component species framework on the in-house density-based flow solver. The capability of solving turbulent combustion is also implemented using the Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) framework and the recent k-kl turbulence model.

Findings

The numerical implementation has been demonstrated for several stiff problems in laminar and turbulent combustion. The laminar combustion results are compared from the corresponding results from the Cantera library, and the turbulent combustion computations are found to be consistent with the experimental results.

Originality/value

This paper has extended the single gas density-based framework to handle multi-component gaseous mixtures. This paper has demonstrated the capability of the numerical framework for solving non-reacting/reacting laminar and turbulent flow problems. The all-speed SLAU convective scheme has been extended in the multi-component species framework, and the turbulent model k-kl is used for turbulent combustion, which has not been done previously. While the former method provides the capability of solving for low-speed flows using the density-based method, the later is a length-scale-based method that includes scale-adaptive simulation characteristics in the turbulence modeling. The SLAU scheme has proven to work well for unsteady flows while the k-kL model works well in non-stationary turbulent flows. As both these flow features are commonly found in industrially important reacting flows, the convection scheme and the turbulence model together will enhance the numerical predictions of such flows.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2021

M. R. Nived, Bandi Sai Mukesh, Sai Saketha Chandra Athkuri and Vinayak Eswaran

This paper aims to conduct, a detailed investigation of various Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models to study their performance in attached and separated flows…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to conduct, a detailed investigation of various Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models to study their performance in attached and separated flows. The turbulent flow over two airfoils, namely, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)-0012 and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) MS(1)-0317 with a static stall setup at a Reynolds number of 6 million, is chosen to investigate these models. The pre-stall and post-stall regions, which are in the range of angles of attack 0°–20°, are simulated.

Design/methodology/approach

RANS turbulence models with the Boussinesq approximation are the most commonly used cost-effective models for engineering flows. Four RANS models are considered to predict the static stall of two airfoils: Spalart–Allmaras (SA), Menter’s kω shear stress transport (SST), k – kL and SA-Bas Cakmakcioglu modified (BCM) transition model. All the simulations are performed on an in-house unstructured-grid compressible flow solver.

Findings

All the turbulence models considered predicted the lift and drag coefficients in good agreement with experimental data for both airfoils in the attached pre-stall region. For the NACA-0012 airfoil, all models except the SA-BCM over-predicted the stall angle by 2°, whereas SA-BCM failed to predict stall. For the NASA MS(1)-0317 airfoil, all models predicted the lift and drag coefficients accurately for attached flow. But the first three models showed even further delayed stall, whereas SA-BCM again did not predict stall.

Originality/value

The numerical results at high Re obtained from this work, especially that of the NASA MS(1)-0317, are new to the literature in the knowledge of the authors. This paper highlights the inability of RANS models to predict the stall phenomenon and suggests a need for improvement in modeling flow physics in near- and post-stall flows.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 20 December 2019

Nikhil Kalkote, Ashutosh Kumar, Ashwani Assam and Vinayak Eswaran

The purpose of this paper is to study the predictability of the recently proposed length scale-based two-equation k-kL model for external aerodynamic flows such as those…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the predictability of the recently proposed length scale-based two-equation k-kL model for external aerodynamic flows such as those also encountered in the high-lift devices.

Design/methodology/approach

The two-equation k-kL model solves the transport equations of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and the product of TKE and the integral length scale to obtain the effect of turbulence on the mean flow field. In theory, the use of governing equation for length scale (kL) along with the TKE promises applicability in a wide range of applications in both free-shear and wall-bounded flows with eddy-resolving capability.

Findings

The model is implemented in the in-house unstructured grid computational fluid dynamics solver to investigate its performance for airfoils in difficult-to-predict situations, including stalling and separation. The numerical findings show the good capability of the model in handling the complex flow physics in the external aerodynamic computations.

Originality/value

The model performance is studied for stationary turbulent external aerodynamic flows, using five different airfoils, including two multi-element airfoils in high-lift configurations which, in the knowledge of the authors, have not been simulated with k-kL model until now.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Ashwani Assam, Nikhil Kalkote, Nishanth Dongari and Vinayak Eswaran

Accurate prediction of temperature and heat is crucial for the design of various nano/micro devices in engineering. Recently, investigation has been carried out for…

Abstract

Purpose

Accurate prediction of temperature and heat is crucial for the design of various nano/micro devices in engineering. Recently, investigation has been carried out for calculating the heat flux of gas flow using the concept of sliding friction because of the slip velocity at the surface. The purpose of this study is to exetend the concept of sliding friction for various types of nano/micro flows.

Design/methodology/approach

A new type of Smoluchowski temperature jump considering the viscous heat generation (sliding friction) has recently been proposed (Le and Vu, 2016b) as an alternative jump condition for the prediction of the surface gas temperature at solid interfaces for high-speed non-equilibrium gas flows. This paper investigated the proposed jump condition for the nano/microflows which has not been done earlier using four cases: 90° bend microchannel pressure-driven flow, nanochannel backward facing step with a pressure-driven flow, nanoscale flat plate and NACA 0012 micro-airfoil. The results are compared with the available direct simulation Monte Carlo results. Also, this paper has demonstrated low-speed preconditioned density-based algorithm for the rarefied gas flows. The algorithm captured even very low Mach numbers of 2.12 × 10−5.

Findings

Based on this study, this paper concludes that the effect of inclusion of sliding friction in improving the thermodynamic prediction is case-dependent. It is shown that its performance depends not only on the slip velocity at the surface but also on the mean free path of the gas molecule and the shear stress at the surface. A pressure jump condition was used along with the new temperature jump condition and it has been found to often improve the prediction of surface flow properties significantly.

Originality/value

This paper extends the concept of using sliding friction at the wall for micro/nano flows. The pressure jump condition was used which has been generally ignored by researchers and has been found to often improve the prediction of surface flow properties. Different flow properties have been studied at the wall apart from only temperature and heat flux, which was not done earlier.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Vivek Kumar Tiwary, Arunkumar P. and Vinayak R. Malik

Three-dimensional (3D) printing, one of the important technological pillars of Industry 4.0, is changing the landscape of future manufacturing. However, the limited build…

Abstract

Purpose

Three-dimensional (3D) printing, one of the important technological pillars of Industry 4.0, is changing the landscape of future manufacturing. However, the limited build volume of a commercially available 3D printer is one inherent constraint, which holds its acceptability by the manufacturing business leaders. This paper aims to address the issue by presenting a novel classification of the possible ways by which 3D-printed parts can be joined or welded to achieve a bigger-sized component.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-step literature review is performed. The first section deals with the past and present research studies related to adhesive bonding, mechanical interlocking, fastening and big area additive manufacturing of 3D printed thermoplastics. In the second section, the literature searches were focused on retrieving details related to the welding of 3D printed parts, specifically related to friction stir welding, friction (spin) welding, microwave and ultrasonic welding.

Findings

The key findings of this review study comprise the present up-to-date research developments, pros, cons, critical challenges and the future research directions related to each of the joining/welding techniques. After reading this study, a better understanding of how and which joining/welding technique to be applied to obtain a bigger volume 3D printed component will be acquired.

Practical implications

The study provides a realistic approach for the joining of 3D printed parts made by the fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique.

Originality/value

This is the first literature review related to joining or welding of FDM-3D printed parts helping the 3D printing fraternity and researchers, thus increasing the acceptability of low-cost FDM printers by the manufacturing business leaders.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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