The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of user gender, celebrity gender, and celebrity-user gender congruity on celebrity personality-user personality (CP-UP…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of user gender, celebrity gender, and celebrity-user gender congruity on celebrity personality-user personality (CP-UP) congruity, and consequently, brand purchase intention (BPI). Additionally, it delves into the mediating roles of CP-UP congruity and brand personality-celebrity personality (BP-CP) congruity.
A survey research entailing a sample of 709 adult consumers was used to test the framed hypotheses by means of a structural equation modelling.
The results indicate that while celebrity and user gender have a significant positive effect on CP-UP congruity, celebrity-user gender congruity has a negative effect. The study shows a partial mediation of CP-UP congruity in the relationship between gender congruity and BP-CP congruity. Furthermore, BP-CP congruity is shown to have a full mediation effect on the relationship between CP-UP congruity and BPI.
Consistency of the results of this study may be corroborated by employing other methods to estimate congruity scores. Also, the results of the present study may not be generalisable across different product classes with varied consumer involvement.
The findings have major implications for practitioners in understanding the significance of BP-CP congruity among celebrity-user-brand in the formation of purchasing intentions. The results of the study suggest a better CP-UP congruity when the gender of the celebrity is opposite to the gender of the user. This result questions the generalisability of the similarity theory that exhorts a prospect’s customary identification with a spokesperson of her/his own sex and further reinforces the selectivity hypothesis that indicates different information processing of males and females while they make judgements. Therefore, it might be a good idea for advertisers targeting female audiences to employ male celebrities in certain endorsements.
This is the first study that tests for the mediation effect of CP-UP congruity in the relationship between gender congruity and BP-CP congruity, and that of BP-CP congruity in the relationship between CP-UP congruity and BPI.
The purpose of this paper is to link crowdsourcing, operations management (OM) and project management (PM). The study demonstrates how crowdsourcing as an open innovation…
The purpose of this paper is to link crowdsourcing, operations management (OM) and project management (PM). The study demonstrates how crowdsourcing as an open innovation mechanism is operationalised within a complex PM context. Specifically, the study seeks to understand how crowdsourcing as a novel form of OM improves key outcomes.
The authors conducted exploratory research involving five pure-play crowdsourcing firms based in the USA and Australia.
The findings indicate that the firms practise a form of crowdsourcing that allows flexible, efficient and low risk operations and links to contemporary notions of PM such as projectification and project society. The crowd can be used in a new manner to boost success factors tied to PM through open innovation and operational novelty. In terms of OM, crowdsourcing offers flexibility, speed, dynamism and scalability to project processes.
This research is based on five case studies. Further fine-grained, longitudinal research is required to fully understand this phenomenon in a wider range of contexts.
The paper contributes to practices tied to open innovation and provides guidance on how organisations might use large crowds to enhance PM success.
The study represents early scholarship on crowdsourcing and project operations. It makes three contributions. First, the authors introduce a new theoretical framework linking PM and novel aspects of crowdsourcing to extend understandings of projectification, as well as open innovation frameworks. Second, the authors showcase the flexibility and fluidity of the crowdsourcing project process. Third, the authors examine crowdsourcing operations in terms of size, efficiency and scalability which results in timely and efficient output due to innovative technology, along with the element of trust among stakeholders.
From a pedagogical point, the case may fulfill following objectives: First, to understand Vodafone’s position in the current environment. Does the environment present the elements that are necessary for them to thrive (as analyzed using a PESTEL framework)? Second, to understand the resources needed to build competitive advantage in an emerging market context (as analyzed using the Porter five forces model); and third, to understand the competitive challenges of conducting business in a highly (and sometimes capriciously) regulated industry.
The Indian Telecommunication sector is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. There are nine telecom operators who are pioneering this growth; however, five private companies: Bharti, Idea, Reliance, Aircel and Vodafone make up 78.86 per cent of the market. These five companies have the opportunity to increase their market share by expanding the services provided to rural India; however, the Indian Tax Authorities have caused some hesitation. Aside from being known as heavy handed and unpredictable, the authorities have also demanded that Vodafone pay them billions in taxes. These court cases have challenged the way that other telecom operators look at investing. The arrival of Reliance Jio as a new player in the Indian wireless space with deep pockets has not helped the already fierce competitive landscape. Reliance Jio is forcing all wireless companies including Vodafone to reevaluate their India strategy.
Complexity academic level
This case could be used in both MBA and executive education programs.
Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email email@example.com to request teaching notes.
CSS 11: Strategy.