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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2018

Vighneswara Swamy

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the macroeconomic significance of transaction costs in microfinance intermediation and explain how the deposit mobilization and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the macroeconomic significance of transaction costs in microfinance intermediation and explain how the deposit mobilization and micro lending impact the microfinance transaction costs. It presents some empirical evidence as building blocks for the theory of financial intermediation that aims at strengthening the efficiency of financial intermediation in the context of preferential credit and or the microfinance sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the panel data consisting of different groups of banks in India (such as public sector banks, private banks and foreign banks) data across a period from March 1993 to March 2009 to estimate the panel VAR model to determine the determinants of transaction cost model in financial intermediation. The study also uses the panel Granger causality analysis to test the direction of causation to know the behavior of the operating expense of the banks in their financial intermediation process.

Findings

The study reveals that there is a positive direct relationship between operating expense and priority sector lending by banks. The findings show that the transaction costs act as a barrier for the banking firms in microfinance intermediation; and, the banks are able to manage the transaction costs of microfinance intermediation with an increase in overall deposit mobilization and increased non-microfinance lending. The study recommends that there is a need to upscale the functional efficiency of microfinance intermediaries.

Originality/value

This study offers to bridge the research gap and adds novel information to the literature on microfinance intermediation. It is the first empirical paper showing the macroeconomic significance of transaction costs in microfinance intermediation.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 15 December 2020

Vighneswara Swamy

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the new capital requirements under the Basel III framework on bank lending rates.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the new capital requirements under the Basel III framework on bank lending rates.

Design/methodology/approach

By constructing a stylized representative bank's financial statements, the authors show that the higher cost associated with a 1-percentage increase in the capital ratio can be recovered by increasing the bank lending rate.

Findings

The results indicate that in the case of scheduled commercial banks, a 1-percentage-point increase in the capital ratio can be recovered by a commensurate increase in the bank lending rate by 16 basis points and would go up to an extent of 94 basis points for a 6-percentage point increase assuming that the risk-weighted assets are unchanged.

Practical implications

The results assume significance as the estimations for the scenarios of changes in risk-weighted assets change in return on equity and the cost of debt. Given the enormous significance of the impact of Basel III on banks, this research outcome benefits the practitioners in the industry and researchers.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on bank regulation and risk management with a newer and topical approach for quantification of the impacts of new regulatory standards. Another contribution of this study is that it considers three different groupings of banks: (1) scheduled commercial banks; (2) public sector banks and (3) private banks in Indian banking. This is the first of its kind in the context of studying Indian banking.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2020

Vighneswara Swamy

The significant economic weight of the Eurozone in the globe caused the contagion of the Eurozone debt crisis on the emerging markets. The Eurozone debt crisis caused the…

Abstract

Purpose

The significant economic weight of the Eurozone in the globe caused the contagion of the Eurozone debt crisis on the emerging markets. The Eurozone debt crisis caused the sudden plummeting of the cross-border bank credit (BC) to India causing a significant impact on bank lending in India. Essentially, the purpose of this study is to find an answer to the question: Did the decline in cross-border cross-credit from Eurozone had an impact on domestic BC in India?

Design/methodology/approach

Using the data for the period from 2000 to 2013 sourced from Bank for International Settlements international banking statistics consolidated data sets, the novel specification of the study captures the impact of Eurozone cross-border credit on India by developing two regression frameworks that capture the pre-Euro debt crisis period scenario and post-Euro debt crisis period scenario.

Findings

The results offer a very interesting analogy of the behavior of BC and cross-border credit during the pre and post-Eurozone crisis scenarios of analysis. During the pre-Eurozone crisis period, cross-border credit displayed a significant negative relationship with BC indicating that cross-border credit to the Indian firms indirectly benefitted the banks by creating increased demand for domestic BC. The post-Eurozone crisis period witnessed a nexus between cross-border credit and BC during the pre-Eurozone crisis period, which gradually disappeared largely because of the onset of the Eurozone crisis.

Originality/value

This study is a first of its kind in investigating the impact of the Eurozone crisis on an emerging economy like India. This study supports the hypothesis of the existence of the transmission of financial shocks through the balance sheets of international banks. The findings conform to the policy concerns of most of the emerging economies that international banks transmit financial shocks from their home countries. The implication for India and other emerging economies is that international credit growth deserves careful monitoring.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Vighneswara Swamy

This paper aims to assess the topography of financial regulation, supervisory styles and performance of banking systems across the world.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the topography of financial regulation, supervisory styles and performance of banking systems across the world.

Design/methodology/approach

The author gains insights by comparing regulatory and supervisory practices and their impact on banking system performance before and after the global crisis. The study illustrates the differences in regulation/supervision among crisis, non-crisis and BRICS countries. Even as capital ratios increased, bank governance and supervision regimes were strengthened, the private sector incentives to monitor banks deteriorated.

Findings

The results show that the crisis-countries had weaker regulatory and supervisory frameworks than those in emerging countries during the crisis period. BRICS countries as a distinct block have demonstrated uniqueness in their regulatory/supervisory styles that are similar neither to those in the crisis-countries nor to those in the non-crisis countries.

Originality/value

The originality of this study lies in its unique approach to assessing the bank regulation and supervision styles around the world and their impact on banking system profitability, as it uses a robust database. Further, this study provides not only a general assessment but also a comparative analysis of the BRICS and emerging economies. Regulatory agencies around the world would greatly benefit from systematic evidence on the relationship between bank performance and regulatory/supervisory systems.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2019

Vighneswara Swamy and Munusamy Dharani

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the investor attention using the Google search volume index (GSVI) can be used to forecast stock returns. The authors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the investor attention using the Google search volume index (GSVI) can be used to forecast stock returns. The authors also find the answer to whether the “price pressure hypothesis” would hold true for the Indian stock market.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ a more recent fully balanced panel data for the period from July 2012 to Jun 2017 (260 weeks) of observations for companies of NIFTY 50 of the National Stock Exchange in the Indian stock market. The authors are motivated by Tetlock (2007) and Bijl et al. (2016) to employ regression approach of econometric estimation.

Findings

The authors find that high Google search volumes lead to positive returns. More precisely, the high Google search volumes predict positive and significant returns in the subsequent fourth and fifth weeks. The GSVI performs as an useful predictor of the direction as well as the magnitude of the excess returns. The higher quantiles of the GSVI have corresponding higher excess returns. The authors notice that the domestic investor searches are correlated with higher excess returns than the worldwide investor searches. The findings imply that the signals from the search volume data could be of help in the construction of profitable trading strategies.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors knowledge, no paper has examined the relationship between Google search intensity and stock-trading behavior in the Indian stock market. The authors use a more recent data for the period from 2012 to 2017 to investigate whether search query data on company names can be used to predict weekly stock returns for individual firms. This study complements the prior studies by investigating the relationship between search intensity and stock-trading behavior in the Indian stock market.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Vighneswara Swamy

The purpose of this study is to provide an econometric modeling of demand for bank credit and not only offer useful insights to the decision-makers in the public and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide an econometric modeling of demand for bank credit and not only offer useful insights to the decision-makers in the public and private sector but also support researchers and analysts in recognizing the determinants of lending in a major dynamic economic context.

Design/methodology/approach

This study addresses the “supply-versus-demand-puzzle” by using a demand relationship and model loan demand as a function of interest rates and economic activity that may also capture supply effects. Loan demand modeled as a function of interest rates and economic activity not only represents a demand relationship but also captures supply effects. Using the generalized methods of moments estimation, the estimations are made robust to heteroskedasticity and/or autocorrelation of unknown form. GMM–Time series (HAC) option extends the robustness by using the weighting matrix that is robust to the contemporaneous correlation of unknown form to the autocorrelation of unknown form.

Findings

In a bank-dominated financial system like India, lending rates play a significant role in the transmission of monetary policy, as well as triggering and controlling loan demand and thereby exercising a pervasive effect on the output in the economy. The estimates indicate that the elasticity of loan demand is largely determined by the lending rate (0.6) and the economic activity (0.688). For one percentage point increase in capital ratio, the loan spread would rise by 31.4 basis points, which in turn would cause an increase of 18.8 basis points in loan demand assuming that risk-weighted assets are unchanged.

Originality/value

This is the first of its kind studying a banking system dominated emerging economy. Second, this study is based on a rich data set covering the period from 1979 to 2012, than other papers did, to capture the long-run association involving credit booms and busts and, thus, helps in avoiding the problem of estimation spanning the dominance of either boom or the bust alone. With a newer approach for quantification of the impacts of new regulatory standards, this study offers novel insights for the estimation of lending spreads.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2013

Vighneswara Swamy

The Eurozone debt crisis has indeed jeopardized the recovery plans put in place post global crisis by regulators, policymakers, and the sovereigns. Though the crisis is…

Abstract

The Eurozone debt crisis has indeed jeopardized the recovery plans put in place post global crisis by regulators, policymakers, and the sovereigns. Though the crisis is epicentered in the Eurozone, the knock-on effects of the crisis are felt all across the globe. The emerging and developing economies (EDEs) are also expected to post lower growth on account of worsening external environment and a weakening internal demand. This chapter analyzes the causes for sovereign debt crisis, presents the implications of sovereign debt crises, and draws lessons for banking sectors more particularly in the context of emerging markets like that of India.

Details

Global Banking, Financial Markets and Crises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-170-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Vighneswara Swamy

This study aims to investigate the inter-relatedness and the dynamics of banking stability measures and offers answers for some of the related issues such as does…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the inter-relatedness and the dynamics of banking stability measures and offers answers for some of the related issues such as does financial stability require the soundness of banking institutions, the stability of markets, the absence of turbulence and low volatility? and to what extent the soundness of banking sector in the case of emerging economies can help financial system stability.

Design/methodology/approach

This study investigates banking stability by structuring a recursive micro panel vector auto regressive (VAR) model and corroborates the significance of the interrelatedness of the bank-specific variables such as liquidity, asset quality, capital adequacy and profitability by employing a robust panel data drawn from 56 leading banks for a period of 12 years.

Findings

A significant contribution of this study is in establishing that liquidity in the banking-dominated financial system is reciprocally related with asset quality, capital adequacy, and profitability of the banking system and in effectively forecasting banking stability employing micro panel recursive VAR model.

Research limitations/implications

The study could be further broadened by employing a macro and structural VAR modelling to forecast banking stability.

Practical implications

This paper is one among the evolving body of literature that underscores the significant relationship between banking system resilience and financial stability in the context of emerging economies dominated with banking systems. Further, the forecast model is able to capture the dynamics of banking stability with greater and appreciable accuracy.

Originality/value

The uniqueness of the study is in modelling banking stability measures in the context of banking-dominated emerging economy financial systems by employing micro panel recursive VAR model by deriving data from 58 leading banks for the period of 12 years from 1996 to 2009 and in offering insights in understanding financial stability with comprehensive literature review.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Vighneswara Swamy and Dharani M

The global demand for food is expected to increase by 60 percent by 2050 when the world’s population reaches 9.1 billion. To meet this challenge significant investment in…

Abstract

Purpose

The global demand for food is expected to increase by 60 percent by 2050 when the world’s population reaches 9.1 billion. To meet this challenge significant investment in the agricultural sector is required to embrace innovative financing mechanisms that can benefit sustainable agricultural development, food security and nutrition. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the agricultural value chain (AVC) financing approaches and tools in India. It presents a proper understanding of the different case studies of Indian AVC financing models and related instruments. It also offers some useful recommendations to improve their efficiency.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ the multiple case studies approach to research which allows for a purposive sample and the potential for generalizability of findings. This provides a more rigorous and inclusive approach than a single case study research due to the triangulation of evidence. Subsequently, the authors offer an explicit description of AVC financing models. In the next phase, a thorough assessment of these models is made. Finally, the authors formulate some useful policy recommendations based on the findings of the analysis.

Findings

There is a need to review the value chain models that exist in the context of – lead actors, business model and sustainability strategy. Determining actual and critical points of finance such as the current flows of funds and their sources of financing, what is needed and in what point in time is significant to enhance the effectiveness of the models. Further, there is a need to analyze and compare financing options such as their relative strengths, risks and costs of financing for each level of participant in the chain. The authors observe that rather than investing in one component of the chain, the financial institution can grow expertise in the chain, share this knowledge and provide financing to support services. This not only benefits clients, but also expands lending opportunities while lowering the risks.

Research limitations/implications

The study primarily focusses on AVC financing approaches and tools in India and attempts to analyze the inadequacies in the value chain models. The case study approach is adopted as the accurate data on value chain financing are not available for the analysis.

Practical implications

The study has come out with the following policy recommendations: the governments (union government as well as state governments) – in partnership with the private sector need to spearhead and develop measures aimed at making the operation of the value chain efficient, fair, profitable and sustainable; governments have to focus on creating an enabling policy and regulatory environment and, providing the necessary support services in order to attract more investments. These will lower the transaction costs, facilitate the smooth flow of finance along the chain and ultimately increase value-added; financing for processing and marketing is particularly crucial for growth and expansion of the chain; bank finance should not be limited to short-term production loans, but also include big-ticket loans with longer maturities to finance investments in farming equipment and machinery, transportation, storage, mills and other processing/post-harvest facilities.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind as it is based on a multiple case studies approach in understanding and analyzing the efficiency and effectiveness of AVC financing models in India by evaluating eight of such models. Besides, it offers quite useful policy recommendations to improve their efficiency.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 76 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2013

Abstract

Details

Global Banking, Financial Markets and Crises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-170-0

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