The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the association between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the development of carer…
The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the association between behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and the development of carer burden. Although this association has been well established in the literature, it is not clear whether there are individual symptoms or clusters of symptoms that are particularly burdensome for carers.
A systematic review of the available literature was carried out to determine whether any specific symptom or cluster of symptoms was most closely associated with carer burden. In addition, the categorisation of behavioural symptoms, conceptualisations of burden and methods of measurement used were examined and quality of the studies appraised.
A total of 21 studies measured the association between at least one individual symptom or symptom cluster and carer burden, with all studies finding at least one symptom to be significantly associated with burden. The majority of studies were of fair to good quality. However, there was considerable heterogeneity in focus, analysis, recruitment and measurement of behaviour and burden.
Symptoms, which were found to be significantly associated with carer burden, were aggression/agitation, frontal systems behaviour, disinhibition, disrupted eating and sleeping behaviour, unusual motor behaviour, anxiety and psychotic symptoms. However, because of the heterogeneity of studies, there was insufficient evidence to establish whether any symptoms are more important than others in the development of carer burden. Future focus on clarifying the dimensions of carer burden and the mechanisms by which BPSD impact negatively on carers could inform the development of effective interventions.
The purpose of this paper is to advise the Library sector about the existence of a new approach to internal communications, in the form of an intranet which delivers…
The purpose of this paper is to advise the Library sector about the existence of a new approach to internal communications, in the form of an intranet which delivers “fresh news daily”, similar in format to a major online newspaper.
In 2007, and prior to the launch of its redeveloped intranet, the State Library of Victoria revolutionised its internal communications with the introduction of The Fridge – a new, online, daily news service. A small icon – in the shape of a fridge – was posted on the desktop of every Library staff member.
Today, The Fridge has become a widely used and highly trusted Library tool. It has demonstrated an enhanced commitment to “real‐time” employee communication through the ability to deliver fresh news and important information daily. It has demonstrably increased morale, productivity, performance and retention of valued staff, and has played a key role in quantifiably lifting the operating “climate” of the workplace. It has helped to build a stronger workplace community.
Because of its “real‐time” capabilities, The Fridge is used as an internal market research tool. It has been used to gauge employee opinions and feelings on a range of subjects, the responses to which can be fed back within hours.
Recent Fridge research has asked staff for their opinions on a range of topics, including their favoured subjects for future articles. The Fridge is used daily by the CEO and Executive to pass on critically important information about the organization, thus avoiding the dreaded “everyone” e‐mails. The Fridge is also used to post daily updates on current events and “What's on” activities.
This paper introduces a revolutionary and unique new approach in internal communications to Libraries, with the ability to transform internal communications.
The Food Hygiene (General) Regulations, 1970, when they first appeared, seem to have attracted more notice in the daily press than in the specialist journals, although, while re‐enacting much that was in the 1960 regulations, which they repeal, the new measures break new and important ground, as well as introducing a number of amending provisions, which experience has shown were needed. We tend to associate hygiene needs of food and drink with the thronging streets of the city and town, the hidden backrooms of restaurants, the bustling market and the mobile food van, which, in this motorized age, has ousted the bawling backstreet hucksterer.
In light of the continuing political violence in Zimbabwe since 1980, the major aim of this article is to evaluate the benefits of mediation in resolving politically…
In light of the continuing political violence in Zimbabwe since 1980, the major aim of this article is to evaluate the benefits of mediation in resolving politically motivated conflicts in Zimbabwe and Africa at large. Since the 1980s, Zimbabwe has found itself in a web of political violence with little mediation efforts devised to stop the suffering. The paper believes that mediation can have far reaching outcomes in bringing stability to countries burdened by politically motivated violence. The African Union and regional organisations have the capacity to resolve various conflicts burdening the continent, provided realistic mechanisms are put in place to avoid the recurrence of conflicts and/or wars in Africa.
The paper uses a combination of both primary and secondary sources to substantiate the argument advanced herein. Archival material from the National Archives of Zimbabwe helps to exemplify the political antagonisms which existed after independence, thereby giving a fuller picture of events leading to Gukurahundi. Additionally, secondary material is beneficial in highlighting the political conflicts affecting Zimbabwe after independence. Newspapers play an important part in revealing the challenges of South African mediation in Zimbabwe. In addition, newspapers elucidate the urgent need for SADC to establish a conflict resolution organ for the successful settlement of disputes in the region.
The paper reveals how the realisation by the southern African region on the deteriorating political and economic situation in Zimbabwe led to the appointment of Thabo Mbeki in 2007 to restore peace and stability in the country. More so, the paper analyses the challenges of South African mediation in Zimbabwe. In that context, the article suggests pragmatic strategies and tactics which should be put in place for mediation to yield effective results in Zimbabwe and the continent at large.
The paper provides deep insights into the merits of the strategy of mediation in an attempt to curb political violence in African countries. Policy makers will find the paper useful as the continent looks forward to promote sustainable development.