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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

## Matrix representation of ideas: stimulating creativity using matrix Algebra

The purpose of this paper is to present a fresh approach to stimulate individual creativity. It introduces a mathematical representation for creative ideas, six creativity…

238

### Abstract

#### Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a fresh approach to stimulate individual creativity. It introduces a mathematical representation for creative ideas, six creativity operators and methods of matrix-algebra to evaluate, improve and stimulate creative ideas. Creativity begins with ideas to resolve a problem or tackle an opportunity. By definition, a creative idea must be simultaneously novel and useful. To inject analytic rigor into these concepts of creative ideas, the author introduces a feature-attribute matrix-construct to represent ideas, creativity operators that use ideas as operands and methods of matrix algebra. It is demonstrated that it is now possible to analytically and quantitatively evaluate the intensity of the variables that make an idea more, equal or less, creative than another. The six creativity operators are illustrated with detailed multi-disciplinary real-world examples. The mathematics and working principles of each creativity operator are discussed.

#### Design/methodology/approach

The unit of analysis is ideas, not theory. Ideas are man-made artifacts. They are represented by an original feature-attribute matrix construct. Using matrix algebra, idea matrices can be manipulated to improve their creative intensity, which are now quantitatively measurable. Unlike atoms and cute rabbits, creative ideas, do not occur in nature. Only people can conceive and develop creative ideas for embodiment in physical, non-physical forms, or in a mix of both. For example, as widgets, abstract theorems, business processes, symphonies, organization structures, and so on. The feature-attribute matrix construct is used to represent novelty and usefulness. The multiplicative product of these two matrices forms the creativity matrix. Six creativity operators and matrix algebra are introduced to stimulate and measure creative ideas. Creativity operators use idea matrices as operands. Uses of the six operators are demonstrated using multi-disciplinary real-world examples. Metrics for novelty, usefulness and creativity are in ratio scales, grounded on the Weber–Fechner Law. This law is about persons’ ability to discern differences in the intensity of stimuli.

#### Findings

Ideas are represented using feature-attribute matrices. This construct is used to represent novel, useful and creative ideas with more clarity and precision than before. Using matrices, it is shown how to unambiguously and clearly represent creative ideas endowed with novelty and usefulness. It is shown that using matrix algebra, on idea matrices, makes it possible to analyze multi-disciplinary, real-world cases of creative ideas, with clarity and discriminatory power, to uncover insights about novelty and usefulness. Idea-matrices and the methods of matrix algebra have strong explanatory and predictive power. Using of matrix algebra and eigenvalue analyses, of idea-matrices, it is demonstrated how to quantitatively rank ideas, features and attributes of creative ideas. Matrix methods operationalize and quantitatively measure creativity, novelty and usefulness. The specific elementary variables that characterize creativity, novelty and usefulness factors, can now be quantitatively ranked. Creativity, novelty and usefulness factors are not considered as monolithic, irreducible factors, vague “lumpy” qualitative factors, but as explicit sets of elementary, specific and measurable variables in ratio scales. This significantly improves the acuity and discriminatory power in the analyses of creative ideas. The feature-attribute matrix approach and its matrix operators are conceptually consistent and complementary with key extant theories engineering design and creativity.

#### Originality/value

First to define and specify ideas as feature-attribute matrices. It is demonstrated that creative ideas, novel ideas and useful ideas can be analytically and unambiguously specified and measured for creativity. It is significant that verbose qualitative narratives will no longer be the exclusive means to specify creative ideas. Rather, qualitative narratives will be used to complement the matrix specifications of creative ideas. First to specify six creativity operators enabling matrix algebra to operate on idea-matrices as operands to generate new ideas. This capability informs and guides a person’s intuition. The myth and dependency, on non-repeatable or non-reproducible serendipity, flashes of “eureka” moments or divine inspiration, can now be vacated. Though their existence cannot be ruled out. First to specify matrix algebra and eigen-value methods of quantitative analyses of feature-attribute matrices to rank the importance of elementary variables that characterize factors of novelty, usefulness and creativity. Use of verbose qualitative narratives of novelty, usefulness and creativity as monolithic “lumpy” factors can now be vacated. Such lumpy narratives risk being ambiguous, imprecise, unreliable and non-reproducible, Analytic and quantitative methods are more reliable and consistent. First to define and specify a method of “attacking the negatives” to systematically pinpoint the improvements of an idea’s novelty, usefulness and creativity. This procedure informs and methodically guides the improvements of deficient ideas.

### Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

### Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

## Data, information, knowledge and intelligence: The mega-nano hypothesis and its implications in innovation

This paper is about data, information, knowledge and judgment; their definitions and their parallel cognitive dimensionalities; and it is about their implications in…

954

### Abstract

#### Purpose

This paper is about data, information, knowledge and judgment; their definitions and their parallel cognitive dimensionalities; and it is about their implications in innovation. This paper aims to discuss and illustrate the implications of this cognitive framework on innovation science and on the ability to innovate. To that end, the authors use a progression of examples and cases to identify and discuss new challenges and predicaments in innovation.

#### Design/methodology/approach

The authors discuss how the development of Chemistry, as a science, inspires this work. But the authors have purposely eschewed examples from mathematics or the natural sciences. Instead, the authors study business examples because they are more readily understood. However, the implications they reveal, on innovation, are no less significant. The explosive volume, complexity and requirements – for data, information, knowledge and intelligence in business – are arguably more messy, demanding and difficult. They are sociotechnical problems of unprecedented scale and qualitative change.

#### Findings

The authors frame their conclusion as the mega-nano hypothesis, which asserts that problems, at this new scale and qualitative difference, cannot be solved with conventional thinking and tired mental models. They obstruct the ability to innovate and impede creative thinking about theory.

#### Originality/value

The mega-nano hypothesis is consistent with historical trajectories in scientific development. Namely, when there are mega or nano changes of scale and frame-breaking phenomena, a new science is required to address the new and unprecedented problems that emerge.

### Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

### Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2021

## Prelims

### Details

Entrepreneurial Orientation: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Empirical Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-572-1

Article
Publication date: 23 June 2021

## Which resource acquisition acts drive growth of informal firms? Evidence from Zambia

The study seeks to differentiate informal firms with high-growth prospects by their resource acquisition acts and to improve identification of growth-oriented informal…

169

### Abstract

#### Purpose

The study seeks to differentiate informal firms with high-growth prospects by their resource acquisition acts and to improve identification of growth-oriented informal firms for effective design and targeting of support measures.

#### Design/methodology/approach

An original set of firm-level data was collected using face-to-face survey in Lusaka, Zambia. Six clearly defined criteria were used to sample informal firms, apart from general informal business. Regression analyses were conducted to test the association of different resource acquisition acts with two growth dimensions: number of employees and business earnings of the 325 informal firms sampled.

#### Findings

Accessing clientele beyond local market, linking up with formal businesses and acquiring information and knowledge via online sources were found influential to growth in business earnings. Surprising, acquisition of finance and skills showed no effect. Employment expansion, though widely used, may not be a stable indicator of informal firm growth.

#### Research limitations/implications

The study highlights the relevance of the emerging entrepreneurship perspective to understanding the topic. It cautions against pre-setting a size threshold for sampling informal firms and against relying on employment expansion as the sole proxy of growth.

#### Practical implications

The findings prompt a rethink of the effectiveness of conventional support programmes to drive growth of informal firms such as funding and training. Directing support measures to target growth-oriented informal firms will lead to creation of decent and sustainable jobs and formalisation.

#### Originality/value

With an original firm-level dataset, the study challenges a long-held assumption that growth of informal firm is negligible and shows that segments of informal firms are sustainable and could attain significant growth and derives new insights into researching and supporting informal firm growth.

### Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

### Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 January 2022

## Development of a photomicroscope method for in situ damage monitoring under ultrasonic fatigue test

Mechanical issues related to the information and growth of small cracks are considered to play a major role in very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) for metallic materials…

151

### Abstract

#### Purpose

Mechanical issues related to the information and growth of small cracks are considered to play a major role in very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) for metallic materials. Further efforts on better understanding in early stage of a crack are beneficial to estimating and preventing catastrophic damage for a long period service.

#### Design/methodology/approach

Dependent on the ultrasonic loading system, a novel method of in situ photomicroscope is established to study the crack behaviors in VHCF regime.

#### Findings

This in situ photomicroscope method provides advantages in combination with fatigue damage monitoring at high magnification, a large number of cycles, and efficiency. Visional investigation with attached image proceeding code proves that the method has high resolution on both size and time, which permits reliable accuracy on small crack growth rate. It is observed that the crack propagation trends slower in the overall small crack stage down to the level of 10–11 m/cycle. Strain analysis relays on a real-time recording which is applied by using digital image correlation. Infrared camera recording indicates the method is also suitable for thermodynamic study while growth of damage.

#### Originality/value

Benefiting from this method, it is more convenient and efficient to study the short crack propagation in VHCF regime.

### Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

### Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2022

## A systematic review of work–family enrichment in the hospitality industry

This study aims to systematically review the work–family enrichment (WFE) studies in hospitality and tourism management and provide insight into the patterns and trends of…

400

### Abstract

#### Purpose

This study aims to systematically review the work–family enrichment (WFE) studies in hospitality and tourism management and provide insight into the patterns and trends of WFE literature to practitioners and future researchers.

#### Design/methodology/approach

This study design followed the guidelines of preferred reporting items of systematic reviews and meta-analysis. A final sample of 23 studies related to WFE that published from 2000 to 2021 was selected and systematically analyzed.

#### Findings

This study resulted in a framework that the antecedents and outcomes of WFE at the organizational, job and individual levels. Moderators between antecedents and outcomes were also identified. Theories such as conservation of resources theory, boundary theory, role theory and expansion theory were frequently applied in the investigation of WFE.

#### Research limitations/implications

This study generated a framework that illustrates the organization characteristics, the job characteristics and individual factors that have examined in hospitality literature on the topic of WFE. This study also pointed out theories that have been used in investigating WFE. However, this systematic review may subject to publication bias and number of reviewed articles remained relatively small.

#### Practical implications

This study provides suggestions on how hospitality operators could use internal marketing strategies and certain leadership styles (e.g. transformational and servant leaderships) to enhance employees’ WFE.

#### Originality/value

This study summarized the publication trends and patterns of the WFE studies in hospitality and tourism management in the past two decades, which provides suggestions for future scholars to further explore this research topic.

### Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

### Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

## Ethical climate, organizational‐professional conflict and organizational commitment: A study of Chinese auditors

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the effects of the ethical climate in Chinese certified public accounting (CPA) firms on auditors' perceptions of…

4138

### Abstract

#### Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the effects of the ethical climate in Chinese certified public accounting (CPA) firms on auditors' perceptions of organizational‐professional conflict (OPC) and affective organizational commitment (OC). We also test for differences in the perceived ethical climates of local and international CPA firms.

#### Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a survey of 167 professional auditors (seniors and managers) employed by local and international CPA firms operating in the People's Republic of China.

#### Findings

Certain dimensions of the perceived ethical climate are significantly related to OPC, and to affective OC. As anticipated, there was also a strong negative relationship between OPC and OC. There was no clear pattern of differences in the perceived ethical climates in local and international CPA firms. Impression management was highly correlated with OPC, OC, and three of four ethical climate dimensions, suggesting that Chinese auditors bias their reports of these variables in a socially desirable fashion.

#### Originality/value

To our knowledge, this is the first study to address the relationship between ethical climate and OPC, and the first to examine OPC and OC among auditors in Mainland China. The findings support our contention that the perceived ethical climate is a key determinant of OPC, suggesting that future research on OPC should place more emphasis on organizational characteristics. In addition, the apparent tendency of auditors to bias their reports of OPC, OC, and ethical climate stresses the importance of controlling for social desirability response bias in surveys of professional accountants.

### Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

### Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

## A cross-cultural test of vroom’s expectancy motivation framework: an australian and a malaysian company in the beauty care industry

This study assessed the relevance of Vroom’s expectancy motivational framework in a cross-cultural context. Differences in attitudes for task investment, preferences for…

390

### Abstract

This study assessed the relevance of Vroom’s expectancy motivational framework in a cross-cultural context. Differences in attitudes for task investment, preferences for work related achievements, and the reward potential of outcomes was assessedwith Australians and Malaysians who were employed in similar work contexts of the beauty care industry. Reasons why the Australian employees reported significantly higher job motivation than the Malaysian respondents were identified by examining the three main components of expectancy, instrumentality and valence, of Vroom’s framework. The study findings are discussed in terms of the implications they have for the necessary organizational development with Australians and Malaysians who were employed in similar work contexts of the beauty care industry. Reasons why the Australian employees reported significantly higher job motivation than the Malaysian respondents were identified by examining the three main components of expectancy, instrumentality and valence, of Vroom's framework. The study findings are discussed in terms of the implications they have for the necessary organizational development of businesses in the competitive Asia-Pacific region.

### Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 4 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2020

## Spare the rod and spoil the child? A study on employee workplace deviant behavior

In the background of the post-financial crisis era and the transition of China’s economic development, the frequent occurrence of workplace deviant behavior in the…

593

### Abstract

#### Purpose

In the background of the post-financial crisis era and the transition of China’s economic development, the frequent occurrence of workplace deviant behavior in the economic field, such as stealing and bribery, caused a huge impact on the enterprise. In recent years, the deviant behavior of employees has been increased noticeably. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of paternalistic leadership on employee deviant behavior in workplace. To have a deep understanding of the relationship between paternalistic leadership and employee deviant behavior, the author’s design rule-oriented ethical climate and self-interest-oriented ethical climate as two mediators in this research model.

#### Design/methodology/approach

Based on social learning theory and stressor-emotion model, this study conducts an investigation of influence mechanism between paternalistic leadership and workplace deviant behavior. Time-lagged data was collected from 226 employees from six cities in China. To test the hypothesis that the authors developed in this paper, the authors use empirical models from the existing literature about paternalistic leadership on employee deviant behavior. They establish multiple linear regressions to test the hypotheses.

#### Findings

This study reveals the direct effect of authoritarian leadership on employee deviant behavior and the moderated roles of benevolent leadership and moral leadership, also analysis the mediated mechanism of self-interest-oriented ethical climate and rule-oriented ethical climate. The results show that the higher the degree of authority leaders show in the organization, the easier to stimulate workplace deviance of employee, self-interest-oriented ethical climate and rule-oriented ethical climate play mediated role between authoritarian leadership and workplace deviant behavior. The interaction of benevolent leadership and moral leadership with authoritarian leadership can weaken the self-interest-oriented ethical climate but has nothing to do with rule-oriented ethical climate.

#### Originality/value

This study has three main contributions to the previous literature. First, this study explores the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employee workplace deviance, which could enrich the research on these negative behaviors in the Chinese context. Second, this study unpacks the “black box” in which authoritarian leadership influences employee workplace deviant behavior. Third, this study further examines the impacts of different combinations of the three factors of paternalistic leadership.

### Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

### Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 February 2019

## Relationship between human resource management practices, ethical climates and organizational performance, the missing link: An empirical analysis

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of human resource management (HRM) practices, (recruitment and selection) and organizational performance (OP…

20520

### Abstract

#### Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of human resource management (HRM) practices, (recruitment and selection) and organizational performance (OP) through mediation role of ethical climates (ECs) in Nigerian educational agencies.

#### Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative data were collected from 181 educational agencies represented by director of administration; SmartPLS-SEM was used in testing the relationship, as well as testing the mediating effect of ECs.

#### Findings

The results revealed strong support for the mediating role of ECs on the relationship between HRM practice (recruitment and selection) and OP.

#### Research limitations/implications

Policy makers and executives in educational agencies need to consider making appropriate decision in terms of effectively adopt and implement performance-based HRM practices that can encourage and create ethical behavior of employees’ and within organization. Through the adoption and utilization of these practices, educational agencies can enhance OP.

#### Practical implications

This study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between HRM and OP by clarifying a pathway between these variables. This study also generalizes consistent findings on the HRM practices and OP relationship to a different discipline and context, i.e. educational agencies.

#### Originality/value

This study adds to the domain of resource-based view by incorporating EC as a mediator between HRM practices and OP.

### Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

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