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The purpose of this paper is to examine food safety behaviors of consumers and employees at university food courts.
The purpose of this paper is to examine food safety behaviors of consumers and employees at university food courts.
Using a smartphone-based observation technique, a total of 149 consumers and 34 employees were observed at three food courts at a mid-western university in the USA. The observational tool recorded 30 sequential transactions of each individual, allowing researchers to identify the compliance rate to the rubric. Both descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance were used for data analysis.
This study found a low compliance rate of food safety practices among consumers and employees at university food courts. Consumers’ food safety practices varied depending on gender, observed ethnicity and party size, while none of those factors was significant for employees. Specifically, females, Caucasians, and lone diners showed higher non-compliance rates than those of males, non-Caucasians and group diners.
The results of the study raise the pressing needs of developing effective risk communication strategies at university food courts for both consumers and employees in order to reduce the potential risk of foodborne illness outbreaks.
University food courts are not only major foodservice operations for on-campus populations as well as off-campus visitors and the local public, but also the presence of shared dining area pertains the potential risk of foodborne illnesses. However, lack of attention has been paid to the food safety issues at university food courts, and especially food safety behaviors of consumers. This study extended the knowledge of previous food safety literature by adopting a smartphone-based observation technique and developing a rubric customized for consumers and employees at university food courts.
This chapter reconsiders commonly held views on the ownership and management of private property, contrasting capitalist and simple property, particularly in relation to…
This chapter reconsiders commonly held views on the ownership and management of private property, contrasting capitalist and simple property, particularly in relation to how a firm shareholder governance model has shaped society. This consideration is motivated by the scale and scope of the modern global crisis, which has combined financial, economic, social and cultural dimensions to produce world disenchantment.
By contrasting an exchange value standpoint with a use value perspective, this chapter explicates current conditions in which neither the state nor the market prevail in organising economic activity (i.e. cooperative forms of governance and community-created brand value).
This chapter offers recommendations related to formalised conditions for collective action and definitions of common guiding principles that can facilitate new expressions of the principles of coordination. Such behaviours can support the development of common resources, which then should lead to a re-appropriation of the world.
It is necessary to think of enterprises outside a company or firm context when reflecting on the end purpose and means of collective, citizen action. From a methodological standpoint, current approaches or studies that view an enterprise as an organisation, without differentiating it from a company, create a deadlock in relation to entrepreneurial collective action. The absence of a legal definition of enterprise reduces understanding and evaluations of its performance to simply the performance by a company. The implicit shift thus facilitates the assimilation of one with the other, in a funnel effect that reduces collective projects to the sole projects of capital providers.
Because forsaking society as it stands is a radical response, this historical moment makes it necessary to revisit the ideals on which modern societies build, including the philosophy of freedom for all. This utopian concept has produced an ideology that is limited by capitalist notions of private property.
The study of markets encompasses a number of disciplines – including anthropology, economics, history, and sociology – and a larger number of theoretical frameworks (see…
The study of markets encompasses a number of disciplines – including anthropology, economics, history, and sociology – and a larger number of theoretical frameworks (see Plattner, 1989; Reddy, 1984; Smelser & Swedberg, 1994). Despite this disciplinary and theoretical diversity, scholarship on markets tends toward either realist or constructionist accounts (Dobbin, 1994; Dowd & Dobbin, forthcoming).1 Realist accounts treat markets as extant arenas that mostly (or should) conform to a singular ideal-type. Realists thus take the existence of markets as given and examine factors that supposedly shape all markets in a similar fashion. When explaining market outcomes, they tout such factors as competition, demand, and technology; moreover, they can treat the impact of these factors as little influenced by context. Constructionist accounts treat markets as emergent arenas that result in a remarkable variety of types. They problematize the existence of markets and examine how contextual factors contribute to this variety. When explaining market outcomes, some show that social relations and/or cultural assumptions found in a particular setting can qualify the impact of competition (Uzzi, 1997), demand (Peiss, 1998), and technology (Fischer, 1992). Constructionists thus stress the contingent, rather than universal, processes that shape markets.
Drawing on institutional logics theory, this paper aims to examine the determinants of entrepreneurs’ planning behavior in the first years of 212 Spanish new firms…
Drawing on institutional logics theory, this paper aims to examine the determinants of entrepreneurs’ planning behavior in the first years of 212 Spanish new firms. Additionally, this study identifies four different planning profiles: systematic planner, early planner, late planner and non-planner.
This study’s data structure is a (yearly) pooled cross-sectional time series. This paper investigates the determinants of planning behaviors among entrepreneurs, as well as the impact of that activity on new firm performance (i.e. employment growth).
The results confirm the relevance of institutional forces in explaining the involvement of founders of new firms upon planning activities. Institutional factors, in the form of public external support seem to explain early- and systematic-planner behavior while the influence of entrepreneurial family background does so with late-planner behavior.
The authors focus their attention on two key moments of a new venture’ life: the first year of operation and once the firm has overcome the four-year hurdle that is often used to distinguish new from established businesses. Four different patterns emerge: systematic planner (those who consistently plan over time), early planner (those who engage in planning activities in the early moments of the firm’s life but not later), late planner (those who do not plan at the beginning but end up conducting planning activities a few years later) and non-planner (those who never get involved in planning activities). This new division is an interesting additional feature of this study.
Utilizando la teoría de lógica institucional, el presente artículo analiza los factores determinantes del comportamiento planificador de los emprendedores durante los primeros años de operaciones, por lo que se refiere a sus negocios. A tal efecto, identificamos cuatro perfiles planificadores: sistemático, temprano, demorado y no-planificador.
A partir de una muestra de 201 emprendedores españoles se examinan los determinantes del comportamiento planificador y el efecto subsecuente en el desempeño de las empresas.
Los resultados de este artículo ponen de relieve la importancia de las fuerzas institucionales, a la hora de explicar la involucración de éstos en cuanto a la planificación de actividades se refiere. Por un lado, factores institucionales en forma de apoyo público, tienden a explicar el comportamiento del planificador temprano y sistemático, mientras que la influencia del contexto familiar definiría el modo de actuar del planificador-demorado. Asimismo, en este artículo se analiza el impacto de los diferentes perfiles planificadores en el desempeño del crecimiento de empleo de las empresas.
El presente artículo intenta examinar de manera inédita el comportamiento planificador de los emprendedores usando la teoría de lógica institucional. Además, los resultados sugieren que planificar aporta un efecto positivo en el desempeño de las iniciativas emprendedoras.
Tendo por base teórica as lógicas institucionais, este estudo analisa as estratégias de planeamento de empreendedores e seus determinantes nos primeiros anos de atividade. Adicionalmente, identificamos quatro perfis diferentes dependo do tipo de planeamento feito pelo empreendedor: planeador sistemático, planeador antecipado, planeador demorado, e não-planeador.
Com base numa amostra de 201 empreendedores Espanhóis, examinamos os determinantes de comportamentos de planeamento dos empreendedores e os seus impactos no desempenho das empresas.
Os resultados confirmam a relevância de forças institucionais na explicação do envolvimento de fundadores de novas empresas em atividades de planeamento. Fatores institucionais, sob a forma de apoio externo público, parecem explicar comportamentos de planeamento antecipado e sistemático, enquanto que a influência do contexto familiar do empreendedor tende a explicar planeamentos mais demorados. O estudo também analisa o impacto destes perfis de planeamento no desempenho das novas empresas (i.e., crescimento do emprego).
O presente artigo tenciona examinar de uma forma inédita o comportamento de planeamento dos empreendedores com base na teoria da lógica institucional. Adicionalmente, os resultados sugerem que planear tem um efeito positivo no desempenho das iniciativas empreendedoras.
- New ventures
- Venture growth
- Institutional logics
- Nuevas empresas
- Crecimiento empresarial
- Lógicas institucionales
- Novas empresas
- Crescimento dos negócios
- Lógicas institucionais
- Planejamento de pesquisa
In this paper, we offer insights that combine a network perspective of the multinational company (MNC) with an analysis of different types of interdependencies. We develop…
In this paper, we offer insights that combine a network perspective of the multinational company (MNC) with an analysis of different types of interdependencies. We develop and illustrate our arguments with a company case (LIMO) and argue that types of interdependencies have consequences for the orchestration of MNC activities. The experience from LIMO suggests that extreme organizational designs, where orchestration is either purely local or mostly global, fail to capture the nuances necessary to ensure efficiency and profitability. The main theoretical contribution in this paper is to show that the search for orchestration through an organizational design must involve the combination of several perspectives of activity combinations and their interdependencies. Simply optimizing through a tight network or looking at the firm as a loose federation is too simple to understand the complex trade-off facing modern MNCs.
This study examines the relationship between management compensation, earnings and cash flows. The preponderance of prior research reveals a substantial correlation…
This study examines the relationship between management compensation, earnings and cash flows. The preponderance of prior research reveals a substantial correlation between total earnings and compensation. However, the popular press indicates that many firms have switched to less traditional methods of awarding executive compensation. For example, Chrysler Corporation now bases substantial compensation on quality control in manufacturing while First Chicago bases compensation on the minimizing of loan losses. Because of their relatively high debt levels in the late 1980s, some firms are stressing cash flows in designing compensation plans. For example, the New York Times [2/25/90, p.29 in Section 3] reports that RJR Nabisco Inc. uses cash flows to compute the bonus pool while The Wall Street Journal [4/18/90, p. R26] indicates that board of directors often dump income‐based fixed compensation formulas in favor of performance goals such as cash flows. From a normative viewpoint, Holmstrom's  analysis suggests that a performance evaluation scheme based on multiple signals is superior to one that is based on a single signal, provided the additional signals incorporate new information. Given these anecdotal reports indicating cash‐flow based compensation and the implications of existing theory, we explore the role of cash flows and working capital from operations in addition to total reported earnings in determining managerial compensation.
The meteoric rise of the Internet has left information science researchers struggling to keep pace, so that much discussion about the phenomenon has been based on…
The meteoric rise of the Internet has left information science researchers struggling to keep pace, so that much discussion about the phenomenon has been based on assumption, anecdote and sheer hype. This paper reports on a major British Library funded project seeking hard evidence as to what is really happening in the information landscape, with the media being a case study. Discussed here are results pertaining to user characteristics, with particular reference to age. Contrary to received wisdom, it is the old, more experienced journalist pioneering Internet use, rather than the stereotypical young computer whiz kids. Several factors are emerging, including information needs characteristics, job security, Internet access, experience with online systems and, for senior managers, economic implications. The wider context is considered, such as early adoption generally of technological innovations, and evidence suggests that the newsroom environment may be characteristic of a general pattern of end‐user Internet adoption.
The idea of biculturalism or multiculturalism has come into sharper focus due to changing intra-national and international demographic shifts, expanding global economic markets, and persistent ethnic and religious warfare across many continents. These global political, cultural, and economic dynamics have forced us to deal with two intensely reverberating, and conflicting, cultural themes and tradition that threaten to unravel many social and political units deemed heretofore strong and unbreakable. One tradition supports and justifies a monocultural view of the world. This perspective asserts that a nation-state functions best when it is defined and controlled by one dominate cultural framework. The logic and justification for such a view is mirrored in the history and philosophy of societies and nation states which have waged relentless wars of conquest; in such wars, victors have attained and often maintained both political power and cultural hegemony over the defeated. Whether the initial causes of warfare were grounded in disputes over religious differences, land disputes, control of the seas, or overseas colonies, the reality is the victory of one nation or society over another would result in the submergence and subservience of one culture over another, as reflected in the victor's religion, language, political system, etc. The laws and rules of conquest and defeat reverberate throughout human history and whether in Africa, Asia, Europe, or North and South America and are deeply rooted in human, tribal, and clan differences. The various religions have historically justified the conquest by their zealots over non-believers, but it is only in recent history that a new and devastating logic was proffered to justify the domination of one group over another. The combination of European colonialism and imperialism, aided by the scientism of Social Darwinism and the nationalistic ideas of Manifest Destiny gave support to the ideals of White supremacy. Despite subtle political and religious differences between Western nations what they held in common was the belief that they represented the destiny of world civilization, and thus had an obligation to conquer the “uncivilized” world in order to save and perpetuate Western values and ideals. Thus, the growth and evolution of European and American social, political, economic and religious history and thought was not one in which conquering countries and groups sought to “understand” the conquered, nor would it be predicated on any cultural equality, or cultural equivalency between the victors and the vanquished. For example, in the United States the colonial government and the young republic fought Native Americans, the French, Spain (twice), the British (twice), then Mexico, for cultural, political, economic, and social hegemony over what is currently the landmass of the United States.