Previous research warns against low-fit extensions as prone to causing negative spillover and, through it, harming the parent brand equity. Using the theory of…
Previous research warns against low-fit extensions as prone to causing negative spillover and, through it, harming the parent brand equity. Using the theory of schema-triggered affect and the link formation hypothesis, the purpose of this paper is to develop and tests predictions as to how negative spillover from low-fit extensions can be actively managed through repeated ad exposure.
A controlled experiment assesses the response of US consumers to the Dutch Heineken brand, a top 100 global brand, following sequential and repeated exposure to print ads depicting extensions for either Heineken wheat beer (i.e. a high-fit extension) or Heineken pretzels (i.e. a low-fit extension). Analytical methods include multiple regression, ANOVA, and t-tests.
The findings show that repeated ad exposure has a positive moderating effect on the magnitude of spillover from extension to brand. Second, the findings also show that repeated ad exposure changes the valence of spillover from low-fit extension to brand from negative to positive. In combination, the findings suggest that low-fit brand extensions can, when carefully managed, be a viable strategic option for market growth that is especially relevant for global brands.
This research shows that repeated ad exposure can change the valence of spillover from low-fit extensions to the parent brand from negative to positive. Future research should extend the work by considering other brands and alternative tools that managers can use to make low-fit extensions a viable strategic choice.
This study finds, in contrast to previous research, that managers should indeed consider low-fit brand extensions as a viable strategic option for brand growth. This is possible because the findings show that repeated ad exposure can be used to control potential negative spillover from a low-fit extension to parent brand. This conclusion is particularly relevant for global brands, i.e. brands for which the opportunity costs of limiting global expansion and the financial investment necessary to establish a new brand with global appeal are substantial.
This paper differs from other spillover studies by manipulating repeated ad exposure, a mechanism which the authors theoretically link to spillover and which managers can also directly influence. In doing so, this paper offers a theoretical explanation and an empirical test of how negative spillover from low-fit extensions can be managed.
This paper aims to document changes in values of young Indian consumers over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Given increases in per-capita income and living standards…
This paper aims to document changes in values of young Indian consumers over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Given increases in per-capita income and living standards and, particularly, the tremendous increase in exposure to global products and ideals via media advertising, and greater one-to-one interaction with Americans and other English-speaking people from individualistic cultures (India has over 250 million Internet users who communicate in the English language), it was proposed that young Indian consumers would adopt values associated with self-enhancement and individualism, forsaking self-transcendence-related ideals such as benevolence and universalism.
Data pertaining to the Rokeach value scale (RVS) were collected in New Delhi in 2004 and 2014 and tested using MANOVA.
The results strongly support the contentions, save a couple of surprises. Implications of this dramatic change in values in a relatively short period are discussed from a marketing perspective.
This is the first paper that empirically measures changing consumer values in India.
Stadium naming rights programs have proliferated over the past decade, yet we have no direct evidence that these types of sponsorship programs help companies develop their…
Stadium naming rights programs have proliferated over the past decade, yet we have no direct evidence that these types of sponsorship programs help companies develop their long-term brand equity or even provide a short-term boost to corporate value. This paper examines the impact that naming rights programs have had on the stock values of the corporate sponsors. Using event study analysis, it is found that there are mixed responses to these types of programs. A discussion is provided which helps to explain the mixed results and provides communications mangers with some suggestions on creating more effective naming rights programs.
Too many microcomputers have been purchased by librarians as a panacea to operational problems only to end up collecting dust in an office because the plan to automate was not carefully developed. This results in disappointment, project failure, and wasted money and time. The first step when considering automation is to determine your objectives. The important question any library manager should ask when considering automating is “Why automate?” Library management should understand the reasons for automating, what can be accomplished by automating, and what costs are involved.
Libraries generate voluminous quantities of paperwork producing overdue notices, bibliographies, letters, memorandums, reports, budgets and contracts as well as brochures…
Libraries generate voluminous quantities of paperwork producing overdue notices, bibliographies, letters, memorandums, reports, budgets and contracts as well as brochures and newsletters. At the same time the cost of communicating via paper has risen exponentially. As an example, in the 1930's, it cost $.50 to produce a basic business letter using a typewriter. By the early 1980s that figure had risen to over $6. In 1986 it cost more than $8 to produce the same letter. Charges for outside text composition and printing have experienced similar increases.
When selecting library management software it is very important to develop a thorough acquaintance with what is available and to know what questions to ask. But, no matter…
When selecting library management software it is very important to develop a thorough acquaintance with what is available and to know what questions to ask. But, no matter how much you finally know about the range of library management software available in today's market, you cannot properly apply that knowledge towards making a cost‐effective purchase until you have a clear idea of the proportions of your library's automation project. Correctly matching a software system to the functions to be automated requires careful analysis of the information necessary to perform each function and the flow of information between them. Developing a function profile form (see page 42) is an easy method of gathering and organizing this information. The three‐part form allows librarians to clearly identify who needs the information, when and how often the information is accessed on the computer, the kinds of formats used, and the specific data required to perform a given task.
As more and more library management software appears on the market, selecting the best computer programs to automate library functions has become increasingly difficult…
As more and more library management software appears on the market, selecting the best computer programs to automate library functions has become increasingly difficult. Each type of program has its own advantages and disadvantages; some have a broad range of applications, but may be too complex or difficult for routine use. Others are designed to perform specific tasks, but cannot be readily modified to meet the needs of an individual department. Warranties, training requirements, and backup policies differ considerably, depending on which program you choose and which company manufactures it. Since library automation can be an expensive prospect, it is well worth the time and energy to develop a thorough acquaintance with what's available—and to know what questions to ask. Your final software decision will determine the productivity, efficiency, and cost‐effectiveness of your library automation project.
Purpose – This study examines whether or not holding a greater percentage of real assets significantly impacts the risk and risk‐adjusted return of U.S. based…
Purpose – This study examines whether or not holding a greater percentage of real assets significantly impacts the risk and risk‐adjusted return of U.S. based multinational companies. Design/methodology/approach – A series of rolling Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS) regression models are used to analyse the relationships among corporate real assets, systematic risk (beta), and risk‐adjusted return. Findings – The results of this study show that U.S. based multinational companies do have lower betas. However, U.S. based multinational companies’ cross border real asset holdings do not affect diversification and do not provide significantly higher risk‐adjusted returns to stockholders. Originality/value – This study builds upon the prior work of Seiler, Chatrath and Webb to consider multinational firms. This had never been done previously.