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Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disabilities (RD) is greater than what would occur by chance. Considering the well-documented…
Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and reading disabilities (RD) is greater than what would occur by chance. Considering the well-documented adverse impact of both ADHD and RD on development, the presence of both conditions may lead to particularly poor outcomes for affected people. This chapter, which reviews 43 research studies carried out in the last decade that have focused on the link between ADHD and RD, is divided into two broad nuclei of contents. First, studies are described that contribute information about characteristics of the comorbid phenotype. Second, studies related to procedures directed toward evaluation and intervention in this problem are analyzed. The review carried out does not make it possible to extract definitive results on the exact nature of ADHD and RD comorbidity or, even less, reach conclusions about its causes. However, the literature-based evidence shows a cognitive profile of ADHD+RD characterized by failure of various functions that can produce more severe functional deficits and worse neuropsychological, academic, and behavioral outcomes. Furthermore, the analysis of the set of results from the studies shows a limited efficacy of pharmacological and psychopedagogical treatments, and highlights the need for continued research on this topic. From a clinical and educational standpoint, the conclusions derived from this review underline the importance of performing an exhaustive evaluation of children and adolescents with symptoms of ADHD and/or RD, in order to be able to plan interventions with greater possibilities of success in each case.
In observational data, access to information is associated with lower levels of corruption. This chapter reviews a small but growing body of work that uses field…
In observational data, access to information is associated with lower levels of corruption. This chapter reviews a small but growing body of work that uses field experiments to explore the mechanisms behind this relationship. We present a typology for understanding this research based on the type of corruption being addressed (political vs. bureaucratic), the mechanism for accountability (retrospective vs. prospective), and the nature of the information provided (factual vs. prescriptive). We describe some of the tradeoffs involved in design decisions for such experiments and suggest directions for future research.
We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of…
We present a critical literature review debating Brazilian research on social and environmental accounting (SEA). The aim of this study is to understand the role of politics in the construction of hegemonies in SEA research in Brazil. In particular, we examine the role of hegemony in relation to the co-option of SEA literature and sustainability in the Brazilian context by the logic of development for economic growth in emerging economies. The methodological approach adopts a post-structural perspective that reflects Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory. The study employs a hermeneutical, rhetorical approach to understand and classify 352 Brazilian research articles on SEA. We employ Brown and Fraser’s (2006) categorizations of SEA literature to help in our analysis: the business case, the stakeholder–accountability approach, and the critical case. We argue that the business case is prominent in Brazilian studies. Second-stage analysis suggests that the major themes under discussion include measurement, consulting, and descriptive approach. We argue that these themes illustrate the degree of influence of the hegemonic politics relevant to emerging economics, as these themes predominantly concern economic growth and a capitalist context. This paper discusses trends and practices in the Brazilian literature on SEA and argues that the focus means that SEA avoids critical debates of the role of capitalist logics in an emerging economy concerning sustainability. We urge the Brazilian academy to understand the implications of its reifying agenda and engage, counter-hegemonically, in a social and political agenda beyond the hegemonic support of a particular set of capitalist interests.
The university is changing. Its social role is growing in diversity and complexity. In a knowledge-based society, there is a huge public expectation in the results and…
The university is changing. Its social role is growing in diversity and complexity. In a knowledge-based society, there is a huge public expectation in the results and impacts of the university’s activities. Its traditional roles – training and qualification of individuals and production of new knowledge – are no longer valid. As a result of university–industry interactions, policy-making began to give additional significance to the role of the university in regional development, mainly motivated by shining examples of success in transferring scientific knowledge to valuable innovation, many through academic entrepreneurship. This change in the role of the university is reflected not only in the mode of knowledge production, which became more transdisciplinary and applied, but also in the active engagement of different institutional spheres, the university, the firm, the government, and end-users, creating new hybrid and overlapping areas for the governance of innovative dynamics. This chapter defines and analyses the position of the university in contemporary society as a socially legitimised institution for the production of knowledge and innovation. Three different theoretical traditions – Actor–Network Theory, Stakeholder Theory and territorial innovation models – inspire the analysis of 15 in-depth interviews with key actors in their local innovation system and knowledge networks around the University of Huelva (Andalusia, Spain). The main conclusions suggest that the university today faces a huge challenge in responding to the expectations that society places on it.
The digital divide is a concern, as the inequality of information access might have significant influences on social development and quality of life. The purpose of this…
The digital divide is a concern, as the inequality of information access might have significant influences on social development and quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceived benefit of Digital Opportunity Centers (DOCs) programs on remote area participants from the perspective of computer anxiety and personal information ability.
The Taiwanese Government has built DOCs in remote areas to provide information technology (IT) training and learning programs to citizens residing in these areas. DOC program participants in Taiwan voluntarily completed a self-report questionnaire; the authors received 2,105 completed questionnaires, with a response rate of 84.2 percent. This research used partial least-squares (PLS) to empirical the research model.
Using PLS, the results show that information and communication technology ability influences the perceived benefit of DOC programs; computer anxiety has significantly negative effects on package software use, internet use, and IT usefulness; and internet use and IT usefulness have positive effects on perceived benefits.
IT is continuously advancing, but digital resources are still lacking within remote areas. DOCs provide citizens different types of learning experiences related to economic, social, and educational development. DOC programs provide participants with opportunities to obtain and improve basic IT knowledge and abilities and decreasing the digital divide.
The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns of project risk management (PRM) practices’ adoption, and provides empirical evidence concerning the importance (and key…
The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns of project risk management (PRM) practices’ adoption, and provides empirical evidence concerning the importance (and key attributes) of organizational PRM maturity to the use of risk-related practices and project performance.
The research involved two phases: interviews with five project managers, and a worldwide survey of project managers that resulted in the analysis of 865 valid questionnaire responses. Cluster analysis was used to classify PRM practices’ use, factor analysis to detect the structure of the relationship between the variables measuring PRM practices’ use and a multiple regression analysis (with canonical correlation) to further reveal the different degrees to which PRM practices and organizational maturity are associated.
The identified patterns of risk practices’ adoption indicate that different contexts of organization PRM maturity and project complexity influence practices selection. The PRM practices related with targets (e.g. time-phased budget plan) are the most used, and those related to tools and techniques (e.g. S-curve) are the least used. Additionally, the obtained results confirm that organizational PRM maturity influences risk practices’ usage, moderated by project complexity, and organizational PRM maturity influences project performance.
Empirical methods were used to investigate the relationship between organizational PRM maturity and a large set of PRM practices with project complexity as a moderator. Gaps in the use of PRM practices (i.e. areas where more PRM knowledge and training are needed) were identified. Finally, this work identifies the attributes of organizational maturity with implications in practices’ usage and project performance.