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1 – 10 of over 5000
Article
Publication date: 25 January 2008

Martin Hingley, Valeria Sodano and Adam Lindgreen

The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to review the literature in order to assess the opportunities and the possible welfare effects of differentiation strategies…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to review the literature in order to assess the opportunities and the possible welfare effects of differentiation strategies in the food market; and second, to analyse the current structure and organisation of the fresh produce market (fruit, vegetable, and salad) in the light of new product procurement, innovation, and differentiation policies carried out by retailers at the global level.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper used a single dyadic case study across two countries (Italy and the UK): the primary producer is engaged in “partner” supply to a principal category management intermediary for channel leading multiple retailers.

Findings

First, equilibrium in differentiated markets is not stable, and a welfare assessment is difficult. Second, a differentiation strategy in the market for fresh produce might benefit retailers more than in other sectors, which seem to be consistent with the theoretical findings. Third, when retailers engage in product differentiation it is more likely that channel relationships shift from collaborative to competitive types, with the power imbalance becoming the disciplinary means by which vertical coordination is achieved and maintained.

Research limitations/implications

This article was based on a single case study.

Practical implications

For suppliers it could be wise to agree to some inequity as the cost of doing business, especially when smart large retailers carry out successfully competitive strategies with positive spill‐over effects on the upstream firms.

Originality/value

Using the industrial economic literature on the effects of differentiation strategies (horizontal and vertical differentiation) on market structure, firms' performance, and welfare effects, this paper analyses case findings from a study in the fresh produce industry and will be of interest to those within the field.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 110 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Hanyu Xiao

This study aims to describe the general picture of the competition in multichannel expert services in duopoly market and discuss how the quality difference may affects the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to describe the general picture of the competition in multichannel expert services in duopoly market and discuss how the quality difference may affects the competition between service providers with different quality levels, where both providers offer face-to-face channel and one of providers offers online channel additionally and service quality that consumers have heterogeneous preferences for is vertically differentiated. These results can be used to determine which service providers should offer online expert services and understand the competition in multichannel expert services in duopoly.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the stylized vertical differentiation model to investigate the role of quality in expert services market, assuming that two services providers offer the same services with different quality levels and one of them having additional online services. Taking into account the differences of services from products and the particularity of online service, this paper extends the vertical differentiation model to expert services market.

Findings

The quality difference is the key factor in the competition of expert services. Service prices and the profits of providers, independent of the quality levels, are positively related to the quality difference, whereas the demand of online services is in the opposite direction regardless of which provider offers online channel. It demonstrates that provider with low-quality level should open online channel from the point of view of social welfare if it is closely related to the expert services, even though any provider can make more profits by opening online channel.

Research limitations/implications

This extended vertical differentiation model, taking into account the importance of vertical differentiation in expert service, ignores the horizontal differentiation. More accurate strategies for multichannel expert services providers with what level of the quality a provider should offer is needed in future work. Moreover, this paper does not consider the different waiting costs of consumers in face-to-face channel and assumes that their problem will be solved eventually.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, no study has focused on the quality difference in multichannel expert services market or discussed how to offer online expert services in the duopoly market. This study extends the vertical differentiation model to the multichannel expert service market. Therefore, it fills this research gap and extends research to expert services market in the new network environment, aiming to help understand the competition in multichannel expert services.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2007

M. Begoña Lloria

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the analysis of the influence of organizational design variables on the creation of knowledge within the organization. The impact…

1857

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the analysis of the influence of organizational design variables on the creation of knowledge within the organization. The impact that enablers have on knowledge creation has been widely demonstrated and established in the relevant literature. Using this assumption as a starting‐point, the main aim of this study is to consider and explore the role of differentiation – horizontal and vertical – in knowledge creation using enablers as mediator variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper has created a model of relations of the design variables that correspond to differentiation – horizontal job specialization, vertical job specialization and number of hierarchical levels; the enablers – autonomy, redundancy and variety; and knowledge creation. This model is then contrasted with an empirical investigation of a quantitative nature, using a sample of 167 large Spanish firms.

Findings

The findings in the paper confirm both the impact of enablers on knowledge creation, as defined in the literature, and the fact that vertical specialization is shown to be a suitable design variable for creating knowledge through the autonomy enabler. However, the relation between the horizontal specialization of work and the number of hierarchical levels is not confirmed as being significant in terms of knowledge creation.

Research limitations/implications

This paper considers the main limitation of this research to be that the questionnaire was answered by only one respondent, which forced one to consider the outcomes of this research with a certain degree of caution.

Practical implications

The results in the paper may be relevant for managers in decision making with regard to organizational design. Herein, reference is made to variables relative to job design and the number of hierarchical levels.

Originality/value

The value of this paper lies in two aspects. First, it overlaps two fields of research; organizational design and knowledge creation. Second, although there is a lot of literature on knowledge creation, there are very few empirical studies, especially of a quantitative nature.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 28 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Edward R. Maguire, Yeunhee Shin, Jihong “Solomon” Zhao and Kimberly D. Hassell

According to community policing advocates, police agencies should implement a variety of important organizational changes. These changes are supposed to occur in a number…

2274

Abstract

According to community policing advocates, police agencies should implement a variety of important organizational changes. These changes are supposed to occur in a number of different substantive domains, including the culture, behavior, and structure of police organizations. This paper examines the evidence for change in just one of these domains: formal organizational structure. Based on concepts derived from organization theory, and using data from six different data sets, the paper explores whether the structures of US police organizations changed during the 1990s. Overall, it finds mixed evidence. Some changes have occurred in the direction encouraged by community policing reformers, some changes have occurred in the opposite direction, and some changes have not occurred at all.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Eugene A. Paoline and John J. Sloan

Descriptive analyses of campus police agencies reveal that agencies’ tactical and operational features are similar to those found in municipal agencies. The problem is…

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Abstract

Descriptive analyses of campus police agencies reveal that agencies’ tactical and operational features are similar to those found in municipal agencies. The problem is that none of these studies have examined, using multivariate models, the structural characteristics of these organizations. Using LEMAS data collected in 1995, this study answered two main questions: what are the organizational characteristics of campus police agencies; and what factors, both internal and external, explain variation in the structural dimensions of the agencies. The results indicated that campus police agencies possess the same structural characteristics of municipal police agencies identified by 40 years of police organizational research, and internal agency characteristics were most important in explaining variation in the organizations’ structural dimensions. The degree to which campus agencies have adopted organizational structures that are similar to those of municipal police is discussed and framed within an institutional perspective.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Alicia L. Jurek, Matthew C. Matusiak and Randa Embry Matusiak

The current research explores the structural elaboration of municipal American police organizations, specifically, the structural complexity of police organizations and…

Abstract

Purpose

The current research explores the structural elaboration of municipal American police organizations, specifically, the structural complexity of police organizations and its relationship to time. The purpose of this paper is to describe and test essential elements of the structural elaboration hypothesis.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors explore the structural elaboration hypothesis utilizing a sample of 219 large police departments across the USA. Data are drawn from multiple waves of the Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics survey and are analyzed using tobit and OLS regression techniques.

Findings

While there is some evidence that police departments are becoming more elaborate, little evidence for the structural elaboration hypothesis as a function of time is found.

Originality/value

This project is the first to specifically explore the structural elaboration hypothesis across multiple time points. Additionally, results highlight structural trends across a panel of large American police organizations and provide potential explanations for changes. Suggestions for large-scale policing data collection are also provided.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Marjolein A.G. van Offenbeek

Hospital managers are constantly confronted with capacity and continuity problems that tempt them to investigate the possibility of further job differentiation. In The…

855

Abstract

Hospital managers are constantly confronted with capacity and continuity problems that tempt them to investigate the possibility of further job differentiation. In The Netherlands, the hospital physician represents a new breed of physicians who are not oriented towards a medical specialism but towards a patient domain. The hospital physician represents a controversial kind of job differentiation that is expected to stimulate more continuity. This case study shows how medical specialists themselves are starting to address the fragmentation caused by specialization. According to the professionals involved, the hospital physician constitutes a solution that does not threaten their professional values. They report a number of ways in which this job type can contribute to solving the problems reported. However, concerns have been raised about the risks of developing these new jobs without changing the existing professional and work structures.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Hoan Thanh Phan and Young Ji Jeong

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the patterns and determinants of intra-industry trade (IIT) in manufactures between Korea and selected ASEAN…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the patterns and determinants of intra-industry trade (IIT) in manufactures between Korea and selected ASEAN countries in the period of 1997-2011.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of country-specific determinants of IIT in manufactures are examined using panel data approach.

Findings

The results show that the IIT of Korea-ASEAN manufactures is positively correlated with the average income levels and foreign direct investment inflow, while it is negatively correlated with the differences in factor endowments between Korea and selected partners. Overall, market size, income dissimilarity and factor endowments are indicated as most relevant determinants of IIT in manufactures between Korea and ASEAN countries.

Originality/value

Despites the importance of Korea-ASEAN IIT, studies on this subject are limited. This paper examines the pattern and determinants of IIT and its components in Korea-ASEAN manufactured trade. The paper also suggests the policy implications for the development of IIT between two parties.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 August 2017

Rómulo Pinheiro and Mitchell Young

This chapter provides an alternative conception of universities and the higher education systems in which they operate in an attempt to comprehend the ways in which such…

Abstract

This chapter provides an alternative conception of universities and the higher education systems in which they operate in an attempt to comprehend the ways in which such institutions and systems adapt and maintain themselves over time. Conceptually, it builds on complex systems theory, most notably critical insights from the study of complexity. We base our empirical analysis on developments across the European continent in the light of recent efforts to modernize university systems in the context of rising competition and pressures toward vertical and horizontal differentiation. We contrast two models of the university – strategic versus resilient – and critically reflect on the implications their differences have for the development of systems and universities and future research work in the area.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-222-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2021

Sherah L. Basham

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which community policing within campus law enforcement agencies is influenced by the organizational structure, agency…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which community policing within campus law enforcement agencies is influenced by the organizational structure, agency characteristics and campus characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilizes ordinary least squares regression modeling to examine community policing implementation. Data were drawn from a sample of 242 US colleges and universities included in the 2011–2012 Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Survey of Campus Law Enforcement Agencies (SCLEA).

Findings

Findings show that within-campus law enforcement agencies, greater levels of community policing are associated with more formalization, larger numbers of employees, a higher task scope and higher rates of on-campus property crime.

Research limitations/implications

Use of secondary data and reported crime rate limits the study. Future research should implement specialized surveys and qualitative methods to identify the specific needs and implementations of community policing.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the limited body of literature on the community policing in campus law enforcement through more recent data and the inclusion of campus community variables.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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