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Observes that supply chain management is a rapidly‐evolving subject which offers many insights into how industries are organized and into the efficiency gains which can be…
Observes that supply chain management is a rapidly‐evolving subject which offers many insights into how industries are organized and into the efficiency gains which can be made under different organizational structures, pointing out that it is an interdisciplinary concept, drawing on aspects of marketing, economics, logistics, organizational behaviour, etc. Presents a framework from the economics literature which may be useful for those interested in understanding and exploring the concept of supply chain management. Describes the origins and development of transaction cost analysis and explains the key concepts of the framework. Discusses the potential effects of transaction costs on vertical co‐ordination within an industry and, hence, on supply chain management. Finally, suggests methods for empiricizing transaction cost analysis, resulting in recommendations for closer co‐operation between researchers and business managers.
Closer vertical co‐ordination of supply chains is becoming a prevalent feature in the agri‐food sectors of many countries. Presents a framework within which to analyse…
Closer vertical co‐ordination of supply chains is becoming a prevalent feature in the agri‐food sectors of many countries. Presents a framework within which to analyse these changes. The framework links drivers for change to product characteristics, which in turn affect transaction characteristics and transaction costs, thereby leading to a change in vertical co‐ordination. A case study of the US grains industry provides an illustration of the framework. Implications for agricultural producers, producer groups and policy makers are discussed.
This paper analyses the media ownership of professional sports teams. The theory of vertical integration is used to identify internal efficiency gains, lower uncertainty…
This paper analyses the media ownership of professional sports teams. The theory of vertical integration is used to identify internal efficiency gains, lower uncertainty and increased market power as general explanations. The industryspecific reasons are examined, particularly the importance of securing access to broadcasting rights. The potential implications for teams, leagues and fans are discussed. It is suggested that media ownership of teams may undermine the sporting and financial viability of leagues thus necessitating intervention by sports administrators and government regulators.
The announcement in February 1997, that scientists at the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh and at PPL Therapeutics had successfully cloned a sheep from another adult sheep…
The announcement in February 1997, that scientists at the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh and at PPL Therapeutics had successfully cloned a sheep from another adult sheep raised many interesting questions. Ignoring the hotly debated and important ethical issues, this note explores the potential consequences of this breakthrough for vertical co‐ordination in meat supply chains. By reducing the biological variation inherent in animal production, cloning technology could allow the final quality of meat products to be linked more closely to managerial ability. It may result in closer contractual relationships between farmers, processors and retailers. This would bring with it, however, the problems of asset specificity and increased risks of opportunism for farmers if they invest in livestock with a specific genetic code for a single buyer. The purpose of this short paper is to raise interesting questions which bear further investigation rather than to offer definitive answers to these questions.
This case study describes the evolution of supply chain partnerships in the British beef industry, driven by changing consumer demand, food safety legislation, a…
This case study describes the evolution of supply chain partnerships in the British beef industry, driven by changing consumer demand, food safety legislation, a concentrated and highly competitive retail sector and the BSE crisis. The case examples demonstrate the importance of establishing trust in supply chain partnerships, breaking out of the spot trading environment which characterises commodity markets and focusing explicitly on value added initiatives as a source of differentiation and competitive advantage.
Looks at the concept of supply chain management, discussing the theory and its relevance to perishables distribution and marketing. Shows how supply chain management (SCM…
Looks at the concept of supply chain management, discussing the theory and its relevance to perishables distribution and marketing. Shows how supply chain management (SCM) moves on from neoclassical theories of the firm to a new paradigm for business where competition pits channel against channel, and where supply chain partners combine skills and resources which none of the participants would be able to achieve independently. Argues that a growing recognition of the competitive advantage that can be gained through improving co‐ordination in the supply chain is the starting point for SCM initiatives that are evolving in the fresh produce sector. Observes that the fruit and vegetable supply chain has traditionally been fragmented but the last decade has seen rapid structural change. Briefly analyses the results of a qualitative survey of several northern European markets, in context, to highlight the differing degrees of pipeline integration within each system.
The paper aims to focus on traceability as part of information management in the fruit supply chains of Emilia‐Romagna, Italy. A review of the rules in use for…
The paper aims to focus on traceability as part of information management in the fruit supply chains of Emilia‐Romagna, Italy. A review of the rules in use for traceability distinguishes between baseline traceability and traceability plus (T+), which encompasses many further embedded value attributes.
The paper takes the form of a qualitative study involving in‐depth interviews with key informants in the Italian fresh produce chain.
Findings are discussed in terms of different themes including identification of three distinct types of supply chains and the impact upon them and categorisation of traceability systems across the different chains. Identified are the impact of information systems management; purchasing management; product management transaction costs; and co‐ordination issues.
The study's findings are based on Italian fresh produce traceability context only.
Elements of competitive strategy are considered in the analysis of fruit supply chains of Emilia‐Romagna, to demonstrate that not only strategic, but also operative choices determine the way a single firm or supply network manages traceability and information issues. Applications of such elements to buyer and seller selection as well as to competing retailers of the fruit supply chain, verify the hypothesis.
The paper adds to the body of knowledge surrounding prior studies on the development of traceability systems and develops further the analysis of legal and value‐adding dimensions of traceability.
This work presents the results of the survey “Organisational structures and logistics in the branded product history of the grocery section in Italy” developed with the…
This work presents the results of the survey “Organisational structures and logistics in the branded product history of the grocery section in Italy” developed with the aim of pointing out the organisational structures for the logistics co‐ordination of successful firms. Starting from a review of the literature on the main logistics organisation theories, this paper presents an organisational analysis of 118 industrial firms, working in Italy in the grocery sector, carried out for the main logistics activities. On the basis of this anlaysis, a classifying model of the organisational configurations presently adopted in Italy for internal integration is proposed. According to the model, six different organisational solutions have been singled out: integrated logistics, partially integrated logistics, bipartite logistics, distribution logistics, manufacturing logistics, and split logistics.
Distribution research, both in Europe and in the United States, is fragmented into two seemingly disparate disciplinary orientations: an economic approach and an…
Distribution research, both in Europe and in the United States, is fragmented into two seemingly disparate disciplinary orientations: an economic approach and an organisational approach. The former attempts to apply micro‐economic theory and industrial organisation analysis to the study of distribution systems, focusing on horizontal as well as vertical markets. The latter attempts to apply behavioural and organisational concepts and theories to vertical distribution channel phenomena. Typically, economic and organisational studies have made only occasional references to each other, and very little integration has been achieved. Sometimes the two approaches have been in rivalry, economic researchers ignoring organisational variables, and organisational researchers ignoring economic variables.
Analyses the likely impact of the recent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis on the organization of the UK beef supply chain. Using concepts from New Institutional Economics, argues that, in addition to the direct financial costs of the crisis, additional hidden transaction costs and long‐term “transaction benefits” should be considered. Hidden costs include the increased need for monitoring and traceability in the supply chain, while hidden benefits may result from a reorientation of the industry towards a more consumer‐driven focus, a greater attention to food safety issues and opportunities for branding and market segmentation. It is suggested that the hidden transaction costs and benefits are likely to lead to closer vertical co‐ordination throughout the beef supply chain.