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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2017

Xin Li, Verner Worm and Peihong Xie

The paper debunks Peter P. Li’s assertion that Yin-Yang is superior to any other cognitive frames or logical systems for paradox research. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper debunks Peter P. Li’s assertion that Yin-Yang is superior to any other cognitive frames or logical systems for paradox research. The purpose of this paper is to alert the Chinese indigenous management researchers to the danger of Chinese exceptionalism and over-confidence.

Design/methodology/approach

To show that Peter P. Li’s assertion is doubtful, the authors identify the flaws in his analysis.

Findings

The authors find that there are three serious flaws in Peter P. Li’s analysis. First, there are four defects in the typology of cognitive frames he built in order to compare Yin-Yang with the others. Second, his understanding of dialectics in general and Hegelian dialectics in particular is flawed. And finally, without resorting to Yin-Yang, many scholars can develop theories that are equivalent to those derived from Yin-Yang.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the page limit, this paper only focuses on arguing that Yin-Yang is not superior to other cognitive frames or logical systems without going one step further to explain in which situations Yin-Yang are valuable and might be more suitable than others for helping us understand some research issues.

Practical implications

This paper implies that we should not blindly believe that the Chinese way of thinking and acting is superior to other people’s. Chinese people should be open-minded in the globalized era, not only promoting their own culture but also appreciating and learning from other cultures.

Social implications

The reduction of cultural exceptionalism and ethnocentrism can make cross-cultural communication and interaction smoother.

Originality/value

This paper is a rigorous critique on the “Yin-Yang being superior” assertion of Peter P. Li.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Rajesh Kumar and Verner Worm

This paper develops the argument for analyzing negotiations from an institutional perspective. A major theme of the argument being advanced in this paper is that the…

Abstract

This paper develops the argument for analyzing negotiations from an institutional perspective. A major theme of the argument being advanced in this paper is that the institutional perspective provides a more comprehensive understanding of the negotiation process in its entirety. The negotiation process can be broken down into three distinct components, namely (a) the pre‐negotiation phase; (b) the negotiating phase; and (c) the post negotiation evaluation. Each of these phases is critically influenced by a specific component or components of the institutional environment. Scott's distinction between the regulative, the normative, and the cognitive dimension of the institutional environment is drawn upon to illustrate the usefulness of this perspective. The framework is applied to assess the similarities and differences between Indian and Chinese institutional environments and their implications for negotiating processes in the countries discussed. Choosing India and China to illustrate the utility of this framework is justified by the fact that India and China are both in the process of transforming their economies, and although confronted with similar challenges, they have dealt with them in very different ways. This comparison is thus useful, not only for illustrating the value of the institutional perspective, but also for understanding the dynamics of the negotiation process in these countries.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Rajesh Kumar and Verner Worm

The paper assesses the impact of social capital on the dynamics of Sino‐northern European business negotiations. It is argued that, while conflicting negotiation styles…

Abstract

The paper assesses the impact of social capital on the dynamics of Sino‐northern European business negotiations. It is argued that, while conflicting negotiation styles create interactional difficulties between the Chinese and the northern Europeans, the impact of the interactional difficulties on the processes and outcomes of negotiations is critically dependent on the pre‐existing level of social capital among the negotiators. Social capital has three major components, namely cognitive, relational, and structural. The cognitive dimension highlights the level of shared understanding among the actors; the relational dimension focuses on the affective bonding among the actors; while the structural dimension highlights the nature of interconnectedness among the actors. This is an exploratory study conducted through in‐depth interviews with 24 northern Europeans and 15 Chinese managers, who have been negotiating with each other for several years. We highlight the linkages between the different dimensions of social capital and negotiation processes and outcomes, and conclude with implications for research and practice.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Book part
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Michael Jakobsen and Verner Worm

International business (IB) studies revolve around two key perspectives defined as a firm-specific perspective and a generic perspective that combined to provide a company…

Abstract

International business (IB) studies revolve around two key perspectives defined as a firm-specific perspective and a generic perspective that combined to provide a company with crucial insights into how to enter and navigate in foreign markets. Such a combined approach provides a company with a holistic perception of what kind of resources and capabilities it needs before entering and operating in specific markets. The key issue here is how to design a research approach that provides the data that make a researcher capable of developing an explanatory framework for how to engage such markets. Before looking for appropriate research methodologies and tools for data collection, there is a need for a pertinent philosophy of science. This chapter discusses three different philosophies of science each one capable of providing the analyst with a specific take on how to “think” data. Arguably, whatever approach one selects, the choice has an impact on the outcome of the research process. After selecting a specific philosophy of science, the chapter applies it on an analysis of the Danish shipping company Maersk. The focus is on how employees at headquarters and selected overseas subsidiaries “read” the global corporate culture and navigate within the company for own and organizational benefit. This chapter discusses the ramifications of selecting one philosophy of science over another when engaging in qualitative or quantitative research in an IB context.

Details

Adapting to Environmental Challenges: New Research in Strategy and International Business
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-477-7

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Greg G. Wang, David Lamond and Verner Worm

This paper aims to emphasize the importance of Chinese institutional contexts beyond “culture” by analyzing a few non-cultural institution-dependent contexts in Chinese…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to emphasize the importance of Chinese institutional contexts beyond “culture” by analyzing a few non-cultural institution-dependent contexts in Chinese HRM research, using an institutional theory perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review existing Chinese indigenous management research from an institutional theoretical perspective and provide a critique of the research from that perspective.

Findings

Chinese contexts are more than Confucianism. Focusing on this aspect of culture without integrating other institutional contexts, while informative, is unlikely to identify and explain the uniqueness of Chinese individual and organizational behaviors. Informed by institutional theory, the authors examine how institutional language context influences Chinese institutional behavior. The authors also argue that the guanxi phenomenon is more strongly dependent on institutional forces than on culture in the recent Chinese history. Incorporating these “non-cultural” institutional contexts in research enables us to describe the “what” and explore the “why” and “how” in theory development, rather than placing value judgments on the institutional arrangements.

Research limitations/implications

While societal culture provides an important institutional context, China’s broad culture is not unique among countries with similar Confucian traditions. Chinese management scholars are encouraged to be mindful of pervasive institutional contexts in exploring and theorizing local organizational phenomena. Research without considering non-cultural institutional contexts may prevent a finer-grained understanding of Chinese organizational phenomena for developing Chinese management theory, and it is unlikely to identify the uniqueness of Chinese organizational phenomena among countries influenced by similar Confucian cultural traditions.

Originality/value

Built on previous literature, this paper is among the first to specify and examine explicitly non-Confucian Chinese institutional contexts as a basis for the exploration of Chinese organizational phenomena.

Details

Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8005

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2017

Michael Jakobsen, Verner Worm and Xin Li

When analyzing modes of navigating a multi-cultural environment in a multinational corporation (MNC), most studies employ an etic approach that delineates how, for…

Abstract

When analyzing modes of navigating a multi-cultural environment in a multinational corporation (MNC), most studies employ an etic approach that delineates how, for example, multi-cultural companies thrive and maneuver in a likewise multi-cultural business contexts. This approach implies the use of theoretical models and empirical observations that from a methodological view identify an employee as either an objectified agent or as an anonymous “other,” indicating that such approaches are rooted in an ethnocentric academic tradition. Acknowledging the merits of this tradition, we take the methodological approach a step further and introduce an emic or contextualized approach that makes employees themselves provide the bulk of data on how and why they position themselves in a multi-cultural organization the way they do. The main objective of this chapter is thus to discuss how employees develop personal strategies to navigate in a complex multi-cultural organization. The study takes off by developing a theoretical model for how to approach emic studies and then proceeds to suggest a methodological approach that is capable of providing empirical data for a model based on a combination of both etic and emic approaches. This constitutes a first step towards developing a generic model of how to deal with context. In order to test the model, the empirical focus will be on the relationship between the headquarter of the Danish MNC, Maersk Line, in Denmark and its subsidiaries in Asia. This relationship is analyzed on the basis of interviews in the Danish headquarter and in the local offices in Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, and Penang.

Details

The Responsive Global Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-831-4

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Greg G. Wang, David Lamond, Verner Worm, Wenshu Gao and Shengbin Yang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the indigenous Chinese concept of suzhi (素质) with the aim of furthering the development of Chinese human resource management (HRM…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the indigenous Chinese concept of suzhi (素质) with the aim of furthering the development of Chinese human resource management (HRM) research and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive review of the literature on suzhi, published in the West, as well as in China, is the basis for proffering an organizational-level conceptualization of suzhi in the Chinese context.

Findings

Instead of understanding it as a free-floating signifier, we argue that suzhi can be considered as a criterion-based framework for HRM research and practice. Suzhi research is classified into two major sources – indigenous Chinese and indigenized Western constructs. We further make a distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic suzhi, and analyze a popular set of suzhi criteria, considering de (morality) and cai (talent), while focusing on de in HRM selection (德才兼备, 以德为先). As multilevel and multidimensional framework, suzhi criteria may form different gestalts in different organizations and industries.

Research limitations/implications

From a social cultural and historical perspective, HRM research that incorporates a combination of indigenous and indigenized suzhi characteristics may receive better acceptance by individuals, organizations and the society in the Chinese context. Accordingly, the reconstruction of suzhi into manageable and measurable dimensions can be undertaken for more effective HRM practice in the Chinese context.

Originality/value

The HRM literature is advanced by linking the indigenous suzhi discourse to Chinese indigenous HRM research and practice.

Details

Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8005

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Abstract

Details

Journal of Chinese Human Resource Management, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8005

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Book part
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Abstract

Details

Adapting to Environmental Challenges: New Research in Strategy and International Business
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-477-7

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2017

Abstract

Details

The Responsive Global Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-831-4

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