Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
Content available
Article
Publication date: 31 August 2016

Sik Kwan Tai

The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation of the verified gross mass (VGM) rules in Hong Kong.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the implementation of the verified gross mass (VGM) rules in Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

The purpose of this paper is to compare the IMO Guidelines and the Guidelines produced by the Marine Department in Hong Kong.

Findings

The drafting of the Hong Kong Guidelines is not as clear and detailed as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) Guidelines.

Practical implications

Shipping companies should review their sea carriage contracts to see whether new clauses should be inserted to solve problems arising from the VGM requirement.

Originality/value

A research by direct analysis of the IMO and the Hong Kong Guidelines on the implementation of the VGM rules in the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) is shown in this paper.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 June 2019

Girish Gujar and Sik Kwan Tai

It is commonly known that numerous incidents of container security failure are detected on a daily basis for which nobody is held legally liable. This state of affairs is…

Abstract

Purpose

It is commonly known that numerous incidents of container security failure are detected on a daily basis for which nobody is held legally liable. This state of affairs is essentially due to the shippers providing erroneous information, either inadvertently or by design. However, none of the stakeholders such as the carrier, the port operator, the inland transporter or the dry port operator are saddled with the legal responsibility of verifying the correctness of the information provided by the shippers or moving against them legally for misrepresentation of facts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses the issue of container security from a legal perspective with a specific focus on the liability for security failure. While discussing the reasons for non-development of a globally standardized legal regime for container security, this paper also endeavors to suggest possible solutions for the abysmal state of affairs.

Findings

This state of affairs persists despite the shipper being saddled with the additional responsibility of providing documentary evidence of verified gross mass of the cargo stuffed in the container by International Maritime Organization.

Originality/value

There is apparently no visible legal action that appears to have been taken against the culprit responsible for the security failure. Thus, the loopholes in the existing legal regime are exploited by all concerned for commercial reasons.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2019

Alexandre Lavissière, Tibor Mandják, Julian Hofmann and Laurent Fedi

Previous literature dealing with sustainable marketing in a B2B context is mostly limited to spot measures on an environmental, economic or social layer. Thus, the purpose…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous literature dealing with sustainable marketing in a B2B context is mostly limited to spot measures on an environmental, economic or social layer. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to exemplify how seaports as powerful economic business networks can facilitate multi-layered sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors integrate multiple case studies to pursue an inductive research approach to derive general patterns based on empirical observations.

Findings

Operationalizing the concept of a port community enables the authors to show how seaports not only facilitate multi-layered sustainability but also mutually interact. Hence, port sustainability can be achieved through and by a port community.

Research limitations/implications

The conceptualization of the interplay between port community and multi-layered sustainability contributes to the business and industrial marketing literature in general and to the yet hitherto scarce port marketing literature in particular. Future research should go beyond this initial conceptualization by gathering further empirical research.

Practical implications

The study outlines how strengthening interactions among port management stakeholders (i.e. business and non-business actors such as port authorities and policymakers) might lead to higher economic success and societal welfare by pooling yet hitherto independent resources.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to define how the concept of a holistic port community can facilitate sustainability acted out on its three pillars and how both concepts interact.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Danilo de Melo Costa

China has invested massively in higher education, reaching a mass system, envisaging, as a next step, reaching a universal system. Brazil is still an elite system but…

Abstract

Purpose

China has invested massively in higher education, reaching a mass system, envisaging, as a next step, reaching a universal system. Brazil is still an elite system but needs to create adequate public policies to migrate to a mass system. The purpose of this article is to analyze the paradigms for a mass educational system, with regard to the quality of education offered, and the prospects for achieving a universal system, with Brazil and China as a reference.

Design/methodology/approach

The author applied an exploratory and qualitative method, through categorical content analysis. The data were collected through nine interviews with government managers, 15 unstructured (open) questionnaires to specialists in higher education and four student leadership.

Findings

The results indicate that the change from an elite system to a mass system impacts quality, as there is an inevitable change in experience. However, this modification does not testify against the mass system, as it is necessary for a nation to pass through it and structure itself adequately in order to reach the universal system, a path desired by both countries.

Originality/value

The study presented the reflections observed by the migration from the elite system to the mass system from the main stakeholders of the system in China and the prospects for Brazil to become a mass system. Additionally, it presented the perspectives for both countries to achieve the desired universal system.

Details

Revista de Gestão, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1809-2276

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 June 2019

Shiyu Feng, Chaoyue Li, Xiaotian Peng, Lei Shao and Weihua Liu

The purpose of this study is to measure the mass diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in jet fuel using digital holography interferometry for cost-effective designing and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to measure the mass diffusion coefficient of nitrogen in jet fuel using digital holography interferometry for cost-effective designing and modeling of the aircraft tank inerting system.

Design/methodology/approach

The mass diffusion coefficients of N2 in RP-3 and RP-5 jet fuels were measured by digital holography interferometry at temperatures ranging from 278.15 to 343.15 K. The Arrhenius equation is used to adequately describe the relationship between mass diffusion coefficients and temperature. The viscosities of RP-3 and RP-5 jet fuels were also measured to examine the accuracy of the Stokes–Einstein model in calculating mass diffusion coefficients.

Findings

As temperature increases from 278.15 to 343.15 K, the mass diffusion coefficients increase 4.23-fold for N2 in RP-3 jet fuel and 5.13-fold for N2 in RP-5 jet fuel. The value of Dµ/T is not constant as the Stokes–Einstein equation expressed, but is a weak linear function of temperature.

Practical implications

A more accurate diffusion model is proposed by fitting the measured Dµ/T with the temperature and calculating the mass diffusion coefficients of N2 in RP-3 and RP-5 jet fuels within 10 per cent relative deviation.

Originality/value

A measurement system for mass diffusion coefficients of N2 in RP-3 and RP-5 jet fuels was constructed based on the digital holography interferometry. The mass diffusion coefficient can be expressed by a uniform polynomial function of temperature and viscosity.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 July 2019

Eduardo Sepulveda Palacios and Howard Smith

The purpose of this paper is to characterise the effects of mission and performance parameters on the design space of low observable subsonic unmanned combat aerial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterise the effects of mission and performance parameters on the design space of low observable subsonic unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) operating in typical Hi-Lo-Hi ground strike missions.

Design/methodology/approach

Conceptual design methodologies appropriate to low observable, tailless UCAVs have been integrated into a multidisciplinary aircraft design environment, GENUS, developed at Cranfield University’s aircraft design group. A basic Hi-Lo-Hi mission is designed and a baseline configuration is established through the GENUS framework. Subsequently, an evolutionary optimiser and a robust gradient-based optimiser are used to obtain convergent design solutions for various leading edge sweep angles, mission ranges, cruise Mach numbers and other operational constraints.

Findings

The results indicate that performance constraints, specifically in the form of specific excess power (SEP), have a large influence on the overall sizing of subsonic tailless UCAVs. This requirement drives the engine sizing, which represents a considerable proportion of the empty and gross mass of the vehicle. Cruise Mach number studies show that no significant advantages exist for operating at low speeds while maintaining performance requirements consistent with combat missions. There is a drastic increase in the vehicle’s mass and thrust requirements for flight speeds above Mach 0.8, with low sweep configurations showing a more pronounced effect. Increases in the range are not overly dependent on the leading edge sweep angle. Top-level radar cross section (RCS) results also favour configurations with higher leading edge sweep angles, especially from the nose-on aspect. Finally, research and development costs are shown to be directly linked to engine size.

Originality/value

This research shows the use of an integrated aircraft design environment that incorporates aerodynamics, performance, packaging and low observability aspects into the optimisation loop. Through this methodology, this study supports the efforts towards characterising and establishing alternate visions of the future of aerial warfare through the use of low cost, survivable unmanned platforms in network-centric cooperative tasks.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Francesco Tajani, Pierluigi Morano and Klimis Ntalianis

As regards the assessment of the market values of properties that compose real estate portfolios, the purpose of this paper is to propose and test an automated valuation…

Abstract

Purpose

As regards the assessment of the market values of properties that compose real estate portfolios, the purpose of this paper is to propose and test an automated valuation model. In particular, the method defined allows for providing for objective, reliable and “quick” valuations of the assets in the phases of periodic reviews of the property values.

Design/methodology/approach

Aiming at both predictive and interpretative purposes, the method, based on multi-objective genetic algorithms to search those model expressions that simultaneously maximize the accuracy of the data and the parsimony of the mathematical functions, is applied to a sample data of office properties characterized by medium and large size, located in the city of Milan (Italy) and sold in the period between 2004 and 2015.

Findings

The model obtained could be an integration of the canonical methodologies (market approach, income approach, cost approach) implemented in the assessment of the market values of properties, so as to provide an additional tool to verify the results. In particular, the inclusion of economic variables in the model is consistent with the need to reiterate the valuations, contextualizing them to the locational characteristics and to the current property cycle phase in the specific area.

Practical implications

The model can be applied by all the operators involved in the periodic reviews of the values of property portfolios: from real estate funds’ insiders, in order to monitor the values obtained through the canonical approaches, to the public institutions, such as the revenue agencies, in order to ensure the fair payment of the taxes through the updating values of the properties according to the actual and current market trends.

Originality/value

The method proposed can be a valid support for all public and private entities that hold significant property assets and that, for various reasons (periodic reviews of the balance sheets, sales, enhancement, investment, etc.), require cyclical updated values of the properties. The automated valuation model developed can be used for the assessment of “comparison” values with the estimates values obtained by other assessment techniques, in order to ensure a further monitoring tool of the results from the subjects involved.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

A.T. Isikveren, S. Kaiser, C. Pornet and P.C. Vratny

The aim of this study was to first establish foundational algebraic expressions that parametrically describe any advanced dual-energy storage–propulsion–power system…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to first establish foundational algebraic expressions that parametrically describe any advanced dual-energy storage–propulsion–power system (DESPPS) and then proceed to declare the array of fundamental independent variables necessary for the sizing and optimisation of such systems. Upon procurement of a pre-design-level integrated aircraft performance model and the subsequent verification against previously published high-end low-fidelity generated results, opportunity was taken in formulating a set of battery-based DESPPS related design axioms and sizing heuristics.

Design/methodology/approach

Derivation of algebraic expressions related to describing DESPPS architectures are based on first principles. Integrated performance modelling by way of full analytical fractional change transformations anchored according to a previously published Energy Specific Air Range (ESAR) figure-of-merit originally derived using the Breguet–Coffin differential equation for vehicular efficiency. Weights prediction of sub-systems that constitute the entire aircraft including DESPPS constituents emphasises an analytical foundation with minimal implementation of linear correlation factors or coefficients of proportionality. An iterative maximum take-off weight build-up algorithm emphasising expedient and stable convergence was fashioned. All prediction methods pertaining to integrated performance were verified according to previously published battery-based DESPPS results utilising high-end low-fidelity methods.

Findings

For all types of DESPPS, two new fundamental independent non-dimensional variables were declared: the Supplied Power Ratio (related to converted power afforded by each energy carrier); and, the Activation Ratio (describing the relative nature of utilisation with respect to time afforded by the motive power device associated with each energy source). For a given set of standalone sub-system energy conversion efficiencies, the parametric descriptor of degree-of-hybridisation (DoH) for Power was found to be solely a function of the Supplied Power Ratio, whereas in contrast, the DoH for Energy was found to be a more complex synthetic function described by comingling of Supplied Power Ratio and the Activation Ratio. Upon examination of the integrated aircraft performance model derived in this treatise, for purposes of investigating CO2-emissions reduction potential for battery-based DESPPS using kerosene as one of the energy sources, one salient observation was maximising the ESAR figure-of-merit is not an appropriate objective or intermediary function for future optimisation work. It was found maximising block fuel reduction through the use of maximum ESAR would lead to ever diminishing design ranges and curtailment of the payload-range working capacity of the aircraft.

Practical implications

Opportunity is now given to design and optimise aircraft utilising any type of DESPPS architecture. It was established that designing for battery-based DESPPS aircraft can be achieved effectively in a two-stage process that may not require aircraft morphologies more exotic than the so-called “wing-and-tube”. Firstly, a suitably projected state-of-the-art aircraft with solely advanced gas-turbine technology for the propulsion and power system needs to be produced. Thereafter, a revised version of this baseline projected aircraft now using DESPPS architecture should be conceived. A recommendation related to CO2-emissions reduction potential for battery-based DESPPS using kerosene as one of the energy sources is that during optimisation work the multi-objective formulation should comprise at least two functions: block fuel and operating economics. In all instances, it was advised that the objective function of block fuel should be tempered by an equality constraint of ESAR parity with the baseline projected aircraft using gas-turbine only technology.

Originality/value

A complete, unified analytical description of DESPPS that is universally applicable to any type of energy carrier has been derived and verified for battery-based dual-energy systems. Correspondingly, a set of aircraft design axioms and sizing heuristics relevant to battery-based DESPPS have been presented.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 86 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 24 January 2018

Pierluigi Morano, Francesco Tajani and Marco Locurcio

This paper aims to test and compare two innovative methodologies (utility additive and evolutionary polynomial regression) for mass appraisal of residential properties…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to test and compare two innovative methodologies (utility additive and evolutionary polynomial regression) for mass appraisal of residential properties. The aim is to deepen their characteristics, by exploring the potentialities and the operating limits.

Design/methodology/approach

With reference to the same case studies, concerning samples of residential properties recently sold in three Italian cities, the two procedures are tested and the results are compared. The first method is the utility additive, which interprets the process of the property price formation as a multi-criteria selection of multi-objective typology, where the selection criteria are the property characteristics that are decisive in the real estate market; the second method is a hybrid data-driven technique, called evolutionary polynomial regression, that uses multi-objective genetic algorithms to search those models expressions that simultaneously maximize accuracy of data and parsimony of mathematical functions.

Findings

The outputs obtained from the experimentation highlight the potentialities and the limits of the two methodologies, as well as the possibility of jointly applying them to interpret and predict the real estate phenomena in a more realistic representation.

Originality value

In all countries, mass appraisal techniques have become strategic for the definition of management and enhancement policies of public and private property assets, in the case of investments of technical and economic refunctionalization (energy, environment, etc.), and for the alienation of buildings no longer suitable for public needs (military barracks, hospitals, areas in disuse, etc.). In this context, the use of mass appraisal techniques for residential properties assumes a leading role for sector operators (buyers, sellers, institutions, insurance companies, banks, real estate funds, etc.). Therefore, the results of the applications outline the potentialities of the two methodologies implemented and the opportunity of further insights of the topics that have been dealt with in this research.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 December 2020

Wen-Ching Chou and Dian-Fu Chang

This study aims to explore the higher education expansion phenomenon and to what extent that expansion could reshape the pattern of gender.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the higher education expansion phenomenon and to what extent that expansion could reshape the pattern of gender.

Design/methodology/approach

We selected Taiwan's higher education as a research target. First, we describe the gender diversity patterns in the humanity, social science and STEM programs according to Trow's definition. Second, we identify discrepancies in gender in the major programs according to different indices. Becker’s D, Blau index, GPI, trend analysis and multiple comparisons were used to transform the comparison series data.

Findings

First, to assess system-wide gender diversity, it was shown that in the elite stage, the D is more sensitive than the Blau index in plotting trends. Second, neither the D nor the Blau index showed sensitivity in humanity and social science programs in the post-mass stage. Third, the GPI more accurately detects differences in gender patterns in the mass and universal stages.

Practical implications

This study illuminates gender diversity patterns with indices transformation in higher education. Considering higher education expansion is a global phenomenon, the fitted indices can be used to detect gender diversity issues in wider higher education settings.

Originality/value

This study provides an example for addressing the issue using different indices to identify previous and future trends in the higher education system. The study suggests alternative interpretations for gender diversity in various programs that will assist in modifying related gender policies in higher education.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000