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There is a significant difference in the perception managers have regarding the level of communications they have with their subordinates and the level of communication…
There is a significant difference in the perception managers have regarding the level of communications they have with their subordinates and the level of communication subordinates perceive they have with their managers. Managers in the private sector do not communicate more with their employees than managers in the public sector. Nor do private employees indicate that their managers communicate significantly more than employees in the public sector. An ex‐post facto study of 223 persons from private and public organisations was carried out in Australia to discover whether managers perceive they communicate significantly more with subordinates than subordinates perceive the managers communicate with them.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Australian managers in relation to human rights issues and corporate responsibility inherent in their…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of Australian managers in relation to human rights issues and corporate responsibility inherent in their international business operations.
The paper reports findings from a qualitative research study; data were gathered from 70 face‐to‐face interviews with managers in the mining, textile and information technology industries who conducted international operations. The research method used was the critical incident technique, allowing interviewees to recall their observations and anecdotes in dealing with their perceived ethical dilemmas when operating offshore.
Human rights issues represented a serious dilemma for the Australian managers participating in this research. Findings in this study suggest that such issues, and resultant perceived dilemmas around their management, included child labour, hazardous working conditions, discrimination and exploitation of workers. The issues present self‐reported major dilemmas for managers as they challenge human rights concepts that underline their own ethical values in relation to the treatment of others in work environments. Respondents in this study report perceived limitations in dealing with cross‐cultural ethical issues, driven by economic and social reliance on such practices by their international business counterparts.
Understanding the nature of problems faced by Australian business managers in confronting perceived breaches of human rights may assist private and public sector organisations, both inside and outside of Australia, working in international environments. The paper reports insights and solutions offered by respondents encountering global human rights issues in the business context.
This study seeks to examine the impact of downsizing and restructuring decisions and processes on perceptions of organisational knowledge and effectiveness after…
This study seeks to examine the impact of downsizing and restructuring decisions and processes on perceptions of organisational knowledge and effectiveness after downsizing and restructuring events in “successful” and “unsuccessful” organisations.
The study proposes a conceptual framework hypothesising that the impact of decisions and processes on levels of organisational knowledge are key determinants of effectiveness in post‐downsizing and restructuring organisations. Data were collected using a survey instrument developed through review of literature along with focus group findings. Survey data are factor‐analysed to identify stable constructs for testing hypotheses using regression analysis.
The findings indicate that the significance of the variables tested is found in those organisations considered by employees to be unsuccessful after downsizing and restructuring, rather than in their successful counterparts
The findings indicate that organisations undertaking downsizing or restructuring need to consider the organisational culture and climate with regard to knowledge retention and the potential impact of these initiatives to ensure that employee experiences are constructive. Support strategies such as counselling and training are important, as are job redesign, time for employee handover and documentation of procedures, if knowledge retention is to be maximised.
Although knowledge retention within organisations is generally accepted as desirable, little previous research has considered the impact of downsizing decisions or processes on knowledge retention. Additionally, data collected for this research were drawn from multiple respondents within a large number of organisations, providing breadth and depth of data for analysis.
This paper reports findings on employee participation in decision making from a cross‐section of employees in the public, private and local government sectors in Western…
This paper reports findings on employee participation in decision making from a cross‐section of employees in the public, private and local government sectors in Western Australia. A contextual model of participation relevant to the prevailing industrial climate was developed, then tested using a structural equations modelling approach. Results suggest that participative decision making (PDM) directly contributed to task variety and autonomy, and through autonomy, task identity. Employees perceived that PDM contributed to performance effectiveness and led to greater gains in the workplace. An unexpected result was that these benefits did not contribute to increased job satisfaction or commitment despite PDM having a direct positive influence on job satisfaction, which in turn increases commitment. These findings support arguments that employees believe participation in decision making offers them substantial benefits, but suggests they are more ambivalent about increasing task demands and the gains they receive for this extra effort.
Regulatory frameworks in Australia encourage employee participation in decision making (PDM) on the basis that participation benefits work effort, job satisfaction and…
Regulatory frameworks in Australia encourage employee participation in decision making (PDM) on the basis that participation benefits work effort, job satisfaction and commitment. Although the literature supports this premise, there is little evidence that patterns of causal inference in the relationship are clearly understood. This study aims to examine for structural and causal inference between PDM and the work environment over time.
Structural equation modeling was used to examine longitudinal, matched sample data for causal inferences.
The paper finds that participation in decision making appears to promote job satisfaction and commitment, whereas task variety and work effort foster participation.
The use of quantitative, self report data, small samples and cross industry data as well as possible overlap between commitment foci may limit the transferability of the findings. It is also important to note causality is merely inferred.
Although participation in decision making positively influences work effort, autonomy and commitment, practitioners need to be mindful of keeping a balance between employee and employer needs. Job satisfaction and commitment are at risk in the long term if participation is viewed merely as a survival strategy for coping with work effort and task variety.
The paper examines inferred causality within a participative decision‐making framework and addresses the previously neglected need for multi‐site and longitudinal studies.
Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations…
Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross‐cultural ethical dilemmas confronting Australian managers, and explore the strategies they utilise in dealing with those dilemmas in their international operations. The study raises the questions of whose ethics should be applied, and whether a set of universal ethical norms should be or can be developed. The discussion emanating from such questions also raises important issues for the training and ongoing management of employees undertaking business in the international environment. A total of 70 Australian managers from the mining, textile and information technology industries participated in this research, representing a cross‐section of Australian industry groups from the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors undertaking business in the international arena. The research utilised a conceptual framework that emerged from the moral philosophies represented in the international business arena Thr research utilised a conceptual framework that emerged from the moral philosophies represented in the international business arena, namely ethical relativism (Bowie 1996; Kohls & Buller 1994; Bowie & Duska 1990; Dobson 1990) imperialism (Gopalkrishnan 2001; Donaldson 1996b; De George 1993) and universalism (Beauchamp & Bowie 2001; Donaldson 1996b).
This paper examines the relationships between career anchors, age, culture, gender, employment experience and the impact of downsizing on career planning. Presents the…
This paper examines the relationships between career anchors, age, culture, gender, employment experience and the impact of downsizing on career planning. Presents the results drawn from 423 graduate business students in Australia, the USA, Malaysia, South Africa and the UK. Aims to explore Schein’s contention that employees develop a self‐concept or career anchor that holds their “internal career” together even as they experience a dramatic change in their “external career” that leads to greater self‐discovery. Previous studies have examined differences in career orientations in Europe, the USA and the UK. This research allows examination of the distribution of career anchors within a multi‐cultural sample across age groups, gender, culture and work experience. The data also enable investigation of the relationship between career anchors and reported impact of organisational downsizing on career decisions.
This research explores perceptions of knowledge management processes held by managers and employees in a service industry. To date, empirical research on knowledge…
This research explores perceptions of knowledge management processes held by managers and employees in a service industry. To date, empirical research on knowledge management in the service industry is sparse. This research seeks to examine absorptive capacity and its four capabilities of acquisition, assimilation, transformation and exploitation and their impact on effective knowledge management. All of these capabilities are strategies that enable external knowledge to be recognized, imported and integrated into, and further developed within the organization effectively. The research tests the relationships between absorptive capacity and effective knowledge management through analysis of quantitative data (n = 549) drawn from managers and employees in 35 residential aged care organizations in Western Australia. Responses were analysed using Partial Least Square-based Structural Equation Modelling. Additional analysis was conducted to assess if the job role (of manager or employee) and three industry context variables of profit motive, size of business and length of time the organization has been in business, impacted on the hypothesized relationships.
Structural model analysis examines the relationships between variables as hypothesized in the research framework. Analysis found that absorptive capacity and the four capabilities correlated significantly with effective knowledge management, with absorptive capacity explaining 56% of the total variability for effective knowledge management. Findings from this research also show that absorptive capacity and the four capabilities provide a useful framework for examining knowledge management in the service industry. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the perceptions held between managers and employees, nor between respondents in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. Furthermore, the size of the organization and length of time the organization has been in business did not impact on absorptive capacity, the four capabilities and effective knowledge management.
The research considers implications for business in light of these findings. The role of managers in providing leadership across the knowledge management process was confirmed, as well as the importance of guiding routines and knowledge sharing throughout the organization. Further, the results indicate that within the participating organizations there are discernible differences in the way that some organizations manage their knowledge, compared to others. To achieve effective knowledge management, managers need to provide a supportive workplace culture, facilitate strong employee relationships, encourage employees to seek out new knowledge, continually engage in two-way communication with employees and provide up-to-date policies and procedures that guide employees in doing their work. The implementation of knowledge management strategies has also been shown in this research to enhance the delivery and quality of residential aged care.